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What Is Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

Estimating The Economic Impact Of Subclinical Ketosis In Dairy Cattle Using A Dynamic Stochastic Simulation Model

Estimating The Economic Impact Of Subclinical Ketosis In Dairy Cattle Using A Dynamic Stochastic Simulation Model

Abstract The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows. This metabolic disorder occurs in the period around calving and is associated with an increased risk of other diseases. Therefore, SCK affects farm productivity and profitability. Estimating the economic impact of SCK may make farmers more aware of this problem, and can improve their decision-making regarding interventions to reduce SCK. We developed a dynamic stochastic simulation model that enables estimating the economic impact of SCK and related diseases (i.e. mastitis, metritis, displaced abomasum, lameness and clinical ketosis) occurring during the first 30 days after calving. This model, which was applied to a typical Dutch dairy herd, groups cows according to their parity (1 to 5+), and simulates the dynamics of SCK and related diseases, and milk production per cow during one lactation. The economic impact of SCK and related diseases resulted from a reduced milk production, discarded milk, treatment costs, costs from a prolonged calving interval and removal (culling or dying) of cows. The total costs of SCK were €130 per case per year, with a range between €39 and €348 (5 to 95 percentiles). The total costs of SCK per case per year, moreover, increased from €83 per year in parity 1 to €175 in parity 3. Most cows with SCK, however, had SCK only (61%), and costs were €58 per case per year. Total costs of SCK per case per year resulted for 36% from a prolonged calving interval, 24% from reduced milk production, 19% from treatment, 14% from discarded milk and 6% from removal. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the disease incidence, removal risk, relations of SCK with other diseases and prices of milk resulted in a high variat Continue reading >>

Comparisons Of Available On-farm Tests For Monitoring Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

Comparisons Of Available On-farm Tests For Monitoring Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

A guide to selecting the right ketosis monitoring tool for your needs. During the transition period, cows rapidly mobilize body fat, which increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases including ketosis, fatty liver, and displaced abomasum. Producers should confirm the diagnosis of ketosis before proceeding with treatment. There are now a variety of inexpensive on-farm tests available to confirm the presence of ketones for both routine herd level monitoring and individual diagnosis. Ketosis is characterized by the accumulation of the ketone bodies betahydroxybutrate (BHBA), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone. The standard test for the diagnosis of ketosis is serum BHBA concentrations above14.4 mg/dL(1400 µM/L) as measured in a diagnostic lab (Oetzel, 2004). The five available cowside tests measure either AcAC or BHBA in urine, milk, or whole blood. There are currently five available on-farm tests for ketones, summarized by sample type and cost below (adapted from Townsend, Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Proceedings, 2011). Product Sample Type Ketone measured Cost KetoCheck powder milk or urine Acetoacetone ~ $0.28/test KetoStix urine Acetoacetone ~$0.24 KetoTest milk BHBA ~$2.00 PortaBHB milk BHBA ~$1.75/strip Precision Xtra blood BHBA ~1.30/strip ~$15 – $20 for meter Which test should you use? Your selection depends on what your goal is. Are you trying to estimate herd level ketosis or confirm diagnosis of ketosis in an individual animal? The five on-farm tests available vary in the sensitivity and specificity monitoring. Sensitivity is a measurement of the actual positives the test can correctly determine as compared to the standard. Specificity is a measurement of the actual negatives the test can correctly determine. In this case, the standard is the laboratory de Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Cattle Symptoms And Treatments

Ketosis In Cattle Symptoms And Treatments

Ketosis is a fairly common disease among adult cattle, although usually it occurs in dairy cattle.Ketosis typically occurs the first six weeks of parturition.It occurs in dairy cattle because of their inability to intake enough nutrients to meet their energy needs.This can lead to hypoglycemia which is a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose.That in turn leads to the formation of ketone bodies from the body and fat stores. Although they are only broken down for energy to used by the heart and brain in the times of low glucose levels. Ketosis is not an immediate thing like many other illnesses, it gradually occurs. Some typical symptoms you will notice about your cattle if they have ketosis happen to be a decreased appetite,marked weight loss,decreased milk production,acetone odor of breath,nervousness, and hard, mucus covered feces. For confined cattle, usually decreased appetite is the first sign that they might have ketosis.Also if they are fed in components such as part forage, part grain, they will tend to go for the forage more than they will go for the grain.If you fed your cattle in herds, then usually you will see reduced milk production,lethargy and an somewhat “empty” appearing abdomen.When cattle are physically examined with having ketosis they may appear sightly dehydrated. Treatment for ketosis in cattle is more commonly done by IV administration of 500 ml of 50% dextrose solution. This treatment allows rapid recovery but the effects are often producing results beyond itself therefore relapses of ketosis are pretty common.Another treatment that can be used is the administration of glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone or isoflupredone acetate.You typically administer 5-20mg dose intra muscularly. This treatment often has good Continue reading >>

Subclinical Ketosis On Dairy Cows In Transition Period In Farms With Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents In Silages

Subclinical Ketosis On Dairy Cows In Transition Period In Farms With Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents In Silages

Copyright © 2014 Fernando Vicente et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (; ). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). 1. Introduction Subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows is a common metabolic disorder that can appear during the transition period, dry period, or calving, or in early lactation (Duffield et al. [1]), where the highest incidence of SCK occurs within the first 2 to 3 weeks of lactation [2]. The disorder is characterized by a high concentration Continue reading >>

Research-article Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

Research-article Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

First page preview Copyright © 1968 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. View more articles Continue reading >>

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>

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OIEGON sure tt.,. HIM .'"., OW. Coml. aad the U S. Cyan.. 1.4516),Nn Ketosis in Dairy Cows Prepared by D. E. ANDERSON and H. P. EWALT Extension Dairy Specialists, Oregon State University, Corvallis Ketosis, or acetonemia, might well be called a prob- lem of high production since prevention and control is more difficult with high milk production. Few animals are challenged to meet the metabolic demands that a high- producing dairy cow must adapt to during the early part of lactation. Common observations and experimental evidence show that cows may be in a negative balance for both protein and energy shortly after calving and for about the first 60 days of lactation. The following data on ketosis are taken from a summary of recent research published in the July 1968 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science. What Is Ketosis? Ketosis is a metabolic disorder in which something goes wrong with the normal body processes and the cow becomes sick. There are no inflammatory organisms involved and the condition is not contagious. There seems to be a situation where the cow is temporarily pro- ducing more milk and thus requiring more feed nutrients than her feed intake provides. Nature may attempt to correct this situation by using body reserves of fat. When this occurs, some intermediary products of fat metabolism, called "ketone bodies," may build up in the system. These can be detected in the milk and urine and are indications of how serious the condition may be. Ketosis may even develop in average-producing animals when the energy needs exceed the energy intake. Ketosis usually occurs more often in winter feed- ing, and three weeks after calving seems to be a very critical period for high-producing cows. Symptoms The first symptom of ketosis is a loss of appetite first for grain a Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic disease that occurs when the cow is in severe state of negative energy balance. In this state, the cow mobilises large quantities of body fat but cannot convert this to energy through the usual pathways. Instead, ketone bodies are produced which in small amounts can be used by the cow for energy. However, when ketone production is high, the cow cannot use all the ketone bodies for energy and ketone levels increase in the blood. When this occurs the cow may suffer from ketosis. Types of Ketosis Type 1 ketosis is a result of a sudden drop in energy intake. This can be due to underfeeding or adverse weather events (e.g. snow storms) that prevent the cows from eating sufficient amounts of dry matter. Type 2 ketosis generally occurs post-calving, when the cow is mobilising excess body fat to meet the demands of milk production. Cows that are too fat at calving (BCS > 5) or cows that have been overfed pre-calving are particularly at risk. Silage ketosis is due to cows ingesting poor quality silage. The silage undergoes a secondary fermentation and when ingested will increase the risk of ketosis. Symptoms Ketosis can be displayed in two ways: Wasting form Lethargy (head down, lack of energy) Decreased dry matter intake Decreased milk production Often a sweet smell on the breath (acetone) Nervous form Excitable, uncoordinated and can become aggressive Strange behaviour such as eating soil, licking fence posts and gates, walking in circles, or standing with heads raised up and pushed into a corner etc. If a cow shows signs of ketosis seek advice from your veterinarian Prevention It is important to prevent ketosis from occurring, rather than treating cases as they appear. Prevention depends on adequate feeding and management of body condition score (BCS). E Continue reading >>

Ketotic Cows: Treatment And Prognosis (proceedings)

Ketotic Cows: Treatment And Prognosis (proceedings)

12Next An absolute requirement for treating ketosis in cattle is to identify and treat the primary cause for the negative energy balance. Symptomatic treatment for ketosis without attacking the primary cause is doomed to failure. Propylene glycol is a routine treatment for ketosis. Only 2 oral formulations are approved for use in cattle as a treatment and the dose rate is 8 oz, q 12 h, for up to 10 days (2 other formulations labeled for use as preventive treatment). Research suggests that 296 ml once/day as on oral drench is just as effective as 887 ml once/day. Propylene glycol is absorbed from the rumen as propylene glycol, some propylene glycol is metabolized to propionate in the rumen, but most is absorbed intact and metabolized to glucose in liver. Propylene glycol increases serum [glucose], decreases serum β-OH butyrate & NEFA concentrations but only if a functional liver as propylene glycol must be metabolized. Propylene glycol is only beneficial if rumen motility to aid mixing and absorption. Glycerol (same dose rate as propylene glycol) and sodium propionate (uncertain dose rate) also reported to be of use but are both considered inferior to propylene glycol. Sodium propionate may have palatability problems. Calcium propionate has been examined, but the evidence is not convincing that it is superior to propylene glycol, even though it also has calcium. Not very soluble, and large volumes need to be administered. 500 ml of 50% Dextrose IV is also a routine treatment (one time administration of 250 g). Numerous approved products for treating ketosis in cattle. A cow uses 50-70 g glucose/hour for maintenance and 200 g glucose/hour high production, from a total blood glucose pool <40 g. Milk is 4.5% lactose, 50 kg of milk contains 2.25 kg lactose (glucose and gala Continue reading >>

Investigation On The Relationship Of Insulin Resistance And Ketosis In Dairy Cows

Investigation On The Relationship Of Insulin Resistance And Ketosis In Dairy Cows

1Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, China 2Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, China *Corresponding Author: Cheng Xia Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, China Tel: +86 459-6819207 Fax: +86 459-6819207 E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Xu C, Shu S, Xia C, Wang B, Zhang HY, et al. (2014) Investigation on the Relationship of Insulin Resistance and Ketosis in Dairy Cows. J Veterinar Sci Technol 5: 162. doi:10.4172/2157-7579.1000162 Copyright: © 2014 Xu C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology Abstract Ketosis is an important metabolic disease of dairy cows during the transition period, but it is fully unclear about its endocrine etiology. Our study is to clarify the relationship between oxidative stress, liver function, insulin resistance and ketosis in dairy cows. Sixteen ketotic Holstein cows (T) and twenty-four non-ketotic Holstein cows (C) were used as the experimental animals from an intensive dairy farm in Heilongjiang province, China. Blood samples from all experimental cows were collected at 14 days postpartum during morning fasting. Fifteen parameters for energy balance, liver function, oxidative stress, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance test between T and C were measured using commercial kits. Results showed that Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

What Action Can Be Taken During Pre-calving To Reduce The Milk Fever In Dairy Cattle?

What Action Can Be Taken During Pre-calving To Reduce The Milk Fever In Dairy Cattle?

Good to see that you have understood the concept and need for the prevention of “milk fever” in dairy animals, prior to calving. Feeding regularly calcium through out life-time is the simplest and cheapest solution. Though the slaked lime water prepared from limestone is inorganic and hence its bio-availability is low, it is cheap and locally available and daily feeding of 20 - 50 ml of slaked lime water can do wonders. If the animal is a high yielder (above 15 litres per day) post calving, then that animal should be primed for calcium with intravenous injection four times at 15 days interval prior to calving, by a veterinarian. Please note that calcium intravenous injection is to be administered under the supervision of a veterinarian only, for it can result in heart seizure. Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Dairy Farming And Cattle Ranching?

What Is The Difference Between Dairy Farming And Cattle Ranching?

Dairy farming is an operation that devotes itself to the production of milk products. The stock that is bred for the production of milk in our part of the country is the Holstein. Dairy farms here in Montana are a declining breed as the move to huge corporate farms continues to dominate the market. Cattle ranching on the other hand is alive and well and run much the same as it was a hundred years ago. The production of meat for the tables of the world is the object behind cattle ranching and the primary breeds are Hereford and Angus and are often cross bred as we do here on our ranch. Cattle ranchers normally sell their spring calves to feed lots in late fall, which after fattening sell that stock to slaughter houses. The most common question I am asked is if there is a difference between Angus beef and others. My answer is that how they are fattened makes more of a difference than breed. Grass fed are the leanest and of course tougher in texture than others. My brother will not allow the steer he is going to eat touch any type of grain. My preference is 30 days on barley before slaughter. The most common feed for fattening is corn and most likely what you are eating was fattened with corn. You can thank the stupidity of subsidised ethanol for the outrageous price that you must pay for a good steak, as so much corn is used for the production of ethanol. The Walen Ranch, Lazy WF- and W connected C over bar brands. Continue reading >>

Test For, Treat Ketosis Early In Dairy Cattle

Test For, Treat Ketosis Early In Dairy Cattle

Years ago, I would lean over the feed bunk and smell the breath of a ketosis-suspect dairy cow. It convinced me that it had either bad breath or glue (acetone) breathing ketosis. Since then, I’ve come a long way. Dairy nutritionists like myself and dairy producers now have access to modern BHB (Beta-hydroxybutyrate) milk tests through regular Canwest DHI testing or from on-farm keto-testing kits. By detecting ketosis in problematic cows and implementing strong transition cow-feeding and management programs, we should be able to reduce early lactation ketosis, which is detrimental to long-term dairy cow health and performance. Don’t ignore it Ignoring a ketosis cow doesn’t solve the problem, either. Untreated clinical ketosis include a rapid drop in body condition, loss of appetite, decreased milk production, and yes, acetone-smelling breath. Most veterinarians will tell us that such clinical ketosis is relatively rare in dairy cows with the majority of ketosis symptoms in afflicted cows being hidden or subclinical in nature. Rather, these latter cows will suffer from a higher incidence of displaced abomasums, retained placentas, mastitis, or weaken immune system. Subclinical ketosis has also been linked to milk fever and reproductive problems. Cows with subclinical ketosis lose about 25 per cent of their potential milk production per lactation. Early lactation cows are the most vulnerable to either type of ketosis because, by nature, they cannot meet all their energy requirements of maintenance and high milk production from just their diet. Therefore they are drawn into a state of “negative energy balance” (NEB) for about five to six weeks after calving. Even well-transitioned cows experience a period of NEB, but they tend to have good post-partum dry matter i Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Dairy Cattle. A Review

Ketosis In Dairy Cattle. A Review

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