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What Is Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

En Español: Minimizando el Riesgo de Cetosis en el Ganado Lechero This article is part of our series of original articles on emerging featured topics. Please check here to see other articles in this series. Introduction Although most cases of ketosis occur in fresh dairy cows, feeding practices and cow health prepartum can predispose cows to experiencing ketosis after calving. Most cases of primary ketosis occur within the first 2 weeks of calving, and even most secondary ketosis (occurring after the onset of another disease) occurs within the first 30 to 60 days in milk. In general, less than 5% of the cows in a herd should experience clinical ketosis. However, some reports have indicated that the incidence of subclinical ketosis may affect 40% of cows, with the incidence rate varying widely among farms, and may be as high as 80% on individual farms. The major focus prepartum to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving is maintaining feed intake in late gestation and avoiding overconditioning cows during late lactation and the dry period. Cows should dry off and freshen at a body condition score (BCS) of 3.5. Cows with a BCS equal to or greater than 4.0 will likely have lower intake prepartum and be at higher risk for fatty liver and ketosis at and after calving. Recent work at the University of Minnesota indicates that cows with a BCS greater than 3.5 and producing over 16 lb of colostrum are at a higher risk for ketosis. Feeding programs for far-off and close-up cows should be designed to maintain intake during late gestation, i.e., minimizing the drop in intake during the last week of gestation, to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving. These prepartum diets should contain high-fiber forages and provide adequate but not excessive amounts of energy. A 20% or gr Continue reading >>

Investigation On The Relationship Of Insulin Resistance And Ketosis In Dairy Cows

Investigation On The Relationship Of Insulin Resistance And Ketosis In Dairy Cows

1Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, China 2Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, China *Corresponding Author: Cheng Xia Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, China Tel: +86 459-6819207 Fax: +86 459-6819207 E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Xu C, Shu S, Xia C, Wang B, Zhang HY, et al. (2014) Investigation on the Relationship of Insulin Resistance and Ketosis in Dairy Cows. J Veterinar Sci Technol 5: 162. doi:10.4172/2157-7579.1000162 Copyright: © 2014 Xu C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology Abstract Ketosis is an important metabolic disease of dairy cows during the transition period, but it is fully unclear about its endocrine etiology. Our study is to clarify the relationship between oxidative stress, liver function, insulin resistance and ketosis in dairy cows. Sixteen ketotic Holstein cows (T) and twenty-four non-ketotic Holstein cows (C) were used as the experimental animals from an intensive dairy farm in Heilongjiang province, China. Blood samples from all experimental cows were collected at 14 days postpartum during morning fasting. Fifteen parameters for energy balance, liver function, oxidative stress, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance test between T and C were measured using commercial kits. Results showed that Continue reading >>

Low Cortisol Levels In Blood From Dairy Cows With Ketosis: A Field Study

Low Cortisol Levels In Blood From Dairy Cows With Ketosis: A Field Study

Abstract An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA). Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc) in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Cortisol, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l) did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method (< 14 nmol/l). Conclusions The study gives patho-physiological support to the treatment strategies of ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research. Background The reason for collecting field material to this study was a hypothesis that the known relation between s Continue reading >>

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

This page contains information about conditions that may cause sudden drop in milk production. Many conditions affecting sudden drop in milk production do not have obvious clinical signs. Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Idiots' Guide to The Biochemistry and Management of Ketosis Ketosis is a disease of dry cows that shows up in fresh cows. Fundamentally, we have a situation where the cow is mobilizing body fat (condition) faster than the liver is able to metabolize it. In order for the liver to normally metabolize that fat, glucose is required. If glucose availability is limited due to inadequate substrate (mostly propionate from the diet) or glucose production via gluconeogenesis is inadequate or impaired, then ketosis can result because of the inability to convert the fat to energy. Loss/mobilization of body fat is a normal part of the onset of lactation. As the rate of fat mobilization rises, circulating NEFA levels begin to rise. If these fatty acids reach the liver and begin to accumulate in significant amounts, the liver switches away from TCA towards ketogenesis in an attempt to provide more energy and eliminate the fat buildup. Ketogenesis produces the ketone bodies, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Some ketone production is normal in all periparturient cows, so diagnosis is made on clinical history, physical examination, and the presence of significant ketones in milk or urine. Presence of ketones in milk or urine is inadequate, in and or itself, to make the diagnosis of clinical ketosis. Feed intake, or lack thereof, is a critical component in the onset of ketosis. In all cows, dry matter intake begins to decline approximately one month prior to calving, although many people will not notice this decline until several days prior to calving. as feed intake declines and galactopoeisis begins, body fats are mobilized, resulting in an increase in circulationg NEFA levels. NEFAs themselves are mild appetite suppressants, so they continue to hamper feed intake. NEFAs are also Continue reading >>

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>

Subclinical Ketosis In Post-partum Dairy Cows Fed A Predominantly Pasture-based Diet In New Zealand

Subclinical Ketosis In Post-partum Dairy Cows Fed A Predominantly Pasture-based Diet In New Zealand

Summary of scientific article that deals with Subclinical ketosis in post-partum dairy cows fed a predominantly pasture-based diet in New Zealand Authors & affiliation: CWR Compton - Cognosco, Anexa Animal Health & Massey University, New Zealand L. Young - Agrihealth Ltd, New Zealand S. McDougall - Cognosco, Anexa Animal Health, New Zealand Objectives of the research were: To define cut-points of concentrations of Ketones in blood, in dairy cows in the first five weeks post-calving, fed a predominantly pasture-based diet, which there were associations with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), reduced pregnancy rates (PR) and decreased milk production, in order to better define subclinical ketosis (SCK) in such cattle. To determine the ketosis rates and risk factors for ketosis in the population of cows that was tested. METHODS: An observational field study was conducted in 565 cows from 15 spring-calving and predominantly pasture-fed dairy herds in two regions of New Zealand during the 2010– 2011 dairy season. Within each herd, approximately 40 cows randomly selected and was blood sampled to determine concentrations of ketones on six occasions at weekly intervals starting within 5 days of calving. The key outcome variables were the presence/absence of PVD at 5 weeks post-calving, PR after 6 weeks (6 week-PR) and after the completion of the breeding season (final PR), and mean daily milk solids production. RESULTS: Two cut-points for defining SCK were identified: firstly concentration of ketones (BHBA*) in blood ≥1.2 mmol/L within 5 days post-calving which was associated with an increased diagnosis of PVD (24 vs. 8%); and secondly concentration of ketones in blood ≥1.2 mmol/L at any stage within 5 weeks post-calving which was associated with decreased 6 week pregnancy Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Dairy Farming And Cattle Ranching?

What Is The Difference Between Dairy Farming And Cattle Ranching?

Dairy farming is an operation that devotes itself to the production of milk products. The stock that is bred for the production of milk in our part of the country is the Holstein. Dairy farms here in Montana are a declining breed as the move to huge corporate farms continues to dominate the market. Cattle ranching on the other hand is alive and well and run much the same as it was a hundred years ago. The production of meat for the tables of the world is the object behind cattle ranching and the primary breeds are Hereford and Angus and are often cross bred as we do here on our ranch. Cattle ranchers normally sell their spring calves to feed lots in late fall, which after fattening sell that stock to slaughter houses. The most common question I am asked is if there is a difference between Angus beef and others. My answer is that how they are fattened makes more of a difference than breed. Grass fed are the leanest and of course tougher in texture than others. My brother will not allow the steer he is going to eat touch any type of grain. My preference is 30 days on barley before slaughter. The most common feed for fattening is corn and most likely what you are eating was fattened with corn. You can thank the stupidity of subsidised ethanol for the outrageous price that you must pay for a good steak, as so much corn is used for the production of ethanol. The Walen Ranch, Lazy WF- and W connected C over bar brands. Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Dairy Cows (acetoneamia)

Ketosis In Dairy Cows (acetoneamia)

What is Ketosis? Ketosis is essentially the cows response to a negative energy balance. In other words:Energy used > energy taken in (eaten) What is the cause: Ketosis can be divided into 2 categories:- 1. Primary ketosis - The cow is not obtaining the energy requirement that she needs from the diet that she is eating. 2. Secondary ketosis – A problem with the cow is stopping her from eating enough food to match her energy requirements e.g an LDA stops the cow eating but she still needs energy to move, produce milk etc. A more commonly seen problem in dairy cows these days is subclinical ketosis. This is generally seen in dairy herds as a group problem rather than a individual cow issue. Cows with subclinical ketosis don't show such strong bulling activity, don't come bulling as early, don't achieve their potential peak milk yield (and subsequently have significantly reduced lactationas yield) and are more prone to disease and conditions such as LDAs (left displaced abomasum. In short they take longer to get going and never achieve their potential in the lactation which costsyoutime and money. Subclinical ketosis often indicates a problemi the transition diet or management. What do cows need energy for? Seems a simple question but cows use large amounts of energy just to exist. Energy is needed to:- Maintain body temperature Move Breathe Digest their food Produce milk Fight infections Show bulling activity Produce eggs/ ovulate You can appreciate how much heat a cow produces when you are stood in a milking parlour on a freezing winter morning – heats up pretty quickly doesn’t it. How is it diagnosed?: Some people can smell a characteristic sweetness to the cows breath but not everyone can smell this. Your vet can usually make a tentative diagnosis using the clinic Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic disease that occurs when the cow is in severe state of negative energy balance. In this state, the cow mobilises large quantities of body fat but cannot convert this to energy through the usual pathways. Instead, ketone bodies are produced which in small amounts can be used by the cow for energy. However, when ketone production is high, the cow cannot use all the ketone bodies for energy and ketone levels increase in the blood. When this occurs the cow may suffer from ketosis. Types of Ketosis Type 1 ketosis is a result of a sudden drop in energy intake. This can be due to underfeeding or adverse weather events (e.g. snow storms) that prevent the cows from eating sufficient amounts of dry matter. Type 2 ketosis generally occurs post-calving, when the cow is mobilising excess body fat to meet the demands of milk production. Cows that are too fat at calving (BCS > 5) or cows that have been overfed pre-calving are particularly at risk. Silage ketosis is due to cows ingesting poor quality silage. The silage undergoes a secondary fermentation and when ingested will increase the risk of ketosis. Symptoms Ketosis can be displayed in two ways: Wasting form Lethargy (head down, lack of energy) Decreased dry matter intake Decreased milk production Often a sweet smell on the breath (acetone) Nervous form Excitable, uncoordinated and can become aggressive Strange behaviour such as eating soil, licking fence posts and gates, walking in circles, or standing with heads raised up and pushed into a corner etc. If a cow shows signs of ketosis seek advice from your veterinarian Prevention It is important to prevent ketosis from occurring, rather than treating cases as they appear. Prevention depends on adequate feeding and management of body condition score (BCS). E Continue reading >>

What Is The Best Way To Treat A Wound In The Udder For Dairy Cattle?

What Is The Best Way To Treat A Wound In The Udder For Dairy Cattle?

It obviously depends on the nature of the wound. *This examination should only be attempted by an experienced animal handler, as cows are big animals and they can move surprisingly fast, especially when irritated. (Really, seriously, just call a vet unless you like getting kicked and/or stepped on by a 1,200 lb bovine. This answer is meant for entertainment only.) Approach the cow and inspect the wound. The wound should be disinfected with something like betadine. It's important to scrub vigorously to get out the embedded dirt, followed by rinsing with clean water. Pick yourself up off the floor, brush the dirt off your chest, and re-approach the cow's hindquarters, making sure to be more cautious this time. Remember: cows kick, and they don't like cold water. Now that the wound is clean, examine it to ascertain the nature of the injury. If the teat itself is bruised, it's possible that she stepped on it. Some arnica or comfrey ointment will reduce swelling and ease the pain. (Available at progressive feed stores and health food stores everywhere.) If there's a jagged tear in the udder itself, then she might have gotten it caught on barbed wire. This requires stiches, and the vet is the best person to handle this. A tetanus shot would also be required for anything deeper than a minor surface wound. Antibiotics are also usually recommended. If it is an open sore, it might have been caused by an insect bite, fungus, or other irritant. If the teat is chafed (red and uniformly raw-looking) then the calf has been sucking too vigorously, or whomever is milking is being too rough. In all the latter cases, a product named Bag Balm is an excellent remedy. It contains sulphur and lanolin so it protects raw skin, while killing germs and permitting healing. Apply to affected area l Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis (Acetonemia, Ketonemia) is a common multifactorial disease resulting in downer cow syndrome in adult cattle worldwide[1]. Causes which predisposed to ketosis include: Ketosis is a common disease of dairy cows in early lactation caused by a negative energy balance that results in high concentrations of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)). This disease is usually associated with fatty liver. Clinical signs Clinically affected cattle shows signs of anorexia, reduced milk yield and may present as downer cows. Neurological signs of restlessness and ataxia may sometimes be noted. A sweet breath may be observed by an observant farmer or veterinarian. Diagnosis is based on presenting clinical signs supported by laboratory tests such as urinalysis and milk detection of ketones. During the first month of lactation, ratios of glycerophosphocholine:phosphocholine less than 2.5 in the milk indicate a high risk for developing ketosis[2]. Blood tests showing elevated NEFAs can assist diagnosis in more valuable cattle[3]. Bolus IV administration of 500 mL of 50% dextrose solution is a common therapy[4]. Glucocorticoids including dexamethasone or isoflupredone acetate at 5–20 mg/dose, IM, generally results in a more sustained response. Oral propylene glycol (250–400 g) may be effective as ketosis therapy[5]. Continue reading >>

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Parturition and the onset of lactation challenges calcium and energy homeostasis in dairy cows predisposing them to periparturient disorders that affect health, production and reproductive performance says Carlos Risco, DVM, Dipl. ACT, University of Florida. Dairy cattle experience a negative carbohydrate balance, from -3 weeks and + 3 weeks from calving and are at risk to develop ketosis, Risco explained at the 2010 Western Veterinary Conference. Milk production, in particular, drives the high requirements for glucose because other fuels cannot substitute for lactose in milk. To counteract this, the cow mobilizes body fat and protein stores in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and amino acids. This promotes gluconeogenesis and occurs under the influence of low serum concentrations of insulin. Volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate [BHBA]) produced in the rumen are also presented to the liver as fuels. Acetate and butyrate are ketogenic, and propionate is glycogenic. The key to prevention of ketosis is to maximize dry matter intake before and after calving to prevent excessive NEFA mobilization. Preventing ketosis in the first place is key to avoid some post-partum issues. Risco outlined some preventive strategies: The transition ration. To prevent ketosis the transition ration should maximize DMI, provide adequate energy density, and minimize ketogenic precursors. Silage with a high butyric acid content should not be fed. Introduce ration changes gradually. Manage transition cows to maximize DMI, e.g., provide adequate bunk space. Avoid over-conditioning of cows in late lactation and the early dry period. Niacin (nicotinic acid) fed in transition rations at 6–12 g /d may help reduce blood ketone levels. Propylene glycol may be administered pr Continue reading >>

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