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What Is Ketosis And How Can It Be Identified

Side Effects On The Ketogenic Diet: Identification And Treatment

Side Effects On The Ketogenic Diet: Identification And Treatment

History of the diet and its side effects Perhaps one of the least discussed but most important of the changes in ketogenic diet research in the past decade has been the identification of its side effect profile. During the 1920s and 1930s, when the ketogenic diet was one of the most popular anticonvulsant therapies, side effects such as acidosis (low bicarbonate levels in the blood), constipation, and abnormal menstrual periods (in adult women) were discussed and were just starting to be investigated. However, over the following 60 years, research into the ketogenic diet focused nearly exclusively on demonstrating that it worked in order to answer its critics, rather than researching side effects. All this has changed in the past decade, and now that the ketogenic diet is no longer perceived as an alternative treatment, as James Wheless, MD, titled his editorial in 2001, the ketogenic diet is a “medical therapy with side effects”, and researchers have agreed.(1) Although most of the side effects I will discuss are important to be observant for, and can be bothersome, it is rare to have to stop the diet because of them. What are the side effects? The most common, almost “expected”, side effects of the diet are constipation, acidosis (especially with illness), and decreased weight gain (not often weight loss). These are often addressed immediately when the diet is started, especially using Miralax™ for constipation. The less common side effects, generally occurring in 1 in 20 children, include high cholesterol, kidney stones, growth slowing, and gastrointestinal upset. In 2001, Peter Kwiterovich, MD, reported in JAMA our experience at Johns Hopkins Hospital in regards to cholesterol of children on the diet.(2) In general, most children have a 30% increase in tot Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis?

What Is Ketosis?

"Ketosis" is a word you'll probably see when you're looking for information on diabetes or weight loss. Is it a good thing or a bad thing? That depends. Ketosis is a normal metabolic process, something your body does to keep working. When it doesn't have enough carbohydrates from food for your cells to burn for energy, it burns fat instead. As part of this process, it makes ketones. If you're healthy and eating a balanced diet, your body controls how much fat it burns, and you don't normally make or use ketones. But when you cut way back on your calories or carbs, your body will switch to ketosis for energy. It can also happen after exercising for a long time and during pregnancy. For people with uncontrolled diabetes, ketosis is a sign of not using enough insulin. Ketosis can become dangerous when ketones build up. High levels lead to dehydration and change the chemical balance of your blood. Ketosis is a popular weight loss strategy. Low-carb eating plans include the first part of the Atkins diet and the Paleo diet, which stress proteins for fueling your body. In addition to helping you burn fat, ketosis can make you feel less hungry. It also helps you maintain muscle. For healthy people who don't have diabetes and aren't pregnant, ketosis usually kicks in after 3 or 4 days of eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. That's about 3 slices of bread, a cup of low-fat fruit yogurt, or two small bananas. You can start ketosis by fasting, too. Doctors may put children who have epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, a special high-fat, very low-carb and protein plan, because it might help prevent seizures. Adults with epilepsy sometimes eat modified Atkins diets. Some research suggests that ketogenic diets might help lower your risk of heart disease. Other studies show sp Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Tweet Ketosis is a state the body may find itself in either as a result of raised blood glucose levels or as a part of low carb dieting. Low levels of ketosis is perfectly normal. However, high levels of ketosis in the short term can be serious and the long term effects of regular moderate ketosis are only partially known at the moment. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a state the body goes into if it needs to break down body fat for energy. The state is marked by raised levels of ketones in the blood which can be used by the body as fuel. Ketones which are not used for fuel are excreted out of the body via the kidneys and the urine. Is ketosis the same as ketoacidosis? There is often confusion as to the difference between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is the state whereby the body is producing ketones. In ketosis, the level of ketones in the blood can be anything between normal to very high. Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, only describes the state in which the level of ketones is either high or very high. In ketoacidosis, the amount of ketones in the blood is sufficient to turn the blood acidic, which is a dangerous medical state. When does ketosis occur? Ketosis will take place when the body needs energy and there is not sufficient glucose available for the body. This can typically happen when the body is lacking insulin and blood glucose levels become high. Other causes can be the result of being on a low carb diet. A low level of carbohydrate will lead to low levels of insulin, and therefore the body will produce ketones which do not rely on insulin to get into and fuel the body’s cells. A further cause of ketosis, less relevant to people with diabetes, is a result of excessive alcohol consumption. Is ketosis dangerous? The NHS describes ketosis as a pote Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis And Is It Harmful?

What Is Ketosis And Is It Harmful?

Ketosis in itself isn't harmful. It's a normal process that your body goes through to provide your cells with energy. Normally, your body relies on glucose as fuel. When it's store of sugar is used up however, it begins to use fat. It breaks the fat down into ketones, an alternate energy source that your cells can use. This metabolic state is known as ketosis. This is perfectly fine, and even healthy say, for people who are trying to lose weight, or if you miss a few meals and aren't fond of passing out. When people mention it in a negative way, they're usually talking about ketoacidosis. In people who have untreated diabetes, their cells aren't able to absorb the glucose in their bloodstream due to a lack of insulin. To compensate, their bodies start using fat as fuel (ketosis). Because a source of glucose never becomes available, this goes on unregulated. As the level of ketones in the bloodstream rises, the pH of their blood drops or becomes more acidic ( hence, why it's called ketoacidosis). This is significant because blood pH needs to stay within a narrow margin (between 7.35 and 7.45). A change in pH that falls outside of it can cause serious health issues and death. ketosis means high ketone bodies level in blood "ketonemia" and as result increase in their level in urine "ketonuria" and yes it's very harmful...it is considered as a bad indicator for your health , as accummulation of ketoacids in your blood decreases the neuro transmission , which can lead to confusion , concentration problems , coma and death it's one of complications of diabetes mellitus if poor treated , so you have to take care of yourself Continue reading >>

Ketosis, Ketogenic Diet And Food Intake Control: A Complex Relationship

Ketosis, Ketogenic Diet And Food Intake Control: A Complex Relationship

Go to: Role of nutrients in food intake control The hypothalamus is the brain's main center responsible for hunger/satiety (H/S) control. In the theory that Mayer proposed more than 60 years ago, he assigned a central role to glucose levels in the H/S control: the so-called “glucostatic theory” (Mayer, 1955). Mayer suggested that depletion of carbohydrate availability leads to hunger, and the hypothalamic centers with receptors sensitive to glucose levels might be involved in the short-term regulation of energy intake (Mayer, 1955). The “feeding center” in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), according to the glucostatic theory, reacts to the between-meal fall of blood glucose and stimulates food intake. The LHA contains glucose-inhibited neurons that are stimulated by hypoglycemia, a process crucial to mediating the hyperphagia normally induced by hypoglycemia. The subsequent post-prandial hyperglycemia activates the “satiety center” in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), which contains glucose-excited neurons and inhibits both “feeding center” and food intake. In 1953, Kennedy proposed the lipostatic hypothesis suggesting that lipid metabolites could also be involved in food regulation (Kennedy, 1953), and in 1956, Mellinkoff studied the effects of protein metabolism suggesting an aminostatic hypothesis (Mellinkoff et al., 1956). Glucose-sensitive neurons have been identified in a number of CNS regions including the metabolic control centers of the hypothalamus. Medeiros et. al. have used patch-clamp electrophysiology to examine whether neurons in a specific specialized region known as the subfornical organ (SFO), an area where the blood-brain barrier is not present, are also glucose sensitive or not. These experiments demonstrated that SFO neurons ar Continue reading >>

Wtf Is Ketosis And Why Are People Talking About It Again?

Wtf Is Ketosis And Why Are People Talking About It Again?

“Ketosis” is suddenly (hyperbolically) everywhere. Ketosis surged in popularity alongside the Atkins Diet in the aughts, but it seems to have snuck back into the cultural lexicon. As Health.com reported in December, “ketogenic diet foods” was one of the top diet searches of 2016, perhaps as a result of people like Kim Kardashian and Gwyneth Paltrow publicly praising the benefits of low-carb diets in recent years. Ketosis is a little controversial, though — particularly because the research is mixed and still in its earlier stages. But what the hell is it? If you’re thinking of trying it out or just generally curious, Dr. Robin Berzin, Columbia-trained MD and founder of Parsley Health, weighs in below on what ketosis actually is and how to decide if a ketogenic diet is worth exploring. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a normal metabolic process that occurs when the body uses fat for energy instead of sugar. Typically, the body (specifically the brain) uses glucose (sugar) for energy. Entering into a state of ketosis where the body uses fat instead requires severely limiting carbohydrate consumption. You can do this by fasting or by following an extremely low-carb diet. In other words, you essentially force your body to utilize fat for fuel by depriving it of sugar. This type of diet is known as a ketogenic diet, and it typically includes getting around 75% of your calories from fat, 20% of them from protein and 5% from carbs. What health benefits does ketosis potentially have? The original medicinal use for a ketogenic diet was established in the 1920s for the treatment of pediatric epilepsy. Researchers found that a ketogenic diet dramatically helped to decrease the number of seizures in epileptic patients. Since then, the ketogenic diet has also shown to improve Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis? Hint: It Can Help You Burn Fat & Suppress Your Appetite

What Is Ketosis? Hint: It Can Help You Burn Fat & Suppress Your Appetite

We’ve longed been told that calorie restriction, increasing exercise and reducing dietary fat intake are the keys to weight loss. But, if you’ve ever attempted to control your weight by subsisting on fewer calories — especially from mostly bland “diet foods”— you’re already probably aware that this typically produces minimal results and is extremely hard to stick with long-term or consistently. Considering the high rates of obesity now facing most developed nations — along with an increased risk for health conditions like diabetes or heart problems as a result — researchers have been anxiously working on how to suppress appetite and achieve weight loss in a healthy, sustainable manner. The keto diet has emerged over the past several decades as one potential answer to this large-scale weight loss problem. (1) While there are some differences in opinion, depending on who you ask, regarding the best approach to very low-carb dieting, studies consistently show that the ketogenic diet (also called the keto diet) produces not only substantial weight loss for a high percentage of people who adhere to it, but also other important health benefits such as reductions in seizures, markers of diabetes and more. The keto diet revolves around eating foods that are high in natural fats, consuming only moderate protein and severely restricting the number of carbs eaten each day. Even if you don’t have much weight to lose, entering into a state of ketosis can be helpful for other reasons — such as for improved energy levels, mental capabilities and mood stabilization. What Is Ketosis? Ketosis is the result of following the ketogenic diet, which is why it’s also sometimes called “the ketosis diet.” Ketosis takes place when glucose from carbohydrate foods (like Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

How Ketogenic Diets Curb Inflammation

How Ketogenic Diets Curb Inflammation

Ketogenic diets – extreme low-carbohydrate, high-fat regimens that have long been known to benefit epilepsy and other neurological illnesses – may work by lowering inflammation in the brain, according to new research by UC San Francisco scientists. The UCSF team has discovered a molecular key to the diet's apparent effects, opening the door for new therapies that could reduce harmful brain inflammation following stroke and brain trauma by mimicking the beneficial effects of an extreme low-carb diet. "It's a key issue in the field – how to suppress inflammation in the brain after injury," said Raymond Swanson, MD, a professor of neurology at UCSF, chief of the neurology service at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and senior author of the new study. In the paper, published online Sept. 22 in the journal Nature Communications, Swanson and his colleagues found the previously undiscovered mechanism by which a low-carbohydrate diet reduces inflammation in the brain. Importantly, the team identified a pivotal protein that links the diet to inflammatory genes, which, if blocked, could mirror the anti-inflammatory effects of ketogenic diets. "The ketogenic diet is very difficult to follow in everyday life, and particularly when the patient is very sick," Swanson said. "The idea that we can achieve some of the benefits of a ketogenic diet by this approach is the really exciting thing here." Low-Carb Benefits The high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen of ketogenic diets changes the way the body uses energy. In response to the shortage of carb-derived sugars such as glucose, the body begins breaking down fat into ketones and ketoacids, which it can use as alternative fuels. In rodents, ketogenic diets – and caloric restriction, in general – are known to redu Continue reading >>

10 Signs And Symptoms That You're In Ketosis

10 Signs And Symptoms That You're In Ketosis

The ketogenic diet is a popular, effective way to lose weight and improve health. When followed correctly, this low-carb, high-fat diet will raise blood ketone levels. These provide a new fuel source for your cells, and cause most of the unique health benefits of this diet (1, 2, 3). On a ketogenic diet, your body undergoes many biological adaptions, including a reduction in insulin and increased fat breakdown. When this happens, your liver starts producing large amounts of ketones to supply energy for your brain. However, it can often be hard to know whether you're "in ketosis" or not. Here are 10 common signs and symptoms of ketosis, both positive and negative. People often report bad breath once they reach full ketosis. It's actually a common side effect. Many people on ketogenic diets and similar diets, such as the Atkins diet, report that their breath takes on a fruity smell. This is caused by elevated ketone levels. The specific culprit is acetone, a ketone that exits the body in your urine and breath (4). While this breath may be less than ideal for your social life, it can be a positive sign for your diet. Many ketogenic dieters brush their teeth several times per day, or use sugar-free gum to solve the issue. If you're using gum or other alternatives like sugar-free drinks, check the label for carbs. These may raise your blood sugar levels and reduce ketone levels. The bad breath usually goes away after some time on the diet. It is not a permanent thing. The ketone acetone is partly expelled via your breath, which can cause bad or fruity-smelling breath on a ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diets, along with normal low-carb diets, are highly effective for losing weight (5, 6). As dozens of weight loss studies have shown, you will likely experience both short- and long Continue reading >>

The Beginners Guide To Ketosis: Investigating Low-carb, High-fat Eating

The Beginners Guide To Ketosis: Investigating Low-carb, High-fat Eating

The only hard and fast rule of health is that health is personal and what works well for one person may not work for someone else. Aside from that rule, there are “frameworks” that seem to benefit large groups of people. One more level down from that are alternative strategies that benefit smaller groups. Ketosis is likely one of those alternative strategies that works well for certain, smaller groups of people. So, right off the bat I want you to understand that Ketosis might not be for everyone. I’m going to lay out the case for potential benefits of Ketosis. If it sounds interesting and beneficial to you, then consider trying it. (see our free cheat sheet to help you). What is Ketosis Ketosis occurs when liver glycogen gets depleted and the body burns fatty acids for fuel. The primary driver of this state is a very low carbohydrate intake. Often, it also requires a low protein, higher fat intake. You can also achieve a state of ketosis by not eating altogether. The creation of ketones is a byproduct of this metabolic state. Ketones are a source of fuel, just as glucose is a source of fuel. Ketones tend to have some added benefits, though. What role does Ketosis play in human health? Ketosis allows our bodies to function in the absence of carbohydrates, both physically and mentally. Instead of burning carbohydrates, or converting protein to glucose, the body burns ketones. This is pretty much a survival mechanism. It allows your body to function in a state of caloric deprivation. This is why ketosis often gets bad press (as it’s linked to “starvation”). Being a survival mechanism doesn’t make it invalid as a strategy, though. There can still be potential benefits to be had. Let’s cover a few of them… Ketosis and Accelerated Fat Loss Being in ketosis Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Tweet Ketosis is a state the body may find itself in either as a result of raised blood glucose levels or as a part of low carb dieting. Low levels of ketosis is perfectly normal. However, high levels of ketosis in the short term can be serious and the long term effects of regular moderate ketosis are only partially known at the moment. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a state the body goes into if it needs to break down body fat for energy. The state is marked by raised levels of ketones in the blood which can be used by the body as fuel. Ketones which are not used for fuel are excreted out of the body via the kidneys and the urine. Is ketosis the same as ketoacidosis? There is often confusion as to the difference between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is the state whereby the body is producing ketones. In ketosis, the level of ketones in the blood can be anything between normal to very high. Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, only describes the state in which the level of ketones is either high or very high. In ketoacidosis, the amount of ketones in the blood is sufficient to turn the blood acidic, which is a dangerous medical state. When does ketosis occur? Ketosis will take place when the body needs energy and there is not sufficient glucose available for the body. This can typically happen when the body is lacking insulin and blood glucose levels become high. Other causes can be the result of being on a low carb diet. A low level of carbohydrate will lead to low levels of insulin, and therefore the body will produce ketones which do not rely on insulin to get into and fuel the body’s cells. A further cause of ketosis, less relevant to people with diabetes, is a result of excessive alcohol consumption. Is ketosis dangerous? The NHS describes ketosis as a pote Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

There is a lot of confusion about the term ketosis among medical professionals as well as laypeople. It is important to understand when and why nutritional ketosis occurs, and why it should not be confused with the metabolic disorder we call ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state where the liver produces small organic molecules called ketone bodies. Most cells in the body can use ketone bodies as a source of energy. When there is a limited supply of external energy sources, such as during prolonged fasting or carbohydrate restriction, ketone bodies can provide energy for most organs. In this situation, ketosis can be regarded as a reasonable, adaptive physiologic response that is essential for life, enabling us to survive periods of famine. Nutritional ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a metabolic condition where the blood becomes acidic as a result of the accumulation of ketone bodies. Ketoacidosis can have serious consequences and may need urgent medical treatment. The most common forms are diabetic ketoacidosis and alcoholic ketoacidosis. What Is Ketosis? The human body can be regarded as a biologic machine. Machines need energy to operate. Some use gasoline, others use electricity, and some use other power resources. Glucose is the primary fuel for most cells and organs in the body. To obtain energy, cells must take up glucose from the blood. Once glucose enters the cells, a series of metabolic reactions break it down into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the process. The body has an ability to store excess glucose in the form of glycogen. In this way, energy can be stored for later use. Glycogen consists of long chains of glucose molecules and is primarily found in the liver and skeletal muscle. Liver glycogen stores are used to mai Continue reading >>

Keto Sociological Research Plan And Methodology (2017)

Keto Sociological Research Plan And Methodology (2017)

Background The ketogenic (“keto”) diet is a diet consisting of very low carbohydrates, moderate protein, and high fat. It is designed to result in nutritional ketosis, a state in which the body is burning fat as is its primary source of energy instead of glucose. Recent years have seen the ketogenic diet increase rapidly in popularity, due in large part to its efficacy in supporting weight loss. However, we believe there remains a gap between current ketogenic diet permeation and potential adoption. As proponents of the health benefits of the diet and producers of ultra-low carbohydrate foods, we seek to better understand and address the current barriers to adoption and long-term diet adherence. Objectives The purpose of this research is to gain a deep understanding of the ketogenic landscape in order to support five discrete objectives: Gather insight into the evolving composition of the ketogenic community, including overall number of people following the diet Understand barriers to awareness and adoption so that targeted education and information can be created and disseminated by a variety of players Generate a yardstick by which progress can be measured over time Identify where opportunities for new commercial solutions may exist so that a variety of players can solve them Foster collaboration among players in the market for the benefit of the broader community Methodology Prior to conducting this research, a review of existing ketogenic community research and literature was performed. Where feasible, question syntax from earlier research was duplicated here so that changes in trends, attitudes, and adherence could be measured over time. This research is to be be conducted as two independent surveys. The first survey (Ketogenic Prevalence) is to be performed ut Continue reading >>

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>

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