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What Is Ketosis In Cattle

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Parturition and the onset of lactation challenges calcium and energy homeostasis in dairy cows predisposing them to periparturient disorders that affect health, production and reproductive performance says Carlos Risco, DVM, Dipl. ACT, University of Florida. Dairy cattle experience a negative carbohydrate balance, from -3 weeks and + 3 weeks from calving and are at risk to develop ketosis, Risco explained at the 2010 Western Veterinary Conference. Milk production, in particular, drives the high requirements for glucose because other fuels cannot substitute for lactose in milk. To counteract this, the cow mobilizes body fat and protein stores in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and amino acids. This promotes gluconeogenesis and occurs under the influence of low serum concentrations of insulin. Volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate [BHBA]) produced in the rumen are also presented to the liver as fuels. Acetate and butyrate are ketogenic, and propionate is glycogenic. The key to prevention of ketosis is to maximize dry matter intake before and after calving to prevent excessive NEFA mobilization. Preventing ketosis in the first place is key to avoid some post-partum issues. Risco outlined some preventive strategies: The transition ration. To prevent ketosis the transition ration should maximize DMI, provide adequate energy density, and minimize ketogenic precursors. Silage with a high butyric acid content should not be fed. Introduce ration changes gradually. Manage transition cows to maximize DMI, e.g., provide adequate bunk space. Avoid over-conditioning of cows in late lactation and the early dry period. Niacin (nicotinic acid) fed in transition rations at 6–12 g /d may help reduce blood ketone levels. Propylene glycol may be administered pr Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

Fresh Cow Ketosis Tests Pay Back Big

Fresh Cow Ketosis Tests Pay Back Big

A drop of blood is all that’s needed Editor’s note: This is the first of a six-part series on transition cow management that will run in 2015. When it comes to fresh cow health, an ounce of prevention can result in pounds more milk, fewer displaced abomasums (DAs) and less culling. All of it adds up to potentially thousands of dollars saved each year. And it all can be had with the use of a simple, easy-to-use blood test of cows in your fresh pen. Most dairy farmers, unless they routinely test for subclinical ketosis, are blissfully unaware of how prevalent the disease is in their herds. But work in New York and Wisconsin herds done by veterinarian researchers Jessica McArt, Cornell University, and Gary Oetzel, University of Wisconsin, suggest subclinical ketosis is challenging fresh cows through early transition. The study, done during the summer of 2010, involved 1,800 cows in four herds—two each in New York and Wisconsin. Nearly 45% of cows were subclincally ketotic during the first two weeks after calving. The good news is subclinical cows that were treated responded well, averaging 1.5 lb. more milk per day, had fewer DAs and were culled less frequently. For every 100 fresh cows tested twice between three and nine days in milk, the net economic return was roughly $1,200. What makes all this possible are easy-to-use test strips requiring just a drop of blood from the tail vein. A very small amount of blood is added to the end of the test strip and then read by a meter. The Cornell and Wisconsin vet-erinarians have found the Precision Xtra ketone meter from Abbott gives excellent results with no additional calibration needed from the human system. The meter measures whole blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). A reading of 1.2 mmol/L or more indicates subclinical k Continue reading >>

Cattle Diseases

Cattle Diseases

Ketosis Also known as: Acetonemia, Fat Cow Syndrome, Hypoglycemia and Pregnancy Toxemia. Primary ketosis, or acetonemia, is a metabolic disorder and is largely a disease that is influenced by management of dairy cows in early lactation. Ketosis is an important clinical and subclinical disease, as there are several metabolic disorders and diseases that commonly occur in the calving and the early lactation period that are linked to ketosis (including milk fever, retained foetal membranes and displaced abomasum). Hypoglycemia is the major factor involved in the onset and development of clinical ketosis. There is a gradual loss of body condition over several days or even weeks. There is also a moderate to marked decline in milk yield (up to 5 liters per day) over five to six days before the onset of obvious clinical signs (Edwards and Tozer, 2004). This can persist for up to two weeks after diagnosis (Rajala-Schultz et al., 1999). The disease is most commonly seen in high-yielding dairy cows in early lactation. Secondary ketosis due to lack of appetite as a result of another disease can be seen at any stage of lactation. Beef cows may also suffer from ketosis during pregnancy, although this is less commonly recognized. Primary ketosis in dairy cows To satisfy the requirements of milk production, the cow can draw on two sources of nutrients – feed intake and body reserves. During early lactation, the energy intake is insufficient to meet the energy output in milk and the animal is in a negative energy balance. In conventional farming, this is considered to be a normal metabolic situation in high-yielding dairy cows. Cows in early lactation are, therefore, in a vulnerable situation, and any stress that causes a reduction in feed intake may lead to the onset of clinical keto Continue reading >>

Cut Down On Ketosis

Cut Down On Ketosis

Ketosis is one of the most common metabolic diseases on dairy farms. It occurs when cows have an abnormal response to negative energy balance. After calving, all cows experience some degree of negative energy balance, mobilize body fat for the additional energy needed for milk production and lose weight during the first several months of lactation. But, if cows mobilize excessive amounts of fat, the metabolic process of converting this fat to energy can result in an undesirable buildup of ketones in the bloodstream. Clinical signs Watch for the following clinical signs: decreased milk production, poor appetite, decreased rumen fill, dehydration, sunken eyes and constipation. In severe cases, known as nervous ketosis, cows will exhibit neurologic signs such as weakness, running into walls, or compulsive licking/chewing. Cow-side diagnostic tests If you suspect ketosis, you have several options to help confirm the diagnosis. 1. Urine test strips. Once the cow urinates, hold the ketone strip into the urine and watch for a color change (purple) which often occurs within seconds. The urine strips are the least costly test; however, they do miss some cows with ketosis (due to lower sensitivity). 2. Milk Ketone Test strips. The milk test strips measure the amount of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in the milk which is the primary cow ketone. This test is more costly than the urine strip, but it is more sensitive than that test. Squirt milk into a clean container, dip in the strip for the manufacturer"s recommended amount of time, then compare the color change to the code on the bottle. 3. Precision Extra Blood BHBA meter. This is the most sensitive ketosis cow-side test. This meter is a human diabetic meter that measures ketones as well as glucose levels. Insert the strip into the Continue reading >>

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

En Español: Minimizando el Riesgo de Cetosis en el Ganado Lechero This article is part of our series of original articles on emerging featured topics. Please check here to see other articles in this series. Introduction Although most cases of ketosis occur in fresh dairy cows, feeding practices and cow health prepartum can predispose cows to experiencing ketosis after calving. Most cases of primary ketosis occur within the first 2 weeks of calving, and even most secondary ketosis (occurring after the onset of another disease) occurs within the first 30 to 60 days in milk. In general, less than 5% of the cows in a herd should experience clinical ketosis. However, some reports have indicated that the incidence of subclinical ketosis may affect 40% of cows, with the incidence rate varying widely among farms, and may be as high as 80% on individual farms. The major focus prepartum to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving is maintaining feed intake in late gestation and avoiding overconditioning cows during late lactation and the dry period. Cows should dry off and freshen at a body condition score (BCS) of 3.5. Cows with a BCS equal to or greater than 4.0 will likely have lower intake prepartum and be at higher risk for fatty liver and ketosis at and after calving. Recent work at the University of Minnesota indicates that cows with a BCS greater than 3.5 and producing over 16 lb of colostrum are at a higher risk for ketosis. Feeding programs for far-off and close-up cows should be designed to maintain intake during late gestation, i.e., minimizing the drop in intake during the last week of gestation, to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving. These prepartum diets should contain high-fiber forages and provide adequate but not excessive amounts of energy. A 20% or gr Continue reading >>

Not In Animal Health Industry

Not In Animal Health Industry

The NADIS data show that the number of cases of acetonaemia (or ketosis) increase significantly during the winter, and the number of cases continue to increase until turnout. So it is particularly important to look out for acetonaemia until at least a month after turn-out. Like most metabolic diseases it is important to remember that for every cow that shows clinical signs, there will be several more which are affected sub-clinically. What is acetonaemia? Acetonaemia occurs when the cow's energy intake does not match its requirement and the cow is unable to compensate and mobilises its body reserves too quickly. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Clinical Signs 1) Reduced milk yield: Initially a moderate decline, eventually a sudden drop 2) Body condition and weight loss 3) Reduction in appetite (initially non-forage feeds) 4) Dull, stary coat 5) Firm, 'waxy' dung 6) Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath or milk - not always detectable 7) Temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate usually normal 8) A few develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, incoordination, aggression Acetonaemia is more common in the dairy cow, probably because the energy difference of the lactating cow is more difficult to overcome than that of the pregnant cow, which means that most dairy cows in the UK are in negative energy balance during the first few weeks of lactation. Acetonaemia occurs when the cow is not able to cope with this energy deficit, either because Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

Ketotic Cows: Treatment And Prognosis (proceedings)

Ketotic Cows: Treatment And Prognosis (proceedings)

12Next An absolute requirement for treating ketosis in cattle is to identify and treat the primary cause for the negative energy balance. Symptomatic treatment for ketosis without attacking the primary cause is doomed to failure. Propylene glycol is a routine treatment for ketosis. Only 2 oral formulations are approved for use in cattle as a treatment and the dose rate is 8 oz, q 12 h, for up to 10 days (2 other formulations labeled for use as preventive treatment). Research suggests that 296 ml once/day as on oral drench is just as effective as 887 ml once/day. Propylene glycol is absorbed from the rumen as propylene glycol, some propylene glycol is metabolized to propionate in the rumen, but most is absorbed intact and metabolized to glucose in liver. Propylene glycol increases serum [glucose], decreases serum β-OH butyrate & NEFA concentrations but only if a functional liver as propylene glycol must be metabolized. Propylene glycol is only beneficial if rumen motility to aid mixing and absorption. Glycerol (same dose rate as propylene glycol) and sodium propionate (uncertain dose rate) also reported to be of use but are both considered inferior to propylene glycol. Sodium propionate may have palatability problems. Calcium propionate has been examined, but the evidence is not convincing that it is superior to propylene glycol, even though it also has calcium. Not very soluble, and large volumes need to be administered. 500 ml of 50% Dextrose IV is also a routine treatment (one time administration of 250 g). Numerous approved products for treating ketosis in cattle. A cow uses 50-70 g glucose/hour for maintenance and 200 g glucose/hour high production, from a total blood glucose pool <40 g. Milk is 4.5% lactose, 50 kg of milk contains 2.25 kg lactose (glucose and gala Continue reading >>

Ketosis Can Expose Cows To Many More Conditions - How To Check For It

Ketosis Can Expose Cows To Many More Conditions - How To Check For It

When a cow calves she must increase the intake of food at this time or at the very least the energy density should increase. Anything that may affect her appetite or reduce feed intake must be avoided. It is important to ensure food being eaten has adequate energy in it. A cow naturally will dip into negative energy after calving (for up to 6-8 weeks) which is where food intake can’t match output. We must minimise this period of negative energy as it can potentially have a negative long-term impact on the immune function and even production of the cow. When a cow dips into this negative energy she ‘milks off her back’. All this means is that she will break down fat reserves to fill this energy gap. This is okay for a short period but if it occurs long term or quickly it results in a condition called ketosis or more commonly subclinical ketosis which can be a build-up of the by-products of this fat breakdown called ketones. If this condition persists for a prolonged period it can reduce appetite and depress immunity. This is very much like a gateway condition; simply put it predisposes the cow to so many more conditions. Its reduction in appetite can also strongly link it with displaced abomasam. This is where the abomasum or true stomach will flip out of position mainly due to decreased feed intakes. Ketosis is one of the reasons we see an increase in all sorts of infections in cows from mastitis to metritis post calving. It is really important to remember also that ketosis will inhibit the cow producing an egg or ovulating; this can delay heats dramatically and really affects overall herd and cow fertility. Although this subclinical ketosis is not an obvious condition, it still causes so many issues we need to monitor it. The first thing we need to do is assess a Continue reading >>

Research-article Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

Research-article Ketosis In Dairy Cattle

First page preview Copyright © 1968 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. View more articles Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Dairy Cows (acetoneamia)

Ketosis In Dairy Cows (acetoneamia)

What is Ketosis? Ketosis is essentially the cows response to a negative energy balance. In other words:Energy used > energy taken in (eaten) What is the cause: Ketosis can be divided into 2 categories:- 1. Primary ketosis - The cow is not obtaining the energy requirement that she needs from the diet that she is eating. 2. Secondary ketosis – A problem with the cow is stopping her from eating enough food to match her energy requirements e.g an LDA stops the cow eating but she still needs energy to move, produce milk etc. A more commonly seen problem in dairy cows these days is subclinical ketosis. This is generally seen in dairy herds as a group problem rather than a individual cow issue. Cows with subclinical ketosis don't show such strong bulling activity, don't come bulling as early, don't achieve their potential peak milk yield (and subsequently have significantly reduced lactationas yield) and are more prone to disease and conditions such as LDAs (left displaced abomasum. In short they take longer to get going and never achieve their potential in the lactation which costsyoutime and money. Subclinical ketosis often indicates a problemi the transition diet or management. What do cows need energy for? Seems a simple question but cows use large amounts of energy just to exist. Energy is needed to:- Maintain body temperature Move Breathe Digest their food Produce milk Fight infections Show bulling activity Produce eggs/ ovulate You can appreciate how much heat a cow produces when you are stood in a milking parlour on a freezing winter morning – heats up pretty quickly doesn’t it. How is it diagnosed?: Some people can smell a characteristic sweetness to the cows breath but not everyone can smell this. Your vet can usually make a tentative diagnosis using the clinic Continue reading >>

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Managing disease can be a frustrating proposition. This Guide can help you identify which disease is damaging your cattle. Cause Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that occurs in cattle when energy demands (e.g. high milk production) exceed energy intake and result in a negative energy balance. Ketotic cows often have low blood glucose (blood sugar) concentrations. When large amounts of body fat are utilised as an energy source to support production, fat is sometimes mobilised faster than the liver can properly metabolise it. If this situation occurs, ketone production exceeds ketone utilisation by the cow, and ketosis results. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Symptoms Reduced milk yield Weight loss Reduced appetite Dull coat Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath/ or milk Fever Some develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, agression etc. For every cow with clinical signs there are probably a number of others with sub-clinical signs. Treatment The initial aim of treatment is to restore the lack of glucose in the body. A quick-acting glucose supplement is required immediately. Follow-up treatment is aimed at providing a long term supply of glucose. Glucose replacement Intravenous administration of a dextrose solution by a veterinarian is effective in the short term, but follow-up treatment is essential if relapses are to be avoided. Drenching with propylene glycol or glycerine has longer term effects. It also has the benefit of ease of admini Continue reading >>

Nervous Form Of Ketosis In Cows And Its Treatment

Nervous Form Of Ketosis In Cows And Its Treatment

Ketosis is defined as an abnormal rise of the ketone or acetone bodies in the body. The ketone bodies are organic chemical compounds and include acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta hydroxy butyric acid. Present study reports the primary nervous ketosis in three cows at their peak milk yield. Cows exhibited the bellowing, head pressing and reluctance to take concentrates. Low serum glucose, high levels of blood urea nitrogen with ketonuria was observed. Cows showed fruitful recovery after treatment with 25% glucose solution, dexamethasone and glycerin along with supportive therapy. Keywords: Cows, Dextrose, Ketosis, Nervous Signs. Ketosis is defined as an abnormal rise of the ketone or acetone bodies in the body. The ketone bodies are organic chemical compounds and include acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta hydroxy butyric acid. Present study reports the primary nervous ketosis in three cows at their peak milk yield. Cows exhibited the bellowing, head pressing and reluctance to take concentrates. Low serum glucose, high levels of blood urea nitrogen with ketonuria was observed. Cows showed fruitful recovery after treatment with 25% glucose solution, dexamethasone and glycerin along with supportive therapy. Keywords: Cows, Dextrose, Ketosis, Nervous Signs. Continue reading >>

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