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What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level For A Dog?

Blood Sugar Guidelines

Blood Sugar Guidelines

Absolute numbers vary between pets, and with meter calibrations. The numbers below are as shown on a typical home glucometer while hometesting blood glucose, not necessarily the more accurate numbers a vet would see (though many vets use meters similar to those used in hometesting). For general guidelines only, the levels to watch are approximately: mmol/L mg/dL(US) <2.2 <40 Readings below this level are usually considered hypoglycemic when giving insulin, even if you see no symptoms of it. Treat immediately[1] 2.7-7.5 50-130 Non-diabetic range[2] (usually unsafe to aim for when on insulin, unless your control is very good). These numbers, when not giving insulin, are very good news. 3.2-4.4 57-79 This is an average non-diabetic cat's level[3][4], but leaves little margin of safety for a diabetic on insulin. Don't aim for this range, but don't panic if you see it, either. If the number is not falling, it's healthy. 5 90 A commonly cited minimum safe value for the lowest target blood sugar of the day when insulin-controlled. 7.8 140 According to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)[5], threshold above which organ and pancreatic dysfunction may begin in hospitalized humans[6] and the maximum target for post-meal blood glucose in humans.[7] 5.5-10 100-180 Commonly used target range for diabetics, for as much of the time as possible. <10-15 <180-270 "Renal threshold" (varies between individuals, see below), when excess glucose from the kidneys spills into the urine and roughly when the pet begins to show diabetic symptoms. See Hyperglycemia for long-term effects of high blood glucose. 14 250 Approximate maximum safe value for the highest blood sugar of the day, in dogs, who are more sensitive to high blood sugar. Dogs can go blind at this level. Cats Continue reading >>

Monitoring Diabetes

Monitoring Diabetes

Even after a long period of stability, your dog or cat's insulin requirements may change as a result of: Change in exercise regimen This is why it's important to continually monitor your pet's progress and consult your veterinarian if there are sudden changes or if anything unusual happens. Monitoring your dog's or cat's glucose level Monitoring your pet's glucose level is an important part of the overall therapy for diabetes and can be done in 2 ways: Checking your pet's urine for the presence of glucose and ketones (a chemical produced by the body when it burns fat for energy). This is not as accurate as measuring glucose in the blood, but can be done at home easily. Measuring glucose level in your pet's blood. This is the most accurate method and is done either by your veterinarian in the clinic or at home with a portable glucometer and blood test strips. If your pet has significant weight gain or loss, talk to your veterinarian about how this may affect diabetes treatment. Monitoring glucose and ketones in your pet's urine Immediately following diagnosis, your veterinarian may ask you to check your pet's urine glucose, 1 to 3 times a day: FOR DOGS Early in the morning, just prior to the time of the Vetsulin injection and first meal. Late in the afternoon, before the second meal. Late in the evening. As your pet's management progresses, less frequent testing will be needed. Regular examinations remain important though, because your pet's insulin needs can change. What you need Clean containers for collecting urine. Urine dipsticks from your veterinarian. A place to record results. Collecting urine For dogs: take your dog out for a walk on a leash. Keep your dog on a leash so that it will be within reach when it urinates. For cats: place your cat in its litter box.* H Continue reading >>

Diet Tips For A Diabetic Dog

Diet Tips For A Diabetic Dog

Once a dog is diagnosed with diabetes they usually remain diabetic. While there are feeding and dietary strategies that can help keep their glucose levels low and well-controlled, they will usually require insulin injections lifelong. An excellent diet choice for a diabetic dog is a meat-based high protein food that is moderately fat and carbohydrate restricted. Carbohydrates, if included, should be low glycemic (for example, barley or sorghum). Ideally, at least 30 to 40% of the calories in your diabetic dog's food would come from protein and less than 30% of calories would come from fat and carbohydrates each. Further dietary fat restriction may be necessary if your diabetic dog has pancreatitis or blood fat elevations. Options to consider include Nature's Variety Instinct, Wysong, and Halo. Several studies indicate that high or moderately high–fiber diets may help some diabetics by minimizing their post–eating blood sugar fluctuations. While this is true for SOME dogs, a clear clinical benefit has not been shown for the majority of diabetic dogs. Sometimes high fiber diets will cause inappropriate weight loss (in a thin diabetic) and should be avoided. High fiber diets may also be associated with undesirable intestinal side effects such as decreased appetite (due to poor palatability), flatulence and diarrhea or constipation. If your dog is very overweight or obese and in need of weight loss, you might consider a diet with higher fiber to aid in weight loss. Instead of changing to a high fiber diet formulation (which often contains inferior ingredients), you can also consider adding supplemental fiber to your dog's regular diabetic food in order to increase the overall fiber content while still maintaining a high quality food. To best control your diabetic dog's Continue reading >>

Interpreting The Glucose Curves

Interpreting The Glucose Curves

The blood glucose level in non-diabetic dogs usually runs between about 70mg/dL and 140 mg/dl. In those fortunate dogs, pancreatic beta cells are continuously monitoring blood sugar levels and releasing insulin into the system as required. But dogs that have blood glucose levels persistently greater than 200mg/dL have diabetes. With the medicines of today, there is no way you can duplicate the normal situation with injected insulin. The best you can hope for is to keep your pet's blood sugar level between 100mg/dL and 150mg/dL. Occasional owners can attain that, but most will find that their dogs peak (spike) considerably higher. Larger or more frequent doses of insulin will drive down these glucose spikes. But that can be dangerous. You do not want the valleys (nadirs) in your dogs daily glucose levels to be too low (lower than 80mg/dL) because at slightly less than that, the dog will become hypoglycemic. With AM and PM injections, their should be two nadirs. The morning one is usually the lowest. The safest Low Nadir Point for a dog in insulin therapy is about 90 - 100. That is because, after the insulin injection, glucose follow a skateboard track downward and you will never know from your last glucometer reading how close you are to the bottom. So fudge on the side of caution. If your pet is persistently running over 200 - 250 mg/dL you should at least try to modify its treatment procedure to gain better control and regulation. To obtain tighter regulation, will probably require quite a bit of home blood glucose testing and effort on your part – at least at first. No matter how hard you try, it is not always possible. But please try not to get exasperated or make rash decisions on your own. You get to choose your veterinarian. But the veterinarian, not you, is the Continue reading >>

Normal Blood Glucose Levels In Dogs

Normal Blood Glucose Levels In Dogs

Normal blood glucose levels in dogs are actually somewhat similar to those in humans. Knowing a dog's blood glucose levels becomes important when an owner suspects or is treating a dog for diabetes. Blood Glucose in Dogs Healthy dogs have normal blood glucose levels, which tend to range from 75 to 120 milligrams per deciliter of blood. Dogs that have levels of 80 milligrams per deciliter or lower are likely to develop hypoglycemia. When reaching a level of 60 milligrams per deciliter or lower, a dog may go into shock, coma or even be at risk for death. On the other end of the spectrum, dogs that have blood sugar levels of 180 milligrams per deciliter on a consistent basis tend to need diabetic treatment as well. Maintaining normal blood glucose levels in dogs with either high or low blood sugar can be difficult, but is essential for extending the life of the pet. Suspecting Low or High Blood Sugar Most owners will first identify symptoms of low or high blood sugar in their dogs before they're able to actually test the dog's blood. A dog may be experiencing higher or lower blood sugar than normal if he exhibits the following: Excessive thirst Increased urination Loss of energy Excessive sleeping Loss of appetite Significant weight loss Some dogs are born with type 1 diabetes and may exhibit these symptoms as puppies. Other dogs develop type 2 diabetes at a later age. Senior dogs, overweight dogs and dogs that don't get adequate levels of exercise are at greatest risk of developing diabetes. Feeding a dog a poor diet can also increase his chances of developing the condition. Treating Diabetes in Dogs Once a vet has tested the dog's blood sugar levels and has determined that they fall outside of the range of normal blood glucose levels in dogs, the vet will most likely pre Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment

Diabetes is a chronic disease that can affect dogs and cats and other animals (including apes, pigs, and horses) as well as humans. Although diabetes cant be cured, it can be managed very successfully. Diabetes mellitus , or sugar diabetes, is the type of diabetes seen most often in dogs. It is a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to how the body converts food to energy. To understand what diabetes is, it helps to understand some of this process. The conversion of food nutrients into energy to power the bodys cells involves an ongoing interplay of two things: Glucose: essential fuel for the bodys cells. When food is digested, the body breaks down some of the nutrients into glucose, a type of sugar that is a vital source of energy for certain body cells and organs. The glucose is absorbed from the intestines into the blood, which then transports the glucose throughout the body. Insulin: in charge of fuel delivery. Meanwhile, an important organ next to the stomach called the pancreas releases the hormone insulin into the body. Insulin acts as a gatekeeper that tells cells to grab glucose and other nutrients out of the bloodstream and use them as fuel. With diabetes, the glucose-insulin connection isnt working as it should. Diabetes occurs in dogs in two forms: Insulin-deficiency diabetesThis is when the dogs body isnt producing enough insulin. This happens when the pancreas is damaged or otherwise not functioning properly. Dogs with this type of diabetes need daily shots to replace the missing insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes in dogs. Insulin-resistance diabetesThis is when the pancreas is producing some insulin, but the dogs body isnt utilizing the insulin as it should. The cells arent responding to the insulins message, so glucose isnt being pulled Continue reading >>

The Many Causes Of Hypoglycemia In Dogs And Cats

The Many Causes Of Hypoglycemia In Dogs And Cats

Hypoglycemia is when your pet's blood sugar drops and becomes too low. Find out here the causes, symptoms and treatment options available to pets whose glucose levels tend to rise and fall. Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is a potentially life-threatening situation for a dog or cat. Your pet’s blood sugar, or glucose, is their primary source of energy. When glucose levels drop below normal, it results in a loss of energy and decreased ability to function. In severe cases, a pet may lose consciousness or even die. Hypoglycemia is not a disease. It is instead a symptom that points to an underlying medical condition. Here we will look at the causes of hypoglycemia in dogs and cats, and what symptoms to watch for in your pet. There are many causes of hypoglycemia in pets, but the most common is related to diabetes treatment. Diabetes occurs when the body is not able to properly produce or process insulin, the hormone that allows glucose to travel to cells and transform into energy. Without insulin, the glucose remains in the bloodstream, and this is what is referred to as high blood sugar. Insulin injections are given to diabetic pets in order to even out blood sugar levels. However, if a pet parent accidentally gives their pet too much of the drug, it can cause the body to metabolize too much glucose, resulting in low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia. Glucose can also be over-metabolized as a result of insulin-secreting tumors or conditions that require a great deal of energy from the pet, including certain cancers, infection, sepsis, and pregnancy. While the most common, over-metabolization of glucose is not the only cause of hypoglycemia. Low blood sugar can also occur due to decreased production of glucose by the liver (often caused by liver disease, liver shunts, or Ad Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

Hyperglycemia in Dogs A dog with abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood is said to have hyperglycemia. A simple carbohydrate sugar that circulates in the blood, glucose is a major source of energy for the body, of which normal levels range between 75-120mg. Insulin, a hormone that is produced and released by the pancreas into the bloodstream when glucose levels rise, plays a key role in maintaining normal sugar levels. Low levels or absolute deficiency of insulin results in abnormally high blood sugar levels. Some of the causes for hyperglycemia may be pancreatitis, and the resulting inability to produce insulin; normally occurring hormones, especially in female dogs; diet; and infections of the body (such as teeth, or urinary tract). Middle aged and older dogs are more at risk for developing hyperglycemia, and it is more common in female dogs than in males. Any breed can be affected, but some smaller breeds appear to be more disposed, including beagles, cairn terriers, dachshunds, miniature poodles and schnauzers. Symptoms and Types Clinical symptoms may vary depending on the underlying disease/condition. Your dog may not be showing any serious symptoms, especially those if the increased sugar is thought to be temporary, hormonal, or stress induced hyperglycemia. Some of the more common symptoms include: Depression Weight loss Excessive hunger Dehydration Bloodshot eyes (due to inflamed blood vessels) Liver enlargement Nerve damage in legs Severe depression (in cases of very high blood sugar levels) Non-healing wounds;infection is increased as the excess sugar feeds fungal and bacterial invaders Tissue damage (due to oxidizing [burning] effect of the excess sugar in the tissue) Causes Other than high stress situations, harmful drug interactions (such as with he Continue reading >>

What’s The Normal Blood Glucose Range For Pets?

What’s The Normal Blood Glucose Range For Pets?

This week one of our readers asked me what the normal blood glucose range is for dogs and cats. One of her vets told her it was up to 170 mg/dl for cats. I agree! It can be that high if taken in a clinic environment where a cat may feels stress. Evaluations in a pet’s blood glucose do reflect the environment and stress level of the pet. Imagine that you were a cat. You were purr-fectly happy sunning yourself on the back of the couch in the family room by the big window. Ah, that’s the life. Suddenly, and without warning, your human nabs you and shoves you (despite your best Houdini-like efforts) into a box and puts you in the car. Oh how you hate going in cars! The car ride ends and you pray your human has come to her senses but no… You have arrived at the vet clinic and there are yapping dogs in the lobby. Even a non-diabetic cat could have a blood glucose level of 170 or more after such a harrowing experience. I’m not kidding. I live one mile from my own veterinary hospital and when I take my cats to work for a dental check or something else that I can’t do at home they scream in their carriers as if someone was beating them with a stick. This phenomenon is called “stress hyperglycemia”. It’s not unique to cats. I once saw a Chihuahua present to the ER with a blood glucose level in the 300s from stress hyperglycemia. This is all part of the fight or flight response. How does stress hyperglycemia occur? Remember learning about the fight or flight response back in high school? It’s that same thing. In a stressful situation you release adrenaline (a.k.a. epinephrine), which can cause the liver to produce more glucose to help you get away from the adversity. Cats are specialists in stress hyperglycemia. In my hospital I use in house blood machines and al Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs

What is diabetes mellitus? There are two forms of diabetes in dogs: diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is a very rare disorder that results in failure to regulate body water content. Diabetes mellitus is a fairly common disorder and is most often seen in dogs five years of age or older. A congenital (existing at birth) form of this disease can occur in puppies, but this is not common. Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas. This is a small but vital organ that is located near the stomach. It has two significant populations of cells. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta-cells, produces the hormone insulin. Simply put, diabetes mellitus is a failure of the pancreas to produce adequate amounts of insulin. Why is insulin so important? The role of insulin is much like that of a gatekeeper: It stands at the surface of body cells and opens the door, allowing glucose to leave the blood stream and pass inside the cells. Glucose, or blood sugar, is a vital substance that provides much of the energy needed for life and it must work inside the cells. Without an adequate amount of insulin, glucose is unable to get into the cells. It accumulates in the blood, setting in motion a series of events which can ultimately prove fatal. When insulin is deficient, the cells become starved for a source of energy. In response to this, the body starts breaking down stores of fat and protein to use as alternative energy sources. This causes the dog to eat more, but ultimately results in weight loss. The body tries to eliminate the excess glucose by excreting it in the urine. However, glucose attracts water, so the urine glucose that is excreted also contains large quantities of the body's fluids. Thi Continue reading >>

Give Me Some Sugar! Canine Low Blood Sugar–symptoms And Treatments

Give Me Some Sugar! Canine Low Blood Sugar–symptoms And Treatments

There is a dog blood-glucose disorder that goes by three names: Canine Hypoglycemia , Exertional Hypoglycemia and Sugar Fits. These names refer to one single condition: cells in your canine’s body aren’t receiving the needed amount of glucose. Your dog’s energy is derived from glucose that is supplied by the blood, but with Canine Hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels lower than 70 mg/dL should be cause for concern and are considered increasingly dangerous, of course, as the numbers go down. The normal level is 70-150 mg/dL. Different factors enter into the cause, but if you suspect your beloved family member might be diabetic, it’s important to have your canine-cutie diagnosed properly, and quickly, since untreated hypoglycemia can, ultimately, result in seizure/coma and death. Symptoms Of Canine Hypoglycemia: Disorientation or confusion Trembling lip Seizures (dogs 4 or over are more prone) Weakness-shakiness-dizziness Anxiety Lack-luster personality/lethargy/depression Prevention/Treatment: Obviously, the goal is to raise your pet’s blood-sugar level or maintain normal sugar levels; and this can be achieved in several ways: Feed your pet smaller, more frequent meals. There is a food supplement known as PetAlive GlucoBalance which aides in pancreatic and liver functions. Smaller meals, plus the PetAlive, can potentially correct the problem, but a blood test from your pet’s vet is required to properly determine if this regime-change will have made a difference. Treats should be avoided, at this time, unless permitted by your dog’s doctor. If you suspect your canine’s blood sugar is low, visiting the vet is crucial. The vet will, automatically, check blood-sugar levels. If necessary, a form of glucose will be fed intravenously -directly into the bloodstream Continue reading >>

Monitoring Blood Glucose At Home

Monitoring Blood Glucose At Home

A stable diabetic dog should have a blood glucose range of about 5 -12 mmol/l (90-216 mg/dl) for most of a 24 hour period. Your veterinary surgeon may ask if you are prepared to monitor blood glucose levels at home. This can be done in two ways and your veterinary surgeon will discuss the best option with you. Blood test strips similar to those used for testing urine can be used. A handheld glucometer can be used. Although not essential, handheld glucometers are easy to use and well worth the investment.Your veterinary surgeon will be able to advise you on what model best suits you and your dog's needs. Collecting and testing a blood sample During home monitoring, blood is usually collected from the earflap (pinna) of your dog. Make sure that your dog’s ear is warm. If not, hold it between your hands for about one minute. Warming the earflap makes collecting a drop of blood easier. Quickly prick a clean, hairless part of the ear with a sterile hypodermic needle or lancet. A small drop of blood will appear. Collect the drop onto the glucose test strip. Gently but firmly press some cottonwool onto your pet’s ear until it stops bleeding. Read the test strip or insert the sample into the glucometer as instructed. Blood glucose test strips Blood glucose strips are used to measure blood glucose concentration. A drop of blood is placed on the pad at the end of the strip. After the specified amount of time the pad is wiped and the colour is checked against the chart on the container. Read the instructions provided before use. Using a glucometer A drop of blood is placed on the provided strips, the strip is then inserted into the glucometer, and the blood glucose concentration is shown. Read the instructions provided before use. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs - Overview

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs - Overview

This handout provides general information about diabetes mellitus in dogs. For information about its treatment, see the fact sheets "Diabetes Mellitus - Principles of Treatment" and "Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment". What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas, a small but vital organ located near the stomach. The pancreas has two significant types of cells. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta cells, produces the hormone insulin. Insulin regulates the level of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream and controls the delivery of glucose to the tissues of the body. In simple terms, diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. The clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are related to elevated concentrations of blood glucose and the inability of the body to use glucose as an energy source. What are the clinical signs of diabetes and why do they occur? The four main symptoms of uncomplicated diabetes mellitus are increased thirst, increased urination, weight loss, and increased appetite. Glucose is a vital substance that provides much of the energy needed by cells, but it must first be absorbed by the cells. Insulin attaches to receptors on the surface of cells and opens "pores" in the cell wall that allow glucose molecules to leave the bloodstream and enter the cell's interior. Without an adequate amount of insulin to "open the door," glucose is unable to get into the cells, so it accumulates in the blood, setting in motion a series of events that result in diabetes mellitus. "When there isn't enough insulin, the cells of the body become starved for their promary source of energy - glucose." When there isn't enough insulin, the cells of the bod Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

High Blood Sugar In Dogs

A healthy dog has a blood glucose level ranging from 75 mg to 120 mg. A dog is diagnosed with high blood sugar, or as hyperglycemic, when it exhibits high blood glucose, or sugar above the normal range. Elevated blood sugar may be temporary, stress-induced, or a sign of a serious underlying disease such as pancreatitis or diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar is more common in female than male dogs, and is more likely to occur in older dogs. Elevated blood glucose can occur transiently fairly often for various reasons (diet, stress, exertion, medications). Moderately elevated glucose can indicate infections (dental, kidneys, bladder), inflammatory conditions (pancreatitis) and hormonal imbalances (Hyperadrenocorticism). However persistent high glucose levels in the blood is diagnostic of Diabetes Mellitus. High blood Sugar causes increased thirst and urination. See a veterinarian promptly if your dogs shows these symptoms. The warning signs for high blood sugar are varied. If your dog’s high blood sugar is temporary or the result of stress or medication, you may not see any symptoms. However, if it is the result of a serious disease, you will likely see some of the following: Wounds not healing; infections worsening Depression Enlarged liver Urinary tract or kidney infection Bloodshot eyes Cataracts Extreme fluctuation in weight, gaining or losing Obesity Hyperactivity Excessive thirst or hunger Increased frequency of urination High blood sugar can indicate one of the following issues: Diabetes mellitus, caused by a loss of pancreatic beta cells, which leads to decreased production of insulin, rending the dog unable to process sugar sufficiently. Pancreatitis, inflammation of the pancreas, which can damage insulin-producing cells, inhibiting the dog’s ability to proce Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs

There are two forms of diabetes in dogs: diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is sometimes called "drinking diabetes" and diabetes mellitus is also known as "sugar diabetes". Diabetes insipidus is a very rare disorder that results in failure to regulate body water content. Diabetes mellitus is more common in dogs, and is frequently diagnosed in dogs five years of age or older. This is also known as adult-onset diabetes. There is a congenital form that occurs in puppies called juvenile diabetes, but this is rare in dogs. Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas. This is a small but vital organ located near the stomach. It has two significant populations of cells. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta-cells, produce the hormone insulin. Simply put, diabetes mellitus is a failure of the pancreatic beta cells to regulate blood sugar. Some people with diabetes take insulin shots, and others take oral medication. Is this true for dogs? In humans, two types of diabetes mellitus have been discovered. Both types are similar in that there is a failure to regulate blood sugar, but the basic mechanisms of disease differ somewhat between the two groups. Most dogs with diabetes mellitus will require daily insulin injections to regulate their blood glucose. Type I or Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus results from total or near-complete destruction of the beta-cells. This is the most common type of diabetes in dogs. As the name implies, dogs with this type of diabetes require insulin injections to stabilise blood glucose levels. Type II or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus is different because some insulin-producing cells remain. However, the amount produced is insufficient, there is a Continue reading >>

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