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What Is Diabetic Ketosis Acidosis?

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. See also the separate Childhood Ketoacidosis article. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency with a significant morbidity and mortality. It should be diagnosed promptly and managed intensively. DKA is characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonaemia:[1] Ketonaemia (3 mmol/L and over), or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on standard urine sticks). Blood glucose over 11 mmol/L or known diabetes mellitus (the degree of hyperglycaemia is not a reliable indicator of DKA and the blood glucose may rarely be normal or only slightly elevated in DKA). Bicarbonate below 15 mmol/L and/or venous pH less than 7.3. However, hyperglycaemia may not always be present and low blood ketone levels (<3 mmol/L) do not always exclude DKA.[2] Epidemiology DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Data from the UK National Diabetes Audit show a crude one-year Continue reading >>

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  1. raven-gypsy

    What are ketostix for? I know they test ketones, but what exactly does that mean and is it something that diabetics should be testing regularly, or at all?

  2. xMenace

    I haven't tested for them in over 30 years.

  3. Subby

    Very simply, insulin allows the body to use sugars as fuel for the body.
    When the body doesn't have enough insulin, it turns to using fat reserves at a high rate and a by product is ketones.
    For a diabetic (usually type 1, but I assume some type 2's who's pancreas is hardly functioning) this can be a dangerous sign as there is no subsidary insulin from the pancreas, and the situation will escalate and ketoacidosis may be approaching. This is where actual blood chemistry is changed by the buildup of ketones (which are acidic). It's really bad new to say the least and a hospital shoud be your destination if it occurs!
    Ketones might start to occur around 13 mmol/l (230 mg/dl). This will be a different threshold for different people and different sitations. It is common to get ketones but not escalate to ketoacidosis, still it is a warning sign.
    So really, the question whether diabetics should check for ketones either regularly or at any time, comes down to the diabetic and the situation.
    The upshot is, if youre BG is testing very high, are feeling sick and show other signs of ketones, a ketone test might give you more information. Testing later will tell you if the ketones have passed.
    Other symptoms of ketones or encroaching ketoacidosis are sweet beath, sweat and urine, frequent urination, confusion, lethargy. Again, they should only occur if you are at an elevated level, so again in the normal run of things with regular BG testing and regular enough levels I wouldn't be testing for ketones. Like John I don't really see the value in it for myself. I will usually know how extreme a high is hitting me by BG and symptoms. But if you want that extra info, go for it.
    All just my opinion, ask your doc about it too! By the way you can get BG testers that test for ketones just like a BG test.

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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Author: Osama Hamdy, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP more... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Malaise, generalized weakness, and fatigability Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia Rapid weight loss in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: Gl Continue reading >>

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  1. beezala

    Hey everyone,
    I just wanted to tell people the cause of my hair loss issue, and to tell you to GO TO YOUR DOCTOR IF YOU ARE LOSING HAIR ON KETO. After 3 months I started losing hair and got a few greys, which I've never had before.
    Under everyone's advice here and on the web, I assumed it was telogen effluvium, which is common and temporary.
    After getting blood work, my doctor said I am very low in b12, which cab cause hair loss and loss of hair pigment. The solution for me: supplement daily with 1000mg b12. This is my first day supplementing.
    If left untreated, low b12 can be catastrophic. So please, do get checked out. B12 comes from animal products, so you must be wondering HOW I could possibly low on that if I eat keto.
    Apparently, it has something to do with grass fed animal products; the meat and cheese from these animals has higher levels of b12 than that of the grain fed variety. Also, it can be found in fruits and grains, which have been completely removed from my diet.
    Just some food for thought.
    EDIT: I've just read about how antibiotics can lead to b12 deficiency. I have posted before about antibiotics ruining my gut microbiome, and now I think it may have been the cause of my b12 deficiency. Apparently bad gut bacteria eats up the b12, so an overgrowth of it may be the culprit. But won't jump to conclusions until I speak with my doctor. The antibiotic I took was doxycycline for keto rash...
    UPDATE: Today is the first day I am noticing a little less hair loss than normal and it has been exactly 3 weeks since I started supplementing. There is less hair on my clothing/around me, but I am still not back to normal. Another symptom I've had is very dry/scaly/itchy scalp, which has appeared to calm down a bit the last couple of days. I'm hoping this means my body is readjusting to normal levels! Feeling optimistic.
    UPDATE 2: Confirming that after almost exactly 1 month of b12 supplementation, my hair loss is back to normal! Also, want to clarify that all of this is most likely NOT related to the Keto WOE, as my iron levels are also low and this is genetic, and apparently, they are related. Still waiting to hear from my doctor, but I may have a minor form of Thalassemia.

  2. hazeFL

    There is no B12 in fruit or grains.

  3. Addbutter

    I thought it was common knowledge since vegetarians always have to worry about not getting b12.

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DKA diabetic ketoacidosis nursing management pathophysiology & treatment. DKA is a complication of diabetes mellitus and mainly affects type 1 diabetics. DKA management includes controlling hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acdidosis. Signs & Symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, hyperglycemia greater than 300 mg/dL, Kussmaul breathing, acetone breath, and ketones in the urine. Typically DKA treatment includes: intravenous fluids, insulin therapy (IV regular insulin), and electrolyte replacement. This video details what the nurse needs to know for the NCLEX exam about diabetic ketoacidosis. I also touch on DKA vs HHS (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (please see the other video for more details). Quiz on DKA: http://www.registerednursern.com/diab... Lecture Notes for this video: http://www.registerednursern.com/diab... Diabetes NCLEX Review Videos: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c... Nursing School Supplies: http://www.registerednursern.com/the-... Nursing Job Search: http://www.registerednursern.com/nurs... Visit our website RegisteredNurseRN.com for free quizzes, nursing care plans, salary information, job search, and much more: http://www.registerednursern.com Check out other Videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/Register... Popular Playlists: "NCLEX Study Strategies": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Fluid & Electrolytes Made So Easy": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing Skills Videos": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing School Study Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing School Tips & Questions": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Types of Nursing Specialties": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Healthcare Salary Information": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "New Nurse Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing Career Help": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "EKG Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Personality Types": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Dosage & Calculations for Nurses": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Diabetes Health Managment": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients. Insulin deficiency can be absolute (eg, during lapses in the administration of exogenous insulin) or relative (eg, when usual insulin doses do not meet metabolic needs during physiologic stress). Common physiologic stresses that can trigger DKA include Some drugs implicated in causing DKA include DKA is less common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it may Continue reading >>

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  1. razhar

    Guys,my brother has been tested positive for type 2 diabetes..so I would like to buy him a glucose meter. Anyone knows what is the cheapest brand in terms of test strips and the meter too.
    any helps appreciated.

  2. redbluegreen

    Didn't the doctor who diagnosed your brother provide any helpful information? Anyway, I recall some posts in this forum about free or subsidised test strips from Klinik 1Malaysia. You could either call or visit the closest branch and ask about qualifying criteria, etc.
    » Click to show Spoiler - click again to hide... «

  3. razhar

    QUOTE(redbluegreen @ Feb 23 2014, 01:28 PM)
    Didn't the doctor who diagnosed your brother provide any helpful information? Anyway, I recall some posts in this forum about free or subsidised test strips from Klinik 1Malaysia. You could either call or visit the closest branch and ask about qualifying criteria, etc.
    » Click to show Spoiler - click again to hide... «
    provide nothing except asking him to be on tablet...and don't forget to come for next appointment...
    do u know where the links are?

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