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What Is Excess Glucose Stored As?

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From Glow in the Dark Rabbit to Anti-Cancer Purple Tomatoes here are 18 Genetically Modified Organisms You Don't Know About Subscribe to Talltanic http://goo.gl/wgfvrr # 9 Fish Strawberries The ripest and juiciest strawberries you got from the supermarket might contain the genetic traces of a fish. Scientists have been experimenting with combining strawberries with the anti-freeze genes that are found in cold water fish like Arctic Char and Sea flounders which help the strawberries resist freezing and dying in bad weather. Luckily, it doesnt create a weird fishy-tasting strawberry. # 8 Glow in the Dark Rabbit Most genetically modified organisms have a scientific purpose in mind or a greater goal that usually justifies messing with somethings DNA spread. However, Eduard Kac used genetic engineering for creating works of art rather than for scientific research. His most notorious work was the Glow in the Dark rabbit named Alba. It sparked a debate about animal rights, but Alba died before anything was resolved. # 7 Goats Spliced with Spiders When you think of genetically splicing something with a spider, you usually think of superheroes with spider themed super powers. However, in real life, you can find animals that have been genetically combined with spiders - goats. Spider silk is flexible and strong, and some even want to try and produce it on a larger scale so we can use it to make things like parachute cords. One lab has spliced spiders genes with a goat so that these flexible and strong spider silk genes would be replicated in their milk. This silk milk is also able to create Biosteel, a strong web-like material. # 6 Golden Rice Rice is a major staple food in many parts of the world partly because it's cheap and partly because it helps you feel full even when you dont have much to eat. However, the normal white rice isnt very healthy for you. That is why scientists are working on Golden Rice, rice that was spliced with vegetables like squash and carrots that not only create the golden color but include beta-carotene which is more nutrient dense and could help prevent blindness in children who eat it. # 5 Ear Mouse The most notorious genetically modified animal might be the ear mouse or the Vacanti Mouse which was created in 1995 by scientists in Massachusetts. The scientists wanted to prove that cartilage structures could be grown on other living creatures before being removed and transplanted into humans who need it. However, this mouse would quickly become famous or infamous as it went onto the Jay Leno show and then used as a mascot by animal-rights groups who were opposed to genetic modifications. # 4 Scorpion Cabbage The Androctonus australis is one of the most dangerous scorpions in the world with a venom that can cause tissue damage and death. So of course, we combined the genes from this scorpion with cabbage intended for human consumption. The gene of the scorpions venom changed when it was spliced with the cabbage. The venom is now only poison to insects, which spasm and die when they try to eat the crop. That same poison is supposedly completely harmless to humans, making it the perfect crop. # 3 Anti-Cancer Purple Tomatoes Researchers have created a tomato that is not only more flavorful but would also help prevent cancer. The researchers spliced tomatoes with the snapdragon flower to create a deep, purple tomato that almost looks like a blackberry. These super tomatoes contain potent antioxidants and inhibit the growth of cancer cells, ease the symptoms of diabetes, and even relieve the pains of growing old. You might just see purple tomatoes on your pizza someday soon. # 2 Chinese Dog-Pig This image went around the internet with a bunch of people thinking it was some sort of failed chimera of a pig and a dog because of its pink skin and strange tufts of hair. While it was not an animal that was genetically engineered in a lab, it is an animal that has been genetically engineered over generations and generations, like most dogs are. This dog, in particular, is the Hairless Chinese Crested Dog - an expensive and rare breed of dog that is highly sought after by some people. Even though the winner of the annual worlds ugliest dog contest is usually a Chinese Crested. # 1 Less-Flatulent Cows You might have heard that cows produce an excess of methane, which contributes to the dangerous greenhouse effect. Its hard to make cows stop producing methane since theyre some of the most populous domestic livestock in the world and that is a natural part of their digestive progress. Until we genetically modified cattle to produce 25 less percent of the bacterium in their digestive tract that creates methane gas. Basically, we made cows that fart less.

Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms

When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more Continue reading >>

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  1. Aaron1963

    Ketosis: What Happens to Excess Glucose?

    This is something I've always wondered about. When one is in ketosis, what exactly happens to excess glucose beyond what's needed by the few cells that require glucose? Well, I imagine some (or perhaps all of the initial excess) goes to replenishing glycogen stores that may have been previously depleted. But there's definitely a limit to how much can go towards that. After your glycogen has been topped off, does the glucose just go into the blood stream, or is it used by cells first, rather than utilizing ketones? Or does it just go to fat storage?
    A bit of a background as to why I'm asking this question now. I've been in ketosis for at least the past 8 months or so. I've had a few slipups along the way, but nothing major I'd say. My weight dropped rapidly, and I ended up being noticeably underweight. As a result I added more protein in my diet (due to my previous protein intake being way below recommended levels) and my weight's been quite stable for maybe 6 months or so, after regaining enough to put my right smack in the middle of my ideal weight range. Then in the past month I've been traveling a lot. On my first trip I suspect I ate too many carbs and gained about 5 kg (11 lbs). I was fairly confident that some or maybe even almost all of that was due to replenishing my glycogen stores. I came back from my trip, but my weight didn't go down. Then I went on a few more trips, and gained another 5kg, so 10kg total (22 lbs). 5kg, I could live with, but 10kg is just way too much, and most of it was added to my thighs and waist. Some of my tighter fitting pants are now almost too tight, so I'm most definitely not imagining it, nor is the scale lying.
    During my most recent trips, I felt like I ate pretty good, along the same lines as what I was eating when my weight was stable. There were a few questionable meals where I tried to select the lowest carb option, but imagine there could have been more carbs than I suspected. That's common when I go on travel, and I try to supplement by consuming more fats than normal. In this case I ended up having lots of coffee with fresh cream. I also ended up buying macadamia nuts and snacking on them quite a bit, mostly out of concern about upcoming dinners maybe being higher carb than I wanted, so thinking if I filled up ahead of time, I wouldn't be tempted to eat much of the higher carb meal. Well, I think it was a mistake in trying to snack on the macadamia nuts, because even though they have a good KR, they seemed to be quite addicting to me, and I found myself snacking unnecessarily on many days, and then craving the snacking. That is totally unlike me. Throughout being in ketosis, I've had no problems going long periods of time without eating, and not feeling hungry or any cravings. I just get an empty feeling in my stomach at times, but wouldn't really call it hunger, at least not in the sense of the hunger I used to feel when eating a glucose-centric diet.
    So I'm sure I was eating more overall than I normally eat, and I was also getting a much more continuous stream of food, due to too much snacking, compared to normal. But as best I could calculate, my KR was just as high, if not higher than normal, and I stayed in ketosis during my trip, albeit a bit lower than normal - in the 1's, rather than 2's or 3's. Previously I would often though have days where I ate a lot, with much more calories than "normal", so even the excess due to snacking didn't put me outside the range I was accustomed to in the past. Only the reduced time between meals was different. My BG numbers started creeping up at the same time. Previously my fasting numbers were mostly in the 60's and 70's, but during my trips I saw them go up to the 80's and sometimes 90's. At first I thought about what JDM said regarding Dr. Bernstein considering 83 to be a perfect number, and that perhaps being in ketosis for so long was drawing me to that "magic" number. But I stopped seeing any numbers in the 70's, and would see some in the 90's, and PP numbers were also higher. Previously I would rarely go over 100, but started seeing numbers in the 110's and up to about 120. Overall a 20 ~ 30 point increase on average over what I was doing. In the past I could see my BG go up on occasion, but this was different in that it was consistently higher and didn't come back down.
    Well, some say that too much snacking might not be good for some diabetics, though others say they do better with a method of more frequent meals/snacks. For me, I always had good success with intermittent fasting and limiting my number of meals, so I think the snacking may have had some effect. But I suspect the biggest effect was due to my not getting any exercise whatsoever during my trips. I've exercised religiously for the past year since first starting down the road to good control of my diabetes. I've had brief periods in the past where I couldn't exercise for a day or two, but never for a week or two weeks at a time like just happened. The longer I stay at this, the more I see that for me exercise is important. And I think I've just come to the conclusion that it's not only just important, but actually super important and an absolute necessity to control my diabetes (and weight) the way I should. I know for some people exercise doesn't have any effect, or a negligible effect. But for me, the effect is profound, especially when comparing absolutely no exercise to my normal exercise.
    For me, when I first started out, I began my exercise regime at my doctor's urging, and I was under the impression that the standard "calories in - calories out" effect was true. I knew I needed to lose weight, so I tried as much as possible to exercise (via mostly walking) after each and every meal, and to burn off those excess calories and fat. Well, I later learned that not all calories are the same, and it depends a whole lot on what those calories are composed of, and how the body uses those macronutrients and thus the calories. So my reasoning for exercising (to burn off the calories and thus lose weight) was very misguided, but the results were excellent. The reason being, in my mind, is that I was burning off the carbs. Every time I'd eat, I'd exercise enough to in my mind burn off the calories I just ate, or at least most of them. But what I was really doing was burning off the carbs, and thus no carbs were going to fat storage, but rather I had a deficit, and so I was burning fat to make up for it, and it had a dramatic effect on my BG as well, due to the carbs getting burned off.
    Ok, so back to my original question - what happens to the excess carbs? Even when maintaining a ketogenic diet, you still can easily consume more carbs than are necessary for the body. Based on what happens to me, beyond the glycogen aspect, it seems that some of the carbs may go towards elevating BG, but not much. (I'm not talking about going on carb binges which would noticeably spike BG, but rather excess carbs while still eating a good ketogenic diet with a good KR). What does happen though is that they go to fat storage. If I exercise after each meal, the carbs are burned off and not stored. But if I fail to exercise, the carbs can go to storage. Some of the carbs may go towards some minor BG creeping up, but I think ketosis likely puts an upper limit on that and it won't get too out of hand unless due to some other factor (such as illness, etc.)
    So while some people don't notice any changes due to exercising or not, or some even see a negative effect in exercising, for me it's absolutely critical that I continue my exercise after each meal if possible. As a result, I've drawn up a new plan to get back on track, which also addresses the snacking problem. From now on, I will try to only ever eat when I'm "hungry", meaning when I get that empty feeling and believe my body wants some food. And if that time comes when I'm busy and cannot get away to exercise, then I'll hold off and wait until I can, then eat and exercise. Well, there's obviously going to be sometimes when I cannot do that, due to social situations or whatever. But the plan is to do it as much as possible, and hopefully at least 90% or so of the time I can do my exercise regiment after eating, and thus burn off any excess carbs I have, and keep my weight down at it's ideal point and my BG at what I consider to be an ideal level for me. And when I go on travel in the future, I'll look to stay in hotels which have a gym, so that I can continue the exercise regiment I've established here at home, and even if the weather is bad, or environment issues may prevent me from exercising outdoors, I can still do so. I guess if nothing else, and there's no gym, I can just pace back and forth in my hotel room.
    Well, interested in hearing what others have to say about excess carbs when in ketosis, and how they affect you and your body.

  2. Nicoletti

    Originally Posted by Aaron1963
    This is something I've always wondered about. When one is in ketosis, what exactly happens to excess glucose beyond what's needed by the few cells that require glucose?
    Ok, so back to my original question - what happens to the excess carbs? Even when maintaining a ketogenic diet, you still can easily consume more carbs than are necessary for the body. If one is in ketosis, I wouldn't imagine there would be much in the way of excess glucose, or excess carbs. Seems to me from reading Ann's posts about her diet, there's not much in the way of excess carbs either, or she'd not be in ketosis.

  3. Ken S

    This is an interesting question Aaron, my guess would be similar to Nicole's, you use what little you eat which is very little and get the rest of your energy from ketones. If there is an excess then it goes to replace the ketones for energy, no more nutritional ketosis in other words. This is probably why it's so important to so severely limit glucose sources.

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Entry for Berkeley's Navigating the Gray Engineering Video Contest. Made Possible with the Information Provided by the Following Websites: http://www.globalresearch.ca http://www.nongmoproject.org http://www.actionbioscience.org http://www.scu.edu http://www.responsibletechnology.org http://www.gmfreecymru.org http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov http://www.elsevier.com http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org http://www.randi.org http://www.monsanto.com http://www.nspe.org Songs used under a creative commons license. A Very Special Thanks to Brittney Duquette and Jodie Howard

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin in Continue reading >>

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  1. Aaron1963

    Ketosis: What Happens to Excess Glucose?

    This is something I've always wondered about. When one is in ketosis, what exactly happens to excess glucose beyond what's needed by the few cells that require glucose? Well, I imagine some (or perhaps all of the initial excess) goes to replenishing glycogen stores that may have been previously depleted. But there's definitely a limit to how much can go towards that. After your glycogen has been topped off, does the glucose just go into the blood stream, or is it used by cells first, rather than utilizing ketones? Or does it just go to fat storage?
    A bit of a background as to why I'm asking this question now. I've been in ketosis for at least the past 8 months or so. I've had a few slipups along the way, but nothing major I'd say. My weight dropped rapidly, and I ended up being noticeably underweight. As a result I added more protein in my diet (due to my previous protein intake being way below recommended levels) and my weight's been quite stable for maybe 6 months or so, after regaining enough to put my right smack in the middle of my ideal weight range. Then in the past month I've been traveling a lot. On my first trip I suspect I ate too many carbs and gained about 5 kg (11 lbs). I was fairly confident that some or maybe even almost all of that was due to replenishing my glycogen stores. I came back from my trip, but my weight didn't go down. Then I went on a few more trips, and gained another 5kg, so 10kg total (22 lbs). 5kg, I could live with, but 10kg is just way too much, and most of it was added to my thighs and waist. Some of my tighter fitting pants are now almost too tight, so I'm most definitely not imagining it, nor is the scale lying.
    During my most recent trips, I felt like I ate pretty good, along the same lines as what I was eating when my weight was stable. There were a few questionable meals where I tried to select the lowest carb option, but imagine there could have been more carbs than I suspected. That's common when I go on travel, and I try to supplement by consuming more fats than normal. In this case I ended up having lots of coffee with fresh cream. I also ended up buying macadamia nuts and snacking on them quite a bit, mostly out of concern about upcoming dinners maybe being higher carb than I wanted, so thinking if I filled up ahead of time, I wouldn't be tempted to eat much of the higher carb meal. Well, I think it was a mistake in trying to snack on the macadamia nuts, because even though they have a good KR, they seemed to be quite addicting to me, and I found myself snacking unnecessarily on many days, and then craving the snacking. That is totally unlike me. Throughout being in ketosis, I've had no problems going long periods of time without eating, and not feeling hungry or any cravings. I just get an empty feeling in my stomach at times, but wouldn't really call it hunger, at least not in the sense of the hunger I used to feel when eating a glucose-centric diet.
    So I'm sure I was eating more overall than I normally eat, and I was also getting a much more continuous stream of food, due to too much snacking, compared to normal. But as best I could calculate, my KR was just as high, if not higher than normal, and I stayed in ketosis during my trip, albeit a bit lower than normal - in the 1's, rather than 2's or 3's. Previously I would often though have days where I ate a lot, with much more calories than "normal", so even the excess due to snacking didn't put me outside the range I was accustomed to in the past. Only the reduced time between meals was different. My BG numbers started creeping up at the same time. Previously my fasting numbers were mostly in the 60's and 70's, but during my trips I saw them go up to the 80's and sometimes 90's. At first I thought about what JDM said regarding Dr. Bernstein considering 83 to be a perfect number, and that perhaps being in ketosis for so long was drawing me to that "magic" number. But I stopped seeing any numbers in the 70's, and would see some in the 90's, and PP numbers were also higher. Previously I would rarely go over 100, but started seeing numbers in the 110's and up to about 120. Overall a 20 ~ 30 point increase on average over what I was doing. In the past I could see my BG go up on occasion, but this was different in that it was consistently higher and didn't come back down.
    Well, some say that too much snacking might not be good for some diabetics, though others say they do better with a method of more frequent meals/snacks. For me, I always had good success with intermittent fasting and limiting my number of meals, so I think the snacking may have had some effect. But I suspect the biggest effect was due to my not getting any exercise whatsoever during my trips. I've exercised religiously for the past year since first starting down the road to good control of my diabetes. I've had brief periods in the past where I couldn't exercise for a day or two, but never for a week or two weeks at a time like just happened. The longer I stay at this, the more I see that for me exercise is important. And I think I've just come to the conclusion that it's not only just important, but actually super important and an absolute necessity to control my diabetes (and weight) the way I should. I know for some people exercise doesn't have any effect, or a negligible effect. But for me, the effect is profound, especially when comparing absolutely no exercise to my normal exercise.
    For me, when I first started out, I began my exercise regime at my doctor's urging, and I was under the impression that the standard "calories in - calories out" effect was true. I knew I needed to lose weight, so I tried as much as possible to exercise (via mostly walking) after each and every meal, and to burn off those excess calories and fat. Well, I later learned that not all calories are the same, and it depends a whole lot on what those calories are composed of, and how the body uses those macronutrients and thus the calories. So my reasoning for exercising (to burn off the calories and thus lose weight) was very misguided, but the results were excellent. The reason being, in my mind, is that I was burning off the carbs. Every time I'd eat, I'd exercise enough to in my mind burn off the calories I just ate, or at least most of them. But what I was really doing was burning off the carbs, and thus no carbs were going to fat storage, but rather I had a deficit, and so I was burning fat to make up for it, and it had a dramatic effect on my BG as well, due to the carbs getting burned off.
    Ok, so back to my original question - what happens to the excess carbs? Even when maintaining a ketogenic diet, you still can easily consume more carbs than are necessary for the body. Based on what happens to me, beyond the glycogen aspect, it seems that some of the carbs may go towards elevating BG, but not much. (I'm not talking about going on carb binges which would noticeably spike BG, but rather excess carbs while still eating a good ketogenic diet with a good KR). What does happen though is that they go to fat storage. If I exercise after each meal, the carbs are burned off and not stored. But if I fail to exercise, the carbs can go to storage. Some of the carbs may go towards some minor BG creeping up, but I think ketosis likely puts an upper limit on that and it won't get too out of hand unless due to some other factor (such as illness, etc.)
    So while some people don't notice any changes due to exercising or not, or some even see a negative effect in exercising, for me it's absolutely critical that I continue my exercise after each meal if possible. As a result, I've drawn up a new plan to get back on track, which also addresses the snacking problem. From now on, I will try to only ever eat when I'm "hungry", meaning when I get that empty feeling and believe my body wants some food. And if that time comes when I'm busy and cannot get away to exercise, then I'll hold off and wait until I can, then eat and exercise. Well, there's obviously going to be sometimes when I cannot do that, due to social situations or whatever. But the plan is to do it as much as possible, and hopefully at least 90% or so of the time I can do my exercise regiment after eating, and thus burn off any excess carbs I have, and keep my weight down at it's ideal point and my BG at what I consider to be an ideal level for me. And when I go on travel in the future, I'll look to stay in hotels which have a gym, so that I can continue the exercise regiment I've established here at home, and even if the weather is bad, or environment issues may prevent me from exercising outdoors, I can still do so. I guess if nothing else, and there's no gym, I can just pace back and forth in my hotel room.
    Well, interested in hearing what others have to say about excess carbs when in ketosis, and how they affect you and your body.

  2. Nicoletti

    Originally Posted by Aaron1963
    This is something I've always wondered about. When one is in ketosis, what exactly happens to excess glucose beyond what's needed by the few cells that require glucose?
    Ok, so back to my original question - what happens to the excess carbs? Even when maintaining a ketogenic diet, you still can easily consume more carbs than are necessary for the body. If one is in ketosis, I wouldn't imagine there would be much in the way of excess glucose, or excess carbs. Seems to me from reading Ann's posts about her diet, there's not much in the way of excess carbs either, or she'd not be in ketosis.

  3. Ken S

    This is an interesting question Aaron, my guess would be similar to Nicole's, you use what little you eat which is very little and get the rest of your energy from ketones. If there is an excess then it goes to replace the ketones for energy, no more nutritional ketosis in other words. This is probably why it's so important to so severely limit glucose sources.

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
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How Sugar, Not Fat, Raises Your Cholesterol

Excess carbohydrates and sugar lead to cholesterol and weight gain, explains Dr. Doni Wilson, which is why balancing blood sugar levels every day is so important. When you go to the doctor and get a cholesterol reading, you may be cautioned against eating high-fat foods. But very little fat from foods becomes cholesterol in your blood. What produces cholesterol is rather the excessive consumption of carbs at any one time. The cholesterol and triglycerides in your bloodstream come not from consuming excess fat, but rather, from consuming excess glucose. I’m not just talking about excess glucose over the course of a week or even a day. I’m talking about what happens when you consume excess glucose in one sitting. Let’s take a closer look at exactly happens when your body gets too many carbs at one particular meal. First, you digest the carb-containing food, breaking it down into the individual glucose molecules that are small enough to cross the cells of your intestinal walls and enter your bloodstream. Because you have eaten too many carbs, you have far too much glucose stuck in your blood. You don’t have enough insulin to move all that glucose into your cells. So what happe Continue reading >>

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  1. Aaron1963

    Ketosis: What Happens to Excess Glucose?

    This is something I've always wondered about. When one is in ketosis, what exactly happens to excess glucose beyond what's needed by the few cells that require glucose? Well, I imagine some (or perhaps all of the initial excess) goes to replenishing glycogen stores that may have been previously depleted. But there's definitely a limit to how much can go towards that. After your glycogen has been topped off, does the glucose just go into the blood stream, or is it used by cells first, rather than utilizing ketones? Or does it just go to fat storage?
    A bit of a background as to why I'm asking this question now. I've been in ketosis for at least the past 8 months or so. I've had a few slipups along the way, but nothing major I'd say. My weight dropped rapidly, and I ended up being noticeably underweight. As a result I added more protein in my diet (due to my previous protein intake being way below recommended levels) and my weight's been quite stable for maybe 6 months or so, after regaining enough to put my right smack in the middle of my ideal weight range. Then in the past month I've been traveling a lot. On my first trip I suspect I ate too many carbs and gained about 5 kg (11 lbs). I was fairly confident that some or maybe even almost all of that was due to replenishing my glycogen stores. I came back from my trip, but my weight didn't go down. Then I went on a few more trips, and gained another 5kg, so 10kg total (22 lbs). 5kg, I could live with, but 10kg is just way too much, and most of it was added to my thighs and waist. Some of my tighter fitting pants are now almost too tight, so I'm most definitely not imagining it, nor is the scale lying.
    During my most recent trips, I felt like I ate pretty good, along the same lines as what I was eating when my weight was stable. There were a few questionable meals where I tried to select the lowest carb option, but imagine there could have been more carbs than I suspected. That's common when I go on travel, and I try to supplement by consuming more fats than normal. In this case I ended up having lots of coffee with fresh cream. I also ended up buying macadamia nuts and snacking on them quite a bit, mostly out of concern about upcoming dinners maybe being higher carb than I wanted, so thinking if I filled up ahead of time, I wouldn't be tempted to eat much of the higher carb meal. Well, I think it was a mistake in trying to snack on the macadamia nuts, because even though they have a good KR, they seemed to be quite addicting to me, and I found myself snacking unnecessarily on many days, and then craving the snacking. That is totally unlike me. Throughout being in ketosis, I've had no problems going long periods of time without eating, and not feeling hungry or any cravings. I just get an empty feeling in my stomach at times, but wouldn't really call it hunger, at least not in the sense of the hunger I used to feel when eating a glucose-centric diet.
    So I'm sure I was eating more overall than I normally eat, and I was also getting a much more continuous stream of food, due to too much snacking, compared to normal. But as best I could calculate, my KR was just as high, if not higher than normal, and I stayed in ketosis during my trip, albeit a bit lower than normal - in the 1's, rather than 2's or 3's. Previously I would often though have days where I ate a lot, with much more calories than "normal", so even the excess due to snacking didn't put me outside the range I was accustomed to in the past. Only the reduced time between meals was different. My BG numbers started creeping up at the same time. Previously my fasting numbers were mostly in the 60's and 70's, but during my trips I saw them go up to the 80's and sometimes 90's. At first I thought about what JDM said regarding Dr. Bernstein considering 83 to be a perfect number, and that perhaps being in ketosis for so long was drawing me to that "magic" number. But I stopped seeing any numbers in the 70's, and would see some in the 90's, and PP numbers were also higher. Previously I would rarely go over 100, but started seeing numbers in the 110's and up to about 120. Overall a 20 ~ 30 point increase on average over what I was doing. In the past I could see my BG go up on occasion, but this was different in that it was consistently higher and didn't come back down.
    Well, some say that too much snacking might not be good for some diabetics, though others say they do better with a method of more frequent meals/snacks. For me, I always had good success with intermittent fasting and limiting my number of meals, so I think the snacking may have had some effect. But I suspect the biggest effect was due to my not getting any exercise whatsoever during my trips. I've exercised religiously for the past year since first starting down the road to good control of my diabetes. I've had brief periods in the past where I couldn't exercise for a day or two, but never for a week or two weeks at a time like just happened. The longer I stay at this, the more I see that for me exercise is important. And I think I've just come to the conclusion that it's not only just important, but actually super important and an absolute necessity to control my diabetes (and weight) the way I should. I know for some people exercise doesn't have any effect, or a negligible effect. But for me, the effect is profound, especially when comparing absolutely no exercise to my normal exercise.
    For me, when I first started out, I began my exercise regime at my doctor's urging, and I was under the impression that the standard "calories in - calories out" effect was true. I knew I needed to lose weight, so I tried as much as possible to exercise (via mostly walking) after each and every meal, and to burn off those excess calories and fat. Well, I later learned that not all calories are the same, and it depends a whole lot on what those calories are composed of, and how the body uses those macronutrients and thus the calories. So my reasoning for exercising (to burn off the calories and thus lose weight) was very misguided, but the results were excellent. The reason being, in my mind, is that I was burning off the carbs. Every time I'd eat, I'd exercise enough to in my mind burn off the calories I just ate, or at least most of them. But what I was really doing was burning off the carbs, and thus no carbs were going to fat storage, but rather I had a deficit, and so I was burning fat to make up for it, and it had a dramatic effect on my BG as well, due to the carbs getting burned off.
    Ok, so back to my original question - what happens to the excess carbs? Even when maintaining a ketogenic diet, you still can easily consume more carbs than are necessary for the body. Based on what happens to me, beyond the glycogen aspect, it seems that some of the carbs may go towards elevating BG, but not much. (I'm not talking about going on carb binges which would noticeably spike BG, but rather excess carbs while still eating a good ketogenic diet with a good KR). What does happen though is that they go to fat storage. If I exercise after each meal, the carbs are burned off and not stored. But if I fail to exercise, the carbs can go to storage. Some of the carbs may go towards some minor BG creeping up, but I think ketosis likely puts an upper limit on that and it won't get too out of hand unless due to some other factor (such as illness, etc.)
    So while some people don't notice any changes due to exercising or not, or some even see a negative effect in exercising, for me it's absolutely critical that I continue my exercise after each meal if possible. As a result, I've drawn up a new plan to get back on track, which also addresses the snacking problem. From now on, I will try to only ever eat when I'm "hungry", meaning when I get that empty feeling and believe my body wants some food. And if that time comes when I'm busy and cannot get away to exercise, then I'll hold off and wait until I can, then eat and exercise. Well, there's obviously going to be sometimes when I cannot do that, due to social situations or whatever. But the plan is to do it as much as possible, and hopefully at least 90% or so of the time I can do my exercise regiment after eating, and thus burn off any excess carbs I have, and keep my weight down at it's ideal point and my BG at what I consider to be an ideal level for me. And when I go on travel in the future, I'll look to stay in hotels which have a gym, so that I can continue the exercise regiment I've established here at home, and even if the weather is bad, or environment issues may prevent me from exercising outdoors, I can still do so. I guess if nothing else, and there's no gym, I can just pace back and forth in my hotel room.
    Well, interested in hearing what others have to say about excess carbs when in ketosis, and how they affect you and your body.

  2. Nicoletti

    Originally Posted by Aaron1963
    This is something I've always wondered about. When one is in ketosis, what exactly happens to excess glucose beyond what's needed by the few cells that require glucose?
    Ok, so back to my original question - what happens to the excess carbs? Even when maintaining a ketogenic diet, you still can easily consume more carbs than are necessary for the body. If one is in ketosis, I wouldn't imagine there would be much in the way of excess glucose, or excess carbs. Seems to me from reading Ann's posts about her diet, there's not much in the way of excess carbs either, or she'd not be in ketosis.

  3. Ken S

    This is an interesting question Aaron, my guess would be similar to Nicole's, you use what little you eat which is very little and get the rest of your energy from ketones. If there is an excess then it goes to replace the ketones for energy, no more nutritional ketosis in other words. This is probably why it's so important to so severely limit glucose sources.

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