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What Is Ketosis In Cattle

250 Yearbook Of Agriculture 1956

250 Yearbook Of Agriculture 1956

To obtain best results in treatment, an adequate concentration of the drug must be maintained in the udder for a period of time. Best results are usually obtained when the drugs are administered once or twice daily over a period of 2 to 4 days, depending upon the causative agent and the nature of the case. Most staphylococcal infections must be treated longer than streptococcal infections. Clinical cases must be treated longer than cases not showing symptoms to produce a cure. Many of the antibiotics are available in various vehicles, such as ointments and water-in-oil emulsions, that are designed for infusion into the udder. The vehicles aid in maintaining an adequate therapeutic level of the anti- biotic in the udder for about 24 to 48 hours after i injection. Because anti- biotics can persist for several days in the udder, the milk from the treated cows should not be marketed during the period of treatment or for at least 72 hours after the last treatment. The antibiotics interfere with the growth of the bacteria necessary for the pro- duction of cheese. The drugs are administered by in- fusion into the infected quarter through the teat canal. First, though, the teat must be washed thoroughly and the teat orifice cleansed with a pledget of cotton wetted with alcohol. Because drugs do not cure all infec- tions caused by some of the bacteria and yeasts, the danger exists of intro- ducing these resistant micro-organisms into the udders while treating for another type of organism and of allow- ing a more severe form of mastitis to develop. Faulty technique in prepar- ing the teat for injection and contam- ination of the instruments, drug, or vehicle may be to blame. In treating acute mastitis, it is desir- able to have the drugs administered intravenously or intramuscula Continue reading >>

Ketosis/ Acetonemia In Cattle | Overview Of The Disease

Ketosis/ Acetonemia In Cattle | Overview Of The Disease

Ketosis/ Acetonemia in Cattle Definition and Epidemiology: Ketosis or acetonemia is a common metabolic disorder resulting from a lowered blood sugar in the circulating blood, which causes the formation and release of ketone bodies. The risk of ketosis is from 10 to 60 days after calving. Etiology: • Negative nutritional balance caused by inadequate nutrition. • Combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Clinical symptoms: • Dullness, depression, poor appetite, grain is not eaten while hay is, rapid loss of weight. • Drop in milk production, constipation. • Pyrexia and slightly dehydrated. • Feces covered with mucus, incoordination and partial paralysis. • Breathing is shallow with an acetone smell in the breath. • Cows may even act crazy, may have poor eyesight or go blind for a day or more. • Complication as retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, nephritis. Diagnosis: • Clinical, physical examination and the history. • Ketonemia 10-100mg/dl, milk ketone levels increased –upto 40mg/dl, • Hypoglycemia-20 to 40mg/dl severity of clinical signs closely related to severity of hypoglycemia. • Ketone bodies (specifically acetone) are volatilized and account for the "sweetish" smell detectable on the breath, and in the milk or urine of affected cows. Treatment and prevention: • Intravenous 500 ml of a 50 percent glucose solution is used. • Bolus glucose therapy. • Glucocorticoids including dexamethasone or isoflupredone acetate at 5-20 mg/dose, IM, generally results in a more sustained response. • Propylene glycol (250-400 g/dose may be effective, especially in mild cases or in combination with other therapies. • Prevention and Control: o Good nutrition. o Some feed additives as niacin, calcium propiona Continue reading >>

Not In Animal Health Industry

Not In Animal Health Industry

The NADIS data show that the number of cases of acetonaemia (or ketosis) increase significantly during the winter, and the number of cases continue to increase until turnout. So it is particularly important to look out for acetonaemia until at least a month after turn-out. Like most metabolic diseases it is important to remember that for every cow that shows clinical signs, there will be several more which are affected sub-clinically. What is acetonaemia? Acetonaemia occurs when the cow's energy intake does not match its requirement and the cow is unable to compensate and mobilises its body reserves too quickly. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Clinical Signs 1) Reduced milk yield: Initially a moderate decline, eventually a sudden drop 2) Body condition and weight loss 3) Reduction in appetite (initially non-forage feeds) 4) Dull, stary coat 5) Firm, 'waxy' dung 6) Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath or milk - not always detectable 7) Temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate usually normal 8) A few develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, incoordination, aggression Acetonaemia is more common in the dairy cow, probably because the energy difference of the lactating cow is more difficult to overcome than that of the pregnant cow, which means that most dairy cows in the UK are in negative energy balance during the first few weeks of lactation. Acetonaemia occurs when the cow is not able to cope with this energy deficit, either because Continue reading >>

Cut Down On Ketosis

Cut Down On Ketosis

Ketosis is one of the most common metabolic diseases on dairy farms. It occurs when cows have an abnormal response to negative energy balance. After calving, all cows experience some degree of negative energy balance, mobilize body fat for the additional energy needed for milk production and lose weight during the first several months of lactation. But, if cows mobilize excessive amounts of fat, the metabolic process of converting this fat to energy can result in an undesirable buildup of ketones in the bloodstream. Clinical signs Watch for the following clinical signs: decreased milk production, poor appetite, decreased rumen fill, dehydration, sunken eyes and constipation. In severe cases, known as nervous ketosis, cows will exhibit neurologic signs such as weakness, running into walls, or compulsive licking/chewing. Cow-side diagnostic tests If you suspect ketosis, you have several options to help confirm the diagnosis. 1. Urine test strips. Once the cow urinates, hold the ketone strip into the urine and watch for a color change (purple) which often occurs within seconds. The urine strips are the least costly test; however, they do miss some cows with ketosis (due to lower sensitivity). 2. Milk Ketone Test strips. The milk test strips measure the amount of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in the milk which is the primary cow ketone. This test is more costly than the urine strip, but it is more sensitive than that test. Squirt milk into a clean container, dip in the strip for the manufacturer"s recommended amount of time, then compare the color change to the code on the bottle. 3. Precision Extra Blood BHBA meter. This is the most sensitive ketosis cow-side test. This meter is a human diabetic meter that measures ketones as well as glucose levels. Insert the strip into the Continue reading >>

Fresh Cow Ketosis Tests Pay Back Big

Fresh Cow Ketosis Tests Pay Back Big

A drop of blood is all that’s needed Editor’s note: This is the first of a six-part series on transition cow management that will run in 2015. When it comes to fresh cow health, an ounce of prevention can result in pounds more milk, fewer displaced abomasums (DAs) and less culling. All of it adds up to potentially thousands of dollars saved each year. And it all can be had with the use of a simple, easy-to-use blood test of cows in your fresh pen. Most dairy farmers, unless they routinely test for subclinical ketosis, are blissfully unaware of how prevalent the disease is in their herds. But work in New York and Wisconsin herds done by veterinarian researchers Jessica McArt, Cornell University, and Gary Oetzel, University of Wisconsin, suggest subclinical ketosis is challenging fresh cows through early transition. The study, done during the summer of 2010, involved 1,800 cows in four herds—two each in New York and Wisconsin. Nearly 45% of cows were subclincally ketotic during the first two weeks after calving. The good news is subclinical cows that were treated responded well, averaging 1.5 lb. more milk per day, had fewer DAs and were culled less frequently. For every 100 fresh cows tested twice between three and nine days in milk, the net economic return was roughly $1,200. What makes all this possible are easy-to-use test strips requiring just a drop of blood from the tail vein. A very small amount of blood is added to the end of the test strip and then read by a meter. The Cornell and Wisconsin vet-erinarians have found the Precision Xtra ketone meter from Abbott gives excellent results with no additional calibration needed from the human system. The meter measures whole blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). A reading of 1.2 mmol/L or more indicates subclinical k Continue reading >>

Cattle Diseases

Cattle Diseases

Ketosis Also known as: Acetonemia, Fat Cow Syndrome, Hypoglycemia and Pregnancy Toxemia. Primary ketosis, or acetonemia, is a metabolic disorder and is largely a disease that is influenced by management of dairy cows in early lactation. Ketosis is an important clinical and subclinical disease, as there are several metabolic disorders and diseases that commonly occur in the calving and the early lactation period that are linked to ketosis (including milk fever, retained foetal membranes and displaced abomasum). Hypoglycemia is the major factor involved in the onset and development of clinical ketosis. There is a gradual loss of body condition over several days or even weeks. There is also a moderate to marked decline in milk yield (up to 5 liters per day) over five to six days before the onset of obvious clinical signs (Edwards and Tozer, 2004). This can persist for up to two weeks after diagnosis (Rajala-Schultz et al., 1999). The disease is most commonly seen in high-yielding dairy cows in early lactation. Secondary ketosis due to lack of appetite as a result of another disease can be seen at any stage of lactation. Beef cows may also suffer from ketosis during pregnancy, although this is less commonly recognized. Primary ketosis in dairy cows To satisfy the requirements of milk production, the cow can draw on two sources of nutrients – feed intake and body reserves. During early lactation, the energy intake is insufficient to meet the energy output in milk and the animal is in a negative energy balance. In conventional farming, this is considered to be a normal metabolic situation in high-yielding dairy cows. Cows in early lactation are, therefore, in a vulnerable situation, and any stress that causes a reduction in feed intake may lead to the onset of clinical keto Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Dairy Cows (acetoneamia)

Ketosis In Dairy Cows (acetoneamia)

What is Ketosis? Ketosis is essentially the cows response to a negative energy balance. In other words:Energy used > energy taken in (eaten) What is the cause: Ketosis can be divided into 2 categories:- 1. Primary ketosis - The cow is not obtaining the energy requirement that she needs from the diet that she is eating. 2. Secondary ketosis – A problem with the cow is stopping her from eating enough food to match her energy requirements e.g an LDA stops the cow eating but she still needs energy to move, produce milk etc. A more commonly seen problem in dairy cows these days is subclinical ketosis. This is generally seen in dairy herds as a group problem rather than a individual cow issue. Cows with subclinical ketosis don't show such strong bulling activity, don't come bulling as early, don't achieve their potential peak milk yield (and subsequently have significantly reduced lactationas yield) and are more prone to disease and conditions such as LDAs (left displaced abomasum. In short they take longer to get going and never achieve their potential in the lactation which costsyoutime and money. Subclinical ketosis often indicates a problemi the transition diet or management. What do cows need energy for? Seems a simple question but cows use large amounts of energy just to exist. Energy is needed to:- Maintain body temperature Move Breathe Digest their food Produce milk Fight infections Show bulling activity Produce eggs/ ovulate You can appreciate how much heat a cow produces when you are stood in a milking parlour on a freezing winter morning – heats up pretty quickly doesn’t it. How is it diagnosed?: Some people can smell a characteristic sweetness to the cows breath but not everyone can smell this. Your vet can usually make a tentative diagnosis using the clinic Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis (Acetonemia, Ketonemia) is a common multifactorial disease resulting in downer cow syndrome in adult cattle worldwide[1]. Causes which predisposed to ketosis include: Ketosis is a common disease of dairy cows in early lactation caused by a negative energy balance that results in high concentrations of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)). This disease is usually associated with fatty liver. Clinical signs Clinically affected cattle shows signs of anorexia, reduced milk yield and may present as downer cows. Neurological signs of restlessness and ataxia may sometimes be noted. A sweet breath may be observed by an observant farmer or veterinarian. Diagnosis is based on presenting clinical signs supported by laboratory tests such as urinalysis and milk detection of ketones. During the first month of lactation, ratios of glycerophosphocholine:phosphocholine less than 2.5 in the milk indicate a high risk for developing ketosis[2]. Blood tests showing elevated NEFAs can assist diagnosis in more valuable cattle[3]. Bolus IV administration of 500 mL of 50% dextrose solution is a common therapy[4]. Glucocorticoids including dexamethasone or isoflupredone acetate at 5–20 mg/dose, IM, generally results in a more sustained response. Oral propylene glycol (250–400 g) may be effective as ketosis therapy[5]. Continue reading >>

What Is Breeding Pedigree In Cattle?

What Is Breeding Pedigree In Cattle?

Cattle breeding pedigree is the “family tree” of a given animal. Within each herd, breeding animals are given numbers or names. When a breeding pair produce an offspring, the offspring’s pedigree can be traced by a written record of generations. Why does this matter? Within a herd, the owner needs to know what traits his cattle may exhibit (as they age) or carry. He or she can understand this by keeping good records performance, etc.. Outside the herd, potential buyers want to know the same. More on that below. An official record of pedigree (seen below) is often kept by a “breed association,” which aims to instill breed integrity and further its use. These pedigrees contain,—for the offspring, parents, & grandparents—the name of the herd (usually the name of the farmer), the ear-tag number, and/or name of the animal (Ex.: one of the most widely-used bulls of the 90s-00s was called “Gridmaker.”). In the registration paper below, the subject’s identity is stated at the top in yellow. The second section, marked 4, are Estimated Progeny Differences (look it up). Finally, the pedigree: The “Sire” is the bull, and his predecessors are shown to the right. The “Dam”is the cow. Potential buyers of breeding cattle might look at this paper (pedigree) to distill knowledge about the quality of the subject animal. The things a person can’t see with the naked eye are at least as important as the physical features of the animal. So, they’ll look at the names of the farmers on the pedigree, and hopefully know what sort of quality that farm produces. One might even recognize the name of a particularly notable animal in the pedigree (Ex.: if it won some shows, or was featured in a magazine, or is available for artificial insemination. I hope that helps. Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

6;91.4 A 4:4'

6;91.4 A 4:4'

OIEGON sure tt.,. HIM .'"., OW. Coml. aad the U S. Cyan.. 1.4516),Nn Ketosis in Dairy Cows Prepared by D. E. ANDERSON and H. P. EWALT Extension Dairy Specialists, Oregon State University, Corvallis Ketosis, or acetonemia, might well be called a prob- lem of high production since prevention and control is more difficult with high milk production. Few animals are challenged to meet the metabolic demands that a high- producing dairy cow must adapt to during the early part of lactation. Common observations and experimental evidence show that cows may be in a negative balance for both protein and energy shortly after calving and for about the first 60 days of lactation. The following data on ketosis are taken from a summary of recent research published in the July 1968 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science. What Is Ketosis? Ketosis is a metabolic disorder in which something goes wrong with the normal body processes and the cow becomes sick. There are no inflammatory organisms involved and the condition is not contagious. There seems to be a situation where the cow is temporarily pro- ducing more milk and thus requiring more feed nutrients than her feed intake provides. Nature may attempt to correct this situation by using body reserves of fat. When this occurs, some intermediary products of fat metabolism, called "ketone bodies," may build up in the system. These can be detected in the milk and urine and are indications of how serious the condition may be. Ketosis may even develop in average-producing animals when the energy needs exceed the energy intake. Ketosis usually occurs more often in winter feed- ing, and three weeks after calving seems to be a very critical period for high-producing cows. Symptoms The first symptom of ketosis is a loss of appetite first for grain a Continue reading >>

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

En Español: Minimizando el Riesgo de Cetosis en el Ganado Lechero This article is part of our series of original articles on emerging featured topics. Please check here to see other articles in this series. Introduction Although most cases of ketosis occur in fresh dairy cows, feeding practices and cow health prepartum can predispose cows to experiencing ketosis after calving. Most cases of primary ketosis occur within the first 2 weeks of calving, and even most secondary ketosis (occurring after the onset of another disease) occurs within the first 30 to 60 days in milk. In general, less than 5% of the cows in a herd should experience clinical ketosis. However, some reports have indicated that the incidence of subclinical ketosis may affect 40% of cows, with the incidence rate varying widely among farms, and may be as high as 80% on individual farms. The major focus prepartum to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving is maintaining feed intake in late gestation and avoiding overconditioning cows during late lactation and the dry period. Cows should dry off and freshen at a body condition score (BCS) of 3.5. Cows with a BCS equal to or greater than 4.0 will likely have lower intake prepartum and be at higher risk for fatty liver and ketosis at and after calving. Recent work at the University of Minnesota indicates that cows with a BCS greater than 3.5 and producing over 16 lb of colostrum are at a higher risk for ketosis. Feeding programs for far-off and close-up cows should be designed to maintain intake during late gestation, i.e., minimizing the drop in intake during the last week of gestation, to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving. These prepartum diets should contain high-fiber forages and provide adequate but not excessive amounts of energy. A 20% or gr Continue reading >>

Ketosis Can Expose Cows To Many More Conditions - How To Check For It

Ketosis Can Expose Cows To Many More Conditions - How To Check For It

When a cow calves she must increase the intake of food at this time or at the very least the energy density should increase. Anything that may affect her appetite or reduce feed intake must be avoided. It is important to ensure food being eaten has adequate energy in it. A cow naturally will dip into negative energy after calving (for up to 6-8 weeks) which is where food intake can’t match output. We must minimise this period of negative energy as it can potentially have a negative long-term impact on the immune function and even production of the cow. When a cow dips into this negative energy she ‘milks off her back’. All this means is that she will break down fat reserves to fill this energy gap. This is okay for a short period but if it occurs long term or quickly it results in a condition called ketosis or more commonly subclinical ketosis which can be a build-up of the by-products of this fat breakdown called ketones. If this condition persists for a prolonged period it can reduce appetite and depress immunity. This is very much like a gateway condition; simply put it predisposes the cow to so many more conditions. Its reduction in appetite can also strongly link it with displaced abomasam. This is where the abomasum or true stomach will flip out of position mainly due to decreased feed intakes. Ketosis is one of the reasons we see an increase in all sorts of infections in cows from mastitis to metritis post calving. It is really important to remember also that ketosis will inhibit the cow producing an egg or ovulating; this can delay heats dramatically and really affects overall herd and cow fertility. Although this subclinical ketosis is not an obvious condition, it still causes so many issues we need to monitor it. The first thing we need to do is assess a Continue reading >>

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

This page contains information about conditions that may cause sudden drop in milk production. Many conditions affecting sudden drop in milk production do not have obvious clinical signs. Continue reading >>

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