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What Is Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

Subclinical Ketosis On Dairy Cows In Transition Period In Farms With Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents In Silages

Subclinical Ketosis On Dairy Cows In Transition Period In Farms With Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents In Silages

Copyright © 2014 Fernando Vicente et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (; ). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). 1. Introduction Subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows is a common metabolic disorder that can appear during the transition period, dry period, or calving, or in early lactation (Duffield et al. [1]), where the highest incidence of SCK occurs within the first 2 to 3 weeks of lactation [2]. The disorder is characterized by a high concentration Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

What Is A Ketogenic Diet?

What Is A Ketogenic Diet?

Alright, here’s what the ketogenic diet (often referred to as “keto”) is and the basics of how to follow it. What is the ketogenic diet? For those who don’t know the ketogenic diet is a low-carb, high fat diet (LCHF) with many health benefits. It involves drastically reducing carbohydrate intake, and replacing it with fat. The reduction in carbs puts your body into a metabolic state called ketosis. When this happens, your body becomes incredibly efficient at burning fat for energy. It also turns fat into ketones in the liver, which can supply energy for the brain. Benefits: Ketogenic diets generally cause massive reductions in blood sugar and insulin levels. This, along with the increased level of ketones provide the numerous cited health benefits. Ketogenic benefits include: Fighting diabetes Epilepsy control Alzheimer’s disease Certain cancers Cognitive performance High blood pressure control Satiety Weight/fat loss Reduced cholesterol levels The most obvious and commonly cited benefits is the decreased insulin levels. This is why fasting becomes a great solution to people’s type 2 diabetes, cushing’s disease and many other metabolic diseases. Fasting as well as the ketogenic diet increases insulin sensitivity, improves insulin resistance and allows your body to use the hormone insulin more effectively (which is important for fat loss). There are also four different classifications of the ketogenic diet. The standard ketogenic diet is accepted as reducing your carbohydrates intake to 5% carbs, with just enough protein (20%, let’s say) and the rest coming from fats. Inflammation is the root cause of so many of our ailments, which lower insulin levels decrease. Energy use: The basic principle around ketogenic diets is that our bodies first port of call f Continue reading >>

Fresh Cow Ketosis Tests Pay Back Big

Fresh Cow Ketosis Tests Pay Back Big

A drop of blood is all that’s needed Editor’s note: This is the first of a six-part series on transition cow management that will run in 2015. When it comes to fresh cow health, an ounce of prevention can result in pounds more milk, fewer displaced abomasums (DAs) and less culling. All of it adds up to potentially thousands of dollars saved each year. And it all can be had with the use of a simple, easy-to-use blood test of cows in your fresh pen. Most dairy farmers, unless they routinely test for subclinical ketosis, are blissfully unaware of how prevalent the disease is in their herds. But work in New York and Wisconsin herds done by veterinarian researchers Jessica McArt, Cornell University, and Gary Oetzel, University of Wisconsin, suggest subclinical ketosis is challenging fresh cows through early transition. The study, done during the summer of 2010, involved 1,800 cows in four herds—two each in New York and Wisconsin. Nearly 45% of cows were subclincally ketotic during the first two weeks after calving. The good news is subclinical cows that were treated responded well, averaging 1.5 lb. more milk per day, had fewer DAs and were culled less frequently. For every 100 fresh cows tested twice between three and nine days in milk, the net economic return was roughly $1,200. What makes all this possible are easy-to-use test strips requiring just a drop of blood from the tail vein. A very small amount of blood is added to the end of the test strip and then read by a meter. The Cornell and Wisconsin vet-erinarians have found the Precision Xtra ketone meter from Abbott gives excellent results with no additional calibration needed from the human system. The meter measures whole blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). A reading of 1.2 mmol/L or more indicates subclinical k Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis (Acetonemia, Ketonemia) is a common multifactorial disease resulting in downer cow syndrome in adult cattle worldwide[1]. Causes which predisposed to ketosis include: Ketosis is a common disease of dairy cows in early lactation caused by a negative energy balance that results in high concentrations of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)). This disease is usually associated with fatty liver. Clinical signs Clinically affected cattle shows signs of anorexia, reduced milk yield and may present as downer cows. Neurological signs of restlessness and ataxia may sometimes be noted. A sweet breath may be observed by an observant farmer or veterinarian. Diagnosis is based on presenting clinical signs supported by laboratory tests such as urinalysis and milk detection of ketones. During the first month of lactation, ratios of glycerophosphocholine:phosphocholine less than 2.5 in the milk indicate a high risk for developing ketosis[2]. Blood tests showing elevated NEFAs can assist diagnosis in more valuable cattle[3]. Bolus IV administration of 500 mL of 50% dextrose solution is a common therapy[4]. Glucocorticoids including dexamethasone or isoflupredone acetate at 5–20 mg/dose, IM, generally results in a more sustained response. Oral propylene glycol (250–400 g) may be effective as ketosis therapy[5]. Continue reading >>

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>

Research-article Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

Research-article Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

First page preview Copyright © 1968 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. View more articles Continue reading >>

Ketotic Cows: Treatment And Prognosis (proceedings)

Ketotic Cows: Treatment And Prognosis (proceedings)

12Next An absolute requirement for treating ketosis in cattle is to identify and treat the primary cause for the negative energy balance. Symptomatic treatment for ketosis without attacking the primary cause is doomed to failure. Propylene glycol is a routine treatment for ketosis. Only 2 oral formulations are approved for use in cattle as a treatment and the dose rate is 8 oz, q 12 h, for up to 10 days (2 other formulations labeled for use as preventive treatment). Research suggests that 296 ml once/day as on oral drench is just as effective as 887 ml once/day. Propylene glycol is absorbed from the rumen as propylene glycol, some propylene glycol is metabolized to propionate in the rumen, but most is absorbed intact and metabolized to glucose in liver. Propylene glycol increases serum [glucose], decreases serum β-OH butyrate & NEFA concentrations but only if a functional liver as propylene glycol must be metabolized. Propylene glycol is only beneficial if rumen motility to aid mixing and absorption. Glycerol (same dose rate as propylene glycol) and sodium propionate (uncertain dose rate) also reported to be of use but are both considered inferior to propylene glycol. Sodium propionate may have palatability problems. Calcium propionate has been examined, but the evidence is not convincing that it is superior to propylene glycol, even though it also has calcium. Not very soluble, and large volumes need to be administered. 500 ml of 50% Dextrose IV is also a routine treatment (one time administration of 250 g). Numerous approved products for treating ketosis in cattle. A cow uses 50-70 g glucose/hour for maintenance and 200 g glucose/hour high production, from a total blood glucose pool <40 g. Milk is 4.5% lactose, 50 kg of milk contains 2.25 kg lactose (glucose and gala Continue reading >>

Comparisons Of Available On-farm Tests For Monitoring Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

Comparisons Of Available On-farm Tests For Monitoring Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

A guide to selecting the right ketosis monitoring tool for your needs. During the transition period, cows rapidly mobilize body fat, which increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases including ketosis, fatty liver, and displaced abomasum. Producers should confirm the diagnosis of ketosis before proceeding with treatment. There are now a variety of inexpensive on-farm tests available to confirm the presence of ketones for both routine herd level monitoring and individual diagnosis. Ketosis is characterized by the accumulation of the ketone bodies betahydroxybutrate (BHBA), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone. The standard test for the diagnosis of ketosis is serum BHBA concentrations above14.4 mg/dL(1400 µM/L) as measured in a diagnostic lab (Oetzel, 2004). The five available cowside tests measure either AcAC or BHBA in urine, milk, or whole blood. There are currently five available on-farm tests for ketones, summarized by sample type and cost below (adapted from Townsend, Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Proceedings, 2011). Product Sample Type Ketone measured Cost KetoCheck powder milk or urine Acetoacetone ~ $0.28/test KetoStix urine Acetoacetone ~$0.24 KetoTest milk BHBA ~$2.00 PortaBHB milk BHBA ~$1.75/strip Precision Xtra blood BHBA ~1.30/strip ~$15 – $20 for meter Which test should you use? Your selection depends on what your goal is. Are you trying to estimate herd level ketosis or confirm diagnosis of ketosis in an individual animal? The five on-farm tests available vary in the sensitivity and specificity monitoring. Sensitivity is a measurement of the actual positives the test can correctly determine as compared to the standard. Specificity is a measurement of the actual negatives the test can correctly determine. In this case, the standard is the laboratory de Continue reading >>

Ketosis Treatment In Lactating Dairy Cattle

Ketosis Treatment In Lactating Dairy Cattle

... Cows experiencing Type I ketosis have low blood concentrations of glucose (< 2.5 mmol/L) despite high rates of gluconeogenesis and require a different treatment than those experiencing Type II ketosis with higher blood glucose concentrations and insulin resistance (Herdt, 2000). In this regard,Gordon et al. (2013)reviewed common treatments for ketosis and recommended that when ketosis occurs concurrently with hypoglycemia to treat with dextrose immediately, followed by an additional treatment, such as propylene glycol, for longer-term effects. WhenLi et al. (2012)conducted a study on ketotic cows they were able to identify cows with sub-clinical BHBA levels (mean = 1.98 ± 0.9 mmol/L) with clinical signs of ketosis due to selection of cows that were also hypoglycemic (mean glucose concentration = 2.05 ± 0.29 mmol/L). ... Continue reading >>

What Action Can Be Taken During Pre-calving To Reduce The Milk Fever In Dairy Cattle?

What Action Can Be Taken During Pre-calving To Reduce The Milk Fever In Dairy Cattle?

Good to see that you have understood the concept and need for the prevention of “milk fever” in dairy animals, prior to calving. Feeding regularly calcium through out life-time is the simplest and cheapest solution. Though the slaked lime water prepared from limestone is inorganic and hence its bio-availability is low, it is cheap and locally available and daily feeding of 20 - 50 ml of slaked lime water can do wonders. If the animal is a high yielder (above 15 litres per day) post calving, then that animal should be primed for calcium with intravenous injection four times at 15 days interval prior to calving, by a veterinarian. Please note that calcium intravenous injection is to be administered under the supervision of a veterinarian only, for it can result in heart seizure. Continue reading >>

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

This page contains information about conditions that may cause sudden drop in milk production. Many conditions affecting sudden drop in milk production do not have obvious clinical signs. Continue reading >>

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Parturition and the onset of lactation challenges calcium and energy homeostasis in dairy cows predisposing them to periparturient disorders that affect health, production and reproductive performance says Carlos Risco, DVM, Dipl. ACT, University of Florida. Dairy cattle experience a negative carbohydrate balance, from -3 weeks and + 3 weeks from calving and are at risk to develop ketosis, Risco explained at the 2010 Western Veterinary Conference. Milk production, in particular, drives the high requirements for glucose because other fuels cannot substitute for lactose in milk. To counteract this, the cow mobilizes body fat and protein stores in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and amino acids. This promotes gluconeogenesis and occurs under the influence of low serum concentrations of insulin. Volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate [BHBA]) produced in the rumen are also presented to the liver as fuels. Acetate and butyrate are ketogenic, and propionate is glycogenic. The key to prevention of ketosis is to maximize dry matter intake before and after calving to prevent excessive NEFA mobilization. Preventing ketosis in the first place is key to avoid some post-partum issues. Risco outlined some preventive strategies: The transition ration. To prevent ketosis the transition ration should maximize DMI, provide adequate energy density, and minimize ketogenic precursors. Silage with a high butyric acid content should not be fed. Introduce ration changes gradually. Manage transition cows to maximize DMI, e.g., provide adequate bunk space. Avoid over-conditioning of cows in late lactation and the early dry period. Niacin (nicotinic acid) fed in transition rations at 6–12 g /d may help reduce blood ketone levels. Propylene glycol may be administered pr Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Dairy Cows (acetoneamia)

Ketosis In Dairy Cows (acetoneamia)

What is Ketosis? Ketosis is essentially the cows response to a negative energy balance. In other words:Energy used > energy taken in (eaten) What is the cause: Ketosis can be divided into 2 categories:- 1. Primary ketosis - The cow is not obtaining the energy requirement that she needs from the diet that she is eating. 2. Secondary ketosis – A problem with the cow is stopping her from eating enough food to match her energy requirements e.g an LDA stops the cow eating but she still needs energy to move, produce milk etc. A more commonly seen problem in dairy cows these days is subclinical ketosis. This is generally seen in dairy herds as a group problem rather than a individual cow issue. Cows with subclinical ketosis don't show such strong bulling activity, don't come bulling as early, don't achieve their potential peak milk yield (and subsequently have significantly reduced lactationas yield) and are more prone to disease and conditions such as LDAs (left displaced abomasum. In short they take longer to get going and never achieve their potential in the lactation which costsyoutime and money. Subclinical ketosis often indicates a problemi the transition diet or management. What do cows need energy for? Seems a simple question but cows use large amounts of energy just to exist. Energy is needed to:- Maintain body temperature Move Breathe Digest their food Produce milk Fight infections Show bulling activity Produce eggs/ ovulate You can appreciate how much heat a cow produces when you are stood in a milking parlour on a freezing winter morning – heats up pretty quickly doesn’t it. How is it diagnosed?: Some people can smell a characteristic sweetness to the cows breath but not everyone can smell this. Your vet can usually make a tentative diagnosis using the clinic Continue reading >>

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