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What Is Ketosis And How Can It Be Identified

Ketogenic Diet: Is The Ultimate Low-carb Diet Good For You?

Ketogenic Diet: Is The Ultimate Low-carb Diet Good For You?

Recently, many of my patients have been asking about a ketogenic diet. Is it safe? Would you recommend it? Despite the recent hype, a ketogenic diet is not something new. In medicine, we have been using it for almost 100 years to treat drug-resistant epilepsy, especially in children. In the 1970s, Dr. Atkins popularized his very-low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss that began with a very strict two-week ketogenic phase. Over the years, other fad diets incorporated a similar approach for weight loss. What is a ketogenic diet? In essence, it is a diet that causes the body to release ketones into the bloodstream. Most cells prefer to use blood sugar, which comes from carbohydrates, as the body’s main source of energy. In the absence of circulating blood sugar from food, we start breaking down stored fat into molecules called ketone bodies (the process is called ketosis). Once you reach ketosis, most cells will use ketone bodies to generate energy until we start eating carbohydrates again. The shift, from using circulating glucose to breaking down stored fat as a source of energy, usually happens over two to four days of eating fewer than 20 to 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. Keep in mind that this is a highly individualized process, and some people need a more restricted diet to start producing enough ketones. Because it lacks carbohydrates, a ketogenic diet is rich in proteins and fats. It typically includes plenty of meats, eggs, processed meats, sausages, cheeses, fish, nuts, butter, oils, seeds, and fibrous vegetables. Because it is so restrictive, it is really hard to follow over the long run. Carbohydrates normally account for at least 50% of the typical American diet. One of the main criticisms of this diet is that many people tend to eat too much protein and Continue reading >>

10 Things Your Pee Can Tell You About Your Body: Taking A Deep Dive Into Urinalysis, Dehydration, Ketosis, Ph & More!

10 Things Your Pee Can Tell You About Your Body: Taking A Deep Dive Into Urinalysis, Dehydration, Ketosis, Ph & More!

See, for the past several days, I’ve been randomly grabbing drinking glasses from the shelf in the kitchen… …and peeing into them. And yes, I realize that now you will likely never want to join me at my home for a dinner party. So why the heck am I urinating into our family’s kitchenware? It’s all about better living through science and figuring out ways to live longer and feel better (at least that’s what I tell my wife to appease her). It’s also about my sheer curiosity and desire to delve into an N=1 experiment in self-quantification with urinalysis. It’s also because I’ve been too lazy to order one of those special urinalysis specimen cups with the cute plastic lid. And let’s face it: with my relatively frequent use of a three day gut testing panel, my wife is already somewhat accustomed to giant Fed-Ex bags full of poop tubes sitting in the fridge, so urine can’t be all that bad, right? Anyways, in this article, you’re going to learn exactly why I think it’s a good idea to occasionally study one’s own urine, and you’ll also discover 10 very interesting things your pee can tell you about your body. Enjoy, and as usual, leave your questions, thoughts, feedback, and stories of your own adventures in urinalysis below this post. ———————– The History Of My Interest In Urinalysis Two years ago, I first became interested in urinalysis when I discovered a new start-up called “uChek”. The premise of uChek was quite simple. People with diabetes who want to check the amount of glucose in their urine would simply be able to download uChek to their iPhone or iPad. Then, after a “mid-stream collection,” (yes, that’s exactly what it sounds like and, in my experience, despite my Private Gym training, can be quite difficult to Continue reading >>

Ketosis, Ketogenic Diet And Food Intake Control: A Complex Relationship

Ketosis, Ketogenic Diet And Food Intake Control: A Complex Relationship

Go to: Role of nutrients in food intake control The hypothalamus is the brain's main center responsible for hunger/satiety (H/S) control. In the theory that Mayer proposed more than 60 years ago, he assigned a central role to glucose levels in the H/S control: the so-called “glucostatic theory” (Mayer, 1955). Mayer suggested that depletion of carbohydrate availability leads to hunger, and the hypothalamic centers with receptors sensitive to glucose levels might be involved in the short-term regulation of energy intake (Mayer, 1955). The “feeding center” in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), according to the glucostatic theory, reacts to the between-meal fall of blood glucose and stimulates food intake. The LHA contains glucose-inhibited neurons that are stimulated by hypoglycemia, a process crucial to mediating the hyperphagia normally induced by hypoglycemia. The subsequent post-prandial hyperglycemia activates the “satiety center” in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), which contains glucose-excited neurons and inhibits both “feeding center” and food intake. In 1953, Kennedy proposed the lipostatic hypothesis suggesting that lipid metabolites could also be involved in food regulation (Kennedy, 1953), and in 1956, Mellinkoff studied the effects of protein metabolism suggesting an aminostatic hypothesis (Mellinkoff et al., 1956). Glucose-sensitive neurons have been identified in a number of CNS regions including the metabolic control centers of the hypothalamus. Medeiros et. al. have used patch-clamp electrophysiology to examine whether neurons in a specific specialized region known as the subfornical organ (SFO), an area where the blood-brain barrier is not present, are also glucose sensitive or not. These experiments demonstrated that SFO neurons ar Continue reading >>

How Can I Be Happy?

How Can I Be Happy?

Ultimate happiness is a tricky mistress, always hanging just around the corner with promising smiles Happiness exists in your mind rather than in materialistic possession. Happiness does not come from a state, but from a change of state. Happiness does not come from the prize, but in the process of attaining that prize. It’s a journey, not a destination.Our boredom is our ecstasy.If you can appreciate each passing moment as a blissful step towards your next plateau, lasting happiness is yours. The secret lies in being able to remain content with each passing moment while keeping our eyes on the next. If you can live comfortably within this, you live in heaven on Earth. Oh it’s delicious, this thing called life. It’s a delicious experience, no? Are you not allowed to experience everything? The tears, the joy, the pain,the gladness, the exaltation, the massive depression, the win, the loss the draw? What more is there? 1) Visualize- See yourself getting being successful with that company or getting that girl. Feel the pure bliss that you would experience as if it were actually happening. The more you do this, the more vivid and real-feeling your sessions will get. By visualizing your desires, you are communicating them directly to your subconscious.You'll feel as if you're living the dream. 2) Watch Tyler Durden’s Speech From Fight Club(Highly recommended)- Brad Pitt’s character in Fight Club has some very truthful and eye-opening things to say about society. This might not be the perfect cure for your particular sentiment, but it will certainly jumpstart a lot of people out of their slump. Best line: “You are not your fucking khakis.” 3) Try to live in the present. Complication in life often arises because we are worrying and planning about the future. We c Continue reading >>

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

How Can You Increase Your Iq?

How Can You Increase Your Iq?

This is a rather extensive piece, which I have had written earlier in response to similar questions on Quora. After having spent more than a quarter of a century exploring creativity, I have in fact come to accept the notion that creativity is an innate skill. That's to say, we are all born with it. Just look back when we were kids. To me, creativity has a lot to do with "seeing, but thinking differently". Let me share this personal experiment of mine for more than two decades with adult professionals and school kids. Using a chisel tip black marker, I often drew a dot on the white board or flip chart, and asked them what did they see. Adults generally came up with one or two ideas, like a full stop, or a black dot, and then they ceased. Interestingly, most kids saw differently, with seemingly pretty weird ideas: beetle in sleep mode; cockroach's shit; black hole; cannon ball; UFO; bullet coming your way; ozone; aching tooth, mummy's nipple; Phua Chu Kang (Singapore's favourite TV comedian)'s mole, etc. Why? My answer: Adults didn't want to look stupid and/or feared ridicule from peers. Actually, at a deeper level, it's the fact that we adults had invariably picked up a lot of mental blocks, cognitive biases and perceptual blind-spots, while growing up. The founder of VISA Dee Hock is right to say: "The problem is never how to get new, innovative thoughts into your mind, but how to get old ones out." Here's history: Thousands of people had definitely seen the apple falling from the tree, but it was Sir Isaac Newton who saw it too, but had thought about it, differently of course. The world thus acquired a slew of his famed gravitational laws. The two young maverick Steves had a chance visit to the PARC Lab during the 70's. They both saw something on display that intrigue Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

10 Signs And Symptoms That You're In Ketosis

10 Signs And Symptoms That You're In Ketosis

The ketogenic diet is a popular, effective way to lose weight and improve health. When followed correctly, this low-carb, high-fat diet will raise blood ketone levels. These provide a new fuel source for your cells, and cause most of the unique health benefits of this diet (1, 2, 3). On a ketogenic diet, your body undergoes many biological adaptions, including a reduction in insulin and increased fat breakdown. When this happens, your liver starts producing large amounts of ketones to supply energy for your brain. However, it can often be hard to know whether you're "in ketosis" or not. Here are 10 common signs and symptoms of ketosis, both positive and negative. People often report bad breath once they reach full ketosis. It's actually a common side effect. Many people on ketogenic diets and similar diets, such as the Atkins diet, report that their breath takes on a fruity smell. This is caused by elevated ketone levels. The specific culprit is acetone, a ketone that exits the body in your urine and breath (4). While this breath may be less than ideal for your social life, it can be a positive sign for your diet. Many ketogenic dieters brush their teeth several times per day, or use sugar-free gum to solve the issue. If you're using gum or other alternatives like sugar-free drinks, check the label for carbs. These may raise your blood sugar levels and reduce ketone levels. The bad breath usually goes away after some time on the diet. It is not a permanent thing. The ketone acetone is partly expelled via your breath, which can cause bad or fruity-smelling breath on a ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diets, along with normal low-carb diets, are highly effective for losing weight (5, 6). As dozens of weight loss studies have shown, you will likely experience both short- and long Continue reading >>

Does A Ketogenic Diet Causes Ketosis In Patients On Intensive Care?

Does A Ketogenic Diet Causes Ketosis In Patients On Intensive Care?

The purpose of this study is to assess if an enteral ketogenic feed will cause a ketotic state in critically ill patients on intensive care. This pilot study is a prospective, single-centre, unblinded, parallel-group, randomised controlled, Phase IIb trial comparing standard enteral nutrition with an enteral ketogenic feed. The trial has a simple, pragmatic design and will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. It aims to recruit 10 patients from a single University teaching hospital adult general ICU. The anticipated recruitment period is 4 weeks. Adult patients admitted to intensive care and expected to require enteral feed via a nasogastric tube for at least 5 days and who fulfil other eligibility criteria will be allocated at random to receive either standard feed (Nutrison Protein Plus Multi Fibre) or a ketogenic enteral feed (Nutrison KetoCal 4:1). The primary endpoint will be increase in ketone body concentration in serum. Secondary endpoints will include, time taken to achieve a ketotic state, ketone levels in critical care patients who are not absorbing enteral feed, glucose levels in patients on a ketone feed, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, creatinine kinase levels and development of a metabolic acidosis. Adult ICU patients will be eligible to be included in this study if they are expected to require enteral feed via a nasogastric or nasojejunal tube or established percutaneous jejunostomy for at least 5 days. Practically, this will be achieved by screening ventilated patients as they will require enteral feeding Major exclusion criteria include contraindications to ketogenic feeds, contraindications to enteral feeding, a new (< 5 days) percutaneous jejunostomy. The intervention will continue until 14 days if the patient still requires enteral nutri Continue reading >>

Scientists Identify Novel Mechanism By Which Ketogenic Diet Could Delay Effects Of Aging

Scientists Identify Novel Mechanism By Which Ketogenic Diet Could Delay Effects Of Aging

Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have identified a novel mechanism by which a type of low-carb, low-calorie diet-called a "ketogenic diet"-could delay the effects of aging. This fundamental discovery reveals how such a diet could slow the aging process and may one day allow scientists to better treat or prevent age-related diseases, including heart disease, Alzheimer's disease and many forms of cancer. As the aging population continues to grow, age-related illnesses have become increasingly common. Already in the United States, nearly one in six people are over the age of 65. Heart disease continues to be the nation's number one killer, with cancer and Alzheimer's close behind. Such diseases place tremendous strain on patients, families and our healthcare system. But today, researchers in the laboratory of Gladstone Senior Investigator Eric Verdin, MD, have identified the role that a chemical compound in the human body plays in the aging process-and which may be key to new therapies for treating or preventing a variety of age-related diseases. In the latest issue of the journal Science, available online today, Dr. Verdin and his team examined the role of the compound β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), a so-called "ketone body" that is produced during a prolonged low-calorie or ketogenic diet. While ketone bodies such as βOHB can be toxic when present at very high concentrations in people with diseases such as Type I diabetes, Dr. Verdin and colleagues found that at lower concentrations, βOHB helps protect cells from "oxidative stress"-which occurs as certain molecules build to toxic levels in the body and contributes to the aging process. "Over the years, studies have found that restricting calories slows aging and increases longevity-however the mechanism of this effe Continue reading >>

Blood Tests On Low Carb / Keto Diets Simplified

Blood Tests On Low Carb / Keto Diets Simplified

The lazy health nut’s guide to getting the most out of the least amount of blood letting possible. Disclaimer This is not medical advice, it is just the collation of the latest information we have on what’s actually useful to get tested for, and what it means in general. Seek out advice of doctors and specialists to interpret your own results, armed with the best information you can get. Shortcuts Overview One of the big problems with being conscious about your health and undertaking a low carb or even ketogenic regime is that you can start obsessing about plasma/lipid biomarkers etc, especially if you’re new to all this and still worried about silly little things like cholesterol etc. So the point of the information presented here is to simplify as much as possible for the average healthy’ish person who doesn’t want to stress about all the gazillions of tests and biomarkers that are specific to a limited subset of health maladies, but just wants a basic overview of the tests that tell you most of what you want to know. Most tests aren’t particularly telling on their own, but taken together several biomarkers are an indicator of where things are at, and if you are trying to diagnose a specific issue, you’ll need to research what other tests and results are of use to your situation. What we have identified here are the basic tests available from a regular lipid panel which by themselves can tell you fairly reliably where things are at for your overall health, and if you’re so inclined can investigate further with more complicated and expensive diagnostics. HbA1c Glycation/CVD/diabetes Triglycerides LDL particle density (CVD risk) ALT Fatty liver disease GGT Liver function Urate Kidney function Troponin Heart muscle damage The useful basic tests to get HbA Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Tweet Ketosis is a state the body may find itself in either as a result of raised blood glucose levels or as a part of low carb dieting. Low levels of ketosis is perfectly normal. However, high levels of ketosis in the short term can be serious and the long term effects of regular moderate ketosis are only partially known at the moment. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a state the body goes into if it needs to break down body fat for energy. The state is marked by raised levels of ketones in the blood which can be used by the body as fuel. Ketones which are not used for fuel are excreted out of the body via the kidneys and the urine. Is ketosis the same as ketoacidosis? There is often confusion as to the difference between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is the state whereby the body is producing ketones. In ketosis, the level of ketones in the blood can be anything between normal to very high. Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, only describes the state in which the level of ketones is either high or very high. In ketoacidosis, the amount of ketones in the blood is sufficient to turn the blood acidic, which is a dangerous medical state. When does ketosis occur? Ketosis will take place when the body needs energy and there is not sufficient glucose available for the body. This can typically happen when the body is lacking insulin and blood glucose levels become high. Other causes can be the result of being on a low carb diet. A low level of carbohydrate will lead to low levels of insulin, and therefore the body will produce ketones which do not rely on insulin to get into and fuel the body’s cells. A further cause of ketosis, less relevant to people with diabetes, is a result of excessive alcohol consumption. Is ketosis dangerous? The NHS describes ketosis as a pote Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis?

What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a temporary physical condition marked by elevated levels of compounds known as ketone bodies in the body's tissues and fluids. The term "ketone bodies" refers to three different biochemicals: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone. The first two molecules transfer energy produced in the liver to the tissues throughout the body; acetone is a breakdown product of acetoacetate, and is responsible for the sweet odor on the breath of people undergoing ketosis. The condition of ketosis typically represents a change in the way the body gets its energy. Normally, the body gets most of its energy by metabolizing glucose (a simple sugar) obtained from carbohydrates or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. But when unable to convert glucose into energy, the body switches to breaking down fat and converting it into energy. When this happens, the liver metabolizes fatty acids, producing energy-rich ketone bodies. The most common causes of ketosis are physiological, according to a 2000 article in the journal Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. Fasting, eating a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet and engaging in high-intensity exercise can all lead to ketosis, because these activities deplete the body's stores of glucose. Because ketone bodies are acidic, a prolonged excess of the molecules in the blood can lead to a pathological form of ketosis, called ketoacidosis, in which the blood becomes acidic. Most commonly, ketoacidosis is associated with type 1 diabetes (and type 2 diabetes to a lesser extent). A lack of insulin, a hormone necessary for blood glucose to enter cells, causes glucose and ketone body concentrations to spike, lowering the blood's pH as it becomes more acidic. If left untreated, this condition, called diabetic ketoacidosis, can lead to Continue reading >>

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>

Why Is Ketosis Is Important For Our Bodies

Why Is Ketosis Is Important For Our Bodies

A lot of people are confused by the term "ketosis." You may read that it is a "dangerous state" for the body, and it does sound abnormal to be "in ketosis." But ketosis merely means that our bodies are using fat for energy. How Ketones Are Made in Our Bodies Ketones (also called ketone bodies) are molecules generated during fat metabolism, whether they are from the fat in the guacamole you just ate or fat you were carrying around your middle. When our bodies are breaking down fat for energy, most of it gets converted more or less directly to ATP. (Remember high school biology? This is the "energy molecule.") But ketones are also produced as part of the process. When people eat less carbohydrate, their bodies turn to fat for energy, so it makes sense that more ketones are generated. Some of those ketones (acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate) are used for energy; the heart muscle and kidneys, for example, prefer ketones to glucose. Most cells, including the brain cells, are able to use ketones for at least part of their energy. But there is one type of ketone molecule, called acetone, that cannot be used and is excreted as waste, mostly in the urine and breath (sometimes causing a distinct breath odor). If enough acetone is in your urine, it can be detected using a dipstick commonly called by the brand name Ketostix (though there are other brands, they are still often called Ketostix). Even though everyone is generating ketones continuously, this detection in the urine is what is commonly called "ketosis." (Less commonly but more accurately blood ketones can also be measured). The higher the concentration of ketones in the urine, the more purple the sticks will turn. The Atkins Diet, in particular, advises people to monitor ketosis as an indication of fat burning. Other r Continue reading >>

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