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What Is Ketosis In Cows

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

Not In Animal Health Industry

Not In Animal Health Industry

The NADIS data show that the number of cases of acetonaemia (or ketosis) increase significantly during the winter, and the number of cases continue to increase until turnout. So it is particularly important to look out for acetonaemia until at least a month after turn-out. Like most metabolic diseases it is important to remember that for every cow that shows clinical signs, there will be several more which are affected sub-clinically. What is acetonaemia? Acetonaemia occurs when the cow's energy intake does not match its requirement and the cow is unable to compensate and mobilises its body reserves too quickly. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Clinical Signs 1) Reduced milk yield: Initially a moderate decline, eventually a sudden drop 2) Body condition and weight loss 3) Reduction in appetite (initially non-forage feeds) 4) Dull, stary coat 5) Firm, 'waxy' dung 6) Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath or milk - not always detectable 7) Temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate usually normal 8) A few develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, incoordination, aggression Acetonaemia is more common in the dairy cow, probably because the energy difference of the lactating cow is more difficult to overcome than that of the pregnant cow, which means that most dairy cows in the UK are in negative energy balance during the first few weeks of lactation. Acetonaemia occurs when the cow is not able to cope with this energy deficit, either because Continue reading >>

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Managing disease can be a frustrating proposition. This Guide can help you identify which disease is damaging your cattle. Cause Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that occurs in cattle when energy demands (e.g. high milk production) exceed energy intake and result in a negative energy balance. Ketotic cows often have low blood glucose (blood sugar) concentrations. When large amounts of body fat are utilised as an energy source to support production, fat is sometimes mobilised faster than the liver can properly metabolise it. If this situation occurs, ketone production exceeds ketone utilisation by the cow, and ketosis results. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Symptoms Reduced milk yield Weight loss Reduced appetite Dull coat Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath/ or milk Fever Some develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, agression etc. For every cow with clinical signs there are probably a number of others with sub-clinical signs. Treatment The initial aim of treatment is to restore the lack of glucose in the body. A quick-acting glucose supplement is required immediately. Follow-up treatment is aimed at providing a long term supply of glucose. Glucose replacement Intravenous administration of a dextrose solution by a veterinarian is effective in the short term, but follow-up treatment is essential if relapses are to be avoided. Drenching with propylene glycol or glycerine has longer term effects. It also has the benefit of ease of admini Continue reading >>

Nervous Form Of Ketosis In Cows And Its Treatment

Nervous Form Of Ketosis In Cows And Its Treatment

Ketosis is defined as an abnormal rise of the ketone or acetone bodies in the body. The ketone bodies are organic chemical compounds and include acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta hydroxy butyric acid. Present study reports the primary nervous ketosis in three cows at their peak milk yield. Cows exhibited the bellowing, head pressing and reluctance to take concentrates. Low serum glucose, high levels of blood urea nitrogen with ketonuria was observed. Cows showed fruitful recovery after treatment with 25% glucose solution, dexamethasone and glycerin along with supportive therapy. Keywords: Cows, Dextrose, Ketosis, Nervous Signs. Ketosis is defined as an abnormal rise of the ketone or acetone bodies in the body. The ketone bodies are organic chemical compounds and include acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta hydroxy butyric acid. Present study reports the primary nervous ketosis in three cows at their peak milk yield. Cows exhibited the bellowing, head pressing and reluctance to take concentrates. Low serum glucose, high levels of blood urea nitrogen with ketonuria was observed. Cows showed fruitful recovery after treatment with 25% glucose solution, dexamethasone and glycerin along with supportive therapy. Keywords: Cows, Dextrose, Ketosis, Nervous Signs. Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

This page contains information about conditions that may cause sudden drop in milk production. Many conditions affecting sudden drop in milk production do not have obvious clinical signs. Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Dairy Cows

Ketosis In Dairy Cows

Ketosis is a metabolic disease which usually occurs in cows in early lactation. At this time the cow's appetite is depressed after calving and energy intake cannot meet the increasing demand of the rising milk yield. This period of 'negative energy balance' is normal in all newly calved cows but it is the level at which this happens that is important. To meet energy requirements, the cow loses weight by mobilizing back fat which is then transported (as NEFAs) to the liver and broken down to release energy. During periods of high energy demand the liver cannot fully utilize the fat and metabolites known as ketones, such as acetone and beta-hydroxybutyrate, are produced. If too much weight is lost, these ketones overflow into the blood resulting in a further depression of appetite and subsequently reduced milk yield. Typically, cows will lose 0.5 in body condition score from calving to service but many lose more than that. Fat cows already have lower dry matter intakes post calving and so their body condition score drops even more, taking them to the point of ketosis. Cows that have been dry for a long period of time or cows that have some sort of metabolic disease during calving, or dystocia, are also more susceptible to ketosis. Ketosis is a worsening problem in UK dairy cattle, with approximately 30% having 'hidden ketosis'. It is commonly characterized by anorexia, depression and reduced productivity, lower milk yields and poorer fertility. Even when at sub clinical level, cows are at higher risk of suffering a wide range of metabolic and reproductive diseases which can further reduce income and add extra cost. The direct costs of ketosis include the input by the vet and herdsperson, drugs, discarded milk and reduced yield. Longer term problems are extended calving in Continue reading >>

Research-article Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

Research-article Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

First page preview Copyright © 1968 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. View more articles Continue reading >>

Ketosis Can Expose Cows To Many More Conditions - How To Check For It

Ketosis Can Expose Cows To Many More Conditions - How To Check For It

When a cow calves she must increase the intake of food at this time or at the very least the energy density should increase. Anything that may affect her appetite or reduce feed intake must be avoided. It is important to ensure food being eaten has adequate energy in it. A cow naturally will dip into negative energy after calving (for up to 6-8 weeks) which is where food intake can’t match output. We must minimise this period of negative energy as it can potentially have a negative long-term impact on the immune function and even production of the cow. When a cow dips into this negative energy she ‘milks off her back’. All this means is that she will break down fat reserves to fill this energy gap. This is okay for a short period but if it occurs long term or quickly it results in a condition called ketosis or more commonly subclinical ketosis which can be a build-up of the by-products of this fat breakdown called ketones. If this condition persists for a prolonged period it can reduce appetite and depress immunity. This is very much like a gateway condition; simply put it predisposes the cow to so many more conditions. Its reduction in appetite can also strongly link it with displaced abomasam. This is where the abomasum or true stomach will flip out of position mainly due to decreased feed intakes. Ketosis is one of the reasons we see an increase in all sorts of infections in cows from mastitis to metritis post calving. It is really important to remember also that ketosis will inhibit the cow producing an egg or ovulating; this can delay heats dramatically and really affects overall herd and cow fertility. Although this subclinical ketosis is not an obvious condition, it still causes so many issues we need to monitor it. The first thing we need to do is assess a Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Dairy Cows (acetoneamia)

Ketosis In Dairy Cows (acetoneamia)

What is Ketosis? Ketosis is essentially the cows response to a negative energy balance. In other words:Energy used > energy taken in (eaten) What is the cause: Ketosis can be divided into 2 categories:- 1. Primary ketosis - The cow is not obtaining the energy requirement that she needs from the diet that she is eating. 2. Secondary ketosis – A problem with the cow is stopping her from eating enough food to match her energy requirements e.g an LDA stops the cow eating but she still needs energy to move, produce milk etc. A more commonly seen problem in dairy cows these days is subclinical ketosis. This is generally seen in dairy herds as a group problem rather than a individual cow issue. Cows with subclinical ketosis don't show such strong bulling activity, don't come bulling as early, don't achieve their potential peak milk yield (and subsequently have significantly reduced lactationas yield) and are more prone to disease and conditions such as LDAs (left displaced abomasum. In short they take longer to get going and never achieve their potential in the lactation which costsyoutime and money. Subclinical ketosis often indicates a problemi the transition diet or management. What do cows need energy for? Seems a simple question but cows use large amounts of energy just to exist. Energy is needed to:- Maintain body temperature Move Breathe Digest their food Produce milk Fight infections Show bulling activity Produce eggs/ ovulate You can appreciate how much heat a cow produces when you are stood in a milking parlour on a freezing winter morning – heats up pretty quickly doesn’t it. How is it diagnosed?: Some people can smell a characteristic sweetness to the cows breath but not everyone can smell this. Your vet can usually make a tentative diagnosis using the clinic Continue reading >>

250 Yearbook Of Agriculture 1956

250 Yearbook Of Agriculture 1956

To obtain best results in treatment, an adequate concentration of the drug must be maintained in the udder for a period of time. Best results are usually obtained when the drugs are administered once or twice daily over a period of 2 to 4 days, depending upon the causative agent and the nature of the case. Most staphylococcal infections must be treated longer than streptococcal infections. Clinical cases must be treated longer than cases not showing symptoms to produce a cure. Many of the antibiotics are available in various vehicles, such as ointments and water-in-oil emulsions, that are designed for infusion into the udder. The vehicles aid in maintaining an adequate therapeutic level of the anti- biotic in the udder for about 24 to 48 hours after i injection. Because anti- biotics can persist for several days in the udder, the milk from the treated cows should not be marketed during the period of treatment or for at least 72 hours after the last treatment. The antibiotics interfere with the growth of the bacteria necessary for the pro- duction of cheese. The drugs are administered by in- fusion into the infected quarter through the teat canal. First, though, the teat must be washed thoroughly and the teat orifice cleansed with a pledget of cotton wetted with alcohol. Because drugs do not cure all infec- tions caused by some of the bacteria and yeasts, the danger exists of intro- ducing these resistant micro-organisms into the udders while treating for another type of organism and of allow- ing a more severe form of mastitis to develop. Faulty technique in prepar- ing the teat for injection and contam- ination of the instruments, drug, or vehicle may be to blame. In treating acute mastitis, it is desir- able to have the drugs administered intravenously or intramuscula Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis (Acetonemia, Ketonemia) is a common multifactorial disease resulting in downer cow syndrome in adult cattle worldwide[1]. Causes which predisposed to ketosis include: Ketosis is a common disease of dairy cows in early lactation caused by a negative energy balance that results in high concentrations of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)). This disease is usually associated with fatty liver. Clinical signs Clinically affected cattle shows signs of anorexia, reduced milk yield and may present as downer cows. Neurological signs of restlessness and ataxia may sometimes be noted. A sweet breath may be observed by an observant farmer or veterinarian. Diagnosis is based on presenting clinical signs supported by laboratory tests such as urinalysis and milk detection of ketones. During the first month of lactation, ratios of glycerophosphocholine:phosphocholine less than 2.5 in the milk indicate a high risk for developing ketosis[2]. Blood tests showing elevated NEFAs can assist diagnosis in more valuable cattle[3]. Bolus IV administration of 500 mL of 50% dextrose solution is a common therapy[4]. Glucocorticoids including dexamethasone or isoflupredone acetate at 5–20 mg/dose, IM, generally results in a more sustained response. Oral propylene glycol (250–400 g) may be effective as ketosis therapy[5]. Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Idiots' Guide to The Biochemistry and Management of Ketosis Ketosis is a disease of dry cows that shows up in fresh cows. Fundamentally, we have a situation where the cow is mobilizing body fat (condition) faster than the liver is able to metabolize it. In order for the liver to normally metabolize that fat, glucose is required. If glucose availability is limited due to inadequate substrate (mostly propionate from the diet) or glucose production via gluconeogenesis is inadequate or impaired, then ketosis can result because of the inability to convert the fat to energy. Loss/mobilization of body fat is a normal part of the onset of lactation. As the rate of fat mobilization rises, circulating NEFA levels begin to rise. If these fatty acids reach the liver and begin to accumulate in significant amounts, the liver switches away from TCA towards ketogenesis in an attempt to provide more energy and eliminate the fat buildup. Ketogenesis produces the ketone bodies, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Some ketone production is normal in all periparturient cows, so diagnosis is made on clinical history, physical examination, and the presence of significant ketones in milk or urine. Presence of ketones in milk or urine is inadequate, in and or itself, to make the diagnosis of clinical ketosis. Feed intake, or lack thereof, is a critical component in the onset of ketosis. In all cows, dry matter intake begins to decline approximately one month prior to calving, although many people will not notice this decline until several days prior to calving. as feed intake declines and galactopoeisis begins, body fats are mobilized, resulting in an increase in circulationg NEFA levels. NEFAs themselves are mild appetite suppressants, so they continue to hamper feed intake. NEFAs are also Continue reading >>

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>

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