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What Is A Normal Blood Ketone Level?

Monitoring Ketone And Blood Glucose Levels On A Low Carb Diet

Monitoring Ketone And Blood Glucose Levels On A Low Carb Diet

By Mary T. Newport M.D. While it is not necessary to measure ketone levels, many people who make the change to a low carb, ketogenic diet and/or use ketone salts would like to have some positive proof that their ketone levels are, in fact, elevated. When transitioning from a higher carb to a low carb, ketogenic type diet, it can take several days to begin to see an increase in ketone levels and the ketone level may continue to rise for two or three weeks before it levels off. The ketone level can fluctuate somewhat throughout the day and can vary considerably from person to person. Using ketone salts, such as Prüvit KETO//OS® or KETO//OS Max, as a supplement can give you a jump start on getting into ketosis and increase ketone levels within 30 to 60 minutes of taking the product. Using coconut oil and MCT oil as part of the diet can help increase and sustain ketone levels as well. There are several ways available to measure ketone levels in urine, blood or by using a breath analyzer. When blood levels of ketones become elevated, the excess ketones will filter out of the blood into the urine. Urine ketone test strips were originally developed for diabetics to help determine if they are going into diabetic ketoacidosis when the blood sugar is elevated. There are a number of companies that sell urine test strips that change color when ketone levels are elevated – usually the deeper the color, the higher the ketone level. This will not tell you what your actual blood ketone level is but can give you a rough idea of whether you are in ketosis or not. However, one of the drawbacks to using urine test strips is that they only measure the ketone acetoacetate and not beta-hydroxybutyrate, which tends to be much more elevated than acetoacetate during ketosis. Also, Prüvit ke Continue reading >>

5 Day Water Fast Results (self Experiment)

5 Day Water Fast Results (self Experiment)

I’m not a fan of cancer. The only people I’ve lost in memory – my grandfather and other close family – it was cancer that took them. NOT putting an end to the fun of life because of cancer has been a part of my plan since my early 20s. So after my discussion with Dr. Thomas Seyfried in episode 16 I was looking forward to put his 5 day water fast “cancer insurance policy” to work. As I read into the details to start planning my prolonged fast what I found convinced me even more this was something I had to do soon. Maybe what I discovered would inspire you to try a 5 day fast soon too? Fasting for Reasons Beyond Cancer Since getting bitten by a tick in Phuket, Thailand a few years ago I’ve been fighting some chronic health issues. I discovered that it’s probable that these are at least in some part due to lyme disease and babesiosis infections I only got documented earlier this year (and thus had never been treated for). It bears mentioning, since there’s a fair amount of non-rigorous and dubious material on the internet on the subject of lyme disease in particular, that this was documented via the IgM/ IgG labs, and met CDC criteria. What does this have to do with fasting? It comes down to this: Having a stronger immune system gives you a better chance of eliminating lyme. Since in cases like mine where it was not treated in the early stages it seems to be relatively tricky and long-winded to get rid of. I’ve made it a rule to collect and put into practice anything that improves the odds of a quicker recovery. And… fasting is a potential new tool to speed up recovery. Valter Longo, Director of the USC Longevity Institute, has published a large number of studies on fasting and caloric restriction and their application to treat disease and enhance agi Continue reading >>

What Are Ketones?

What Are Ketones?

What are ketones and what causes them? Ketones are the result of the body burning fat for energy or fuel. For a person with diabetes, ketones are often the result of prolonged high blood sugar and insulin deficiency. Without the right amount of insulin, glucose starts to build up in the blood stream and doesn't enter the cells. The cells burn fat instead of glucose, and ketones form in the blood and spill into the urine. Some causes of high blood sugar are: Missing an insulin dose or skipping some oral medications. A disconnected or blocked insulin pump tube. Being sick with the flu. High levels of stress. Eating more carbohydrates than your medication covers. What are the signs that I should test for ketones? Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, frequent thirst, blurry vision, dry mouth, vomiting, and fatigue. There are several scenarios that should prompt a test for ketones. If your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dl for two tests in a row. When you are ill. When your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dl and you are planning on exercising. If you are pregnant, you should test for ketones each morning before breakfast and whenever blood sugars are elevated. How do I test for ketones? There are two ways to test for ketones - by testing your urine or your blood. Ketones appear first in the blood stream and are later present in the urine, so testing your blood for ketones is the best way to check for an early problem. To check urine for ketones, you must collect a urine sample or dip a ketone test strip into a fresh stream of urine. After waiting for the time suggested by the ketone strip manufacturer, you compare the color strip to the chart on the bottle. The darker the color, the higher the amount of ketones in the urine. At this time, there are just a few mete Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Print Diagnosis There are several blood tests for type 1 diabetes in children: Random blood sugar test. This is the primary screening test for type 1 diabetes. A blood sample is taken at a random time. Regardless of when your child last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L), or higher suggests diabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This test indicates your child's average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample is taken after your child fasts overnight. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 1 diabetes. Additional tests Your doctor will likely recommend additional tests to confirm the type of diabetes that your child has. It's important to distinguish between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes because treatment strategies differ. These additional tests include: Blood tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes Urine tests to check for the presence of ketones, which also suggests type 1 diabetes rather than type 2 After the diagnosis Your child will need regular follow-up appointments to ensure good diabetes management and to check his or her A1C levels. The American Diabetes Association recommends an A1C of 7.5 or lower for all children. Your doctor also will periodically use blood and urine tests to check your child's: Cholesterol levels Thyroid function Kidney function In addition, your doctor will regularly: Assess your child's blood pressure and growth Check the sites Continue reading >>

Ketone Testing

Ketone Testing

Tweet Ketone testing is a key part of type 1 diabetes management as it helps to prevent a dangerous short term complication, ketoacidosis, from occurring. If you have type 1 diabetes, it is recommended that you have ketone testing supplies on your prescription. Ketone testing may also be useful in people with other types of diabetes that are dependent upon insulin. Why test for ketones? Ketones are produced by the body as an alternative source of energy to sugar. The body produces ketones by breaking down fats, this process is known as ketosis. Ketones may be produced as part of weight loss, however, it’s important for people with diabetes on insulin to note that ketones can be produced when the body has insufficient insulin. When the body has too little insulin, it means that cells of the body cannot take in enough sugar from the blood. To compensate for this, the body will start to break down fat to provide ketones. However, if a high level of ketones is produced, this can cause the blood to become acidic which can lead to illness and even potential danger to organs if not treated in time. This state is referred to as diabetic ketoacidosis. Where can I get ketone testing kits and sensors? The most accurate way of testing for ketones is to use a meter that measures blood ketone levels. The following blood glucose meters are able to test blood ketone levels in addition to blood glucose levels: Abbott - FreeStyle Optium Neo Menarini - GlucoMen LX Plus If you take insulin, you should be able to get these prescribed by your GP. You can also test urine for ketone levels, however, urine ketone testing is not as accurate as blood ketone testing as the levels of ketones in the urine will usually only reflect a level of up to a few hours previously. When to test for ketones? Continue reading >>

What Are Ketones And Their Tests?

What Are Ketones And Their Tests?

A ketone test can warn you of a serious diabetes complication called diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. An elevated level of this substance in your blood can mean you have very high blood sugar. Too many ketones can trigger DKA, which is a medical emergency. Regular tests you take at home can spot when your ketone levels run too high. Then you can take insulin to lower your blood sugar level or get other treatments to prevent complications. What Exactly Are Ketones? Everyone has them, whether you have diabetes or not. Ketones are chemicals made in your liver. You produce them when you don't have enough of the hormone insulin in your body to turn sugar (or “glucose”) into energy. You need another source, so your body uses fat instead. Your liver turns this fat into ketones, a type of acid, and sends them into your bloodstream. Your muscles and other tissues can then use them for fuel. For a person without diabetes, this process doesn’t become an issue. But when you have diabetes, things can run out of control and you build up too many ketones in your blood. If the level goes too high, it can become life-threatening. Who Needs a Ketone Test? You might need one if you have type 1 diabetes. In this type, your immune system attacks and destroys cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Without it, your blood sugar rises. People with type 2 diabetes can also get high ketones, but it isn't as common as it is with type 1. Tests can show you when your level gets high so you can treat it before you get sick. When Should You Test? Your doctor will probably tell you to test your ketones when: Your blood sugar is higher than 250 milligrams/deciliter (mg/dl) for two days in a row You're sick or you've been injured You want to exercise and your blood sugar level is over 250 mg/dl Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Guidelines

Blood Sugar Guidelines

Absolute numbers vary between pets, and with meter calibrations. The numbers below are as shown on a typical home glucometer while hometesting blood glucose, not necessarily the more accurate numbers a vet would see (though many vets use meters similar to those used in hometesting). For general guidelines only, the levels to watch are approximately: mmol/L mg/dL(US) <2.2 <40 Readings below this level are usually considered hypoglycemic when giving insulin, even if you see no symptoms of it. Treat immediately[1] 2.7-7.5 50-130 Non-diabetic range[2] (usually unsafe to aim for when on insulin, unless your control is very good). These numbers, when not giving insulin, are very good news. 3.2-4.4 57-79 This is an average non-diabetic cat's level[3][4], but leaves little margin of safety for a diabetic on insulin. Don't aim for this range, but don't panic if you see it, either. If the number is not falling, it's healthy. 5 90 A commonly cited minimum safe value for the lowest target blood sugar of the day when insulin-controlled. 7.8 140 According to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)[5], threshold above which organ and pancreatic dysfunction may begin in hospitalized humans[6] and the maximum target for post-meal blood glucose in humans.[7] 5.5-10 100-180 Commonly used target range for diabetics, for as much of the time as possible. <10-15 <180-270 "Renal threshold" (varies between individuals, see below), when excess glucose from the kidneys spills into the urine and roughly when the pet begins to show diabetic symptoms. See Hyperglycemia for long-term effects of high blood glucose. 14 250 Approximate maximum safe value for the highest blood sugar of the day, in dogs, who are more sensitive to high blood sugar. Dogs can go blind at this level. Cats Continue reading >>

Ketones Urine Test

Ketones Urine Test

Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that you can buy at a drug store. The kit contains dipsticks coated with chemicals that react with ketone bodies. A dipstick is dipped in the urine sample. A color change indicates the presence of ketones. This article describes the ketone urine test that involves sending collected urine to a lab. A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, the health care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile wipes. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate. Continue reading >>

What Are Normal Blood Glucose And Ketone Levels?

What Are Normal Blood Glucose And Ketone Levels?

Elevated insulin and blood glucose levels are associated with a wide range of health issues including obesity, mental health, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. “Normal” blood sugars are not necessarily optimal for long-term health. Most people are somewhere on the spectrum between optimal blood sugars and full-blown Type 2 Diabetes. Maintaining blood sugars closer to optimum levels is possibly the most important thing you can do to manage your health, reduce body fat and slow ageing. Blood ketones tend to rise as blood glucose levels decrease, though they can vary depending on a number of factors. People who are physically fit and/or who have been following a ketogenic lifestyle for a long period do not tend to show very high blood ketone levels. “Diabetes” refers to a group of metabolic diseases where a person has high blood sugars over an extended period of time. Diabetes is expensive. In 2012 it cost the US a quarter of a trillion dollars in hospital costs and lost productivity and the cost of “diabesity” is forecast to triple by 2050 grow and become a major burden our economy. Diabesity has even been classed as a matter of economic and national security (Pompkin, 2013). One in twelve people are considered to have Type 2 diabetes, however, forty percent of the US population is considered to be “pre-diabetic” and this number is forecast to grow by more than half over the next two decades to 592 million people by 2035. If you have prediabetes you have a one in two chance of progressing to Type 2 Diabetes within five years. The generally accepted diagnosis levels for prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes are shown in the table below. fasting after meal hbA1c % pop mg/dL mmol/L mg/dL mmol/L % “normal” < 100 < 5.6 < 140 < 7.8 < 6.0% 50% pre-diabeti Continue reading >>

Ketones In Blood And Urine

Ketones In Blood And Urine

Ketones are a chemical compound produced by the body to provide energy from the breaking down of fats and protein. The production of ketones is usually a natural process but people that require insulin doses, such as those with type 1 diabetes, need to be aware that high levels of ketones can quickly lead to a very dangerous condition called ketoacidosis. Who should test for ketones? People who should test for ketones are people that make very little of their own insulin. This commonly includes individuals with: Type 1 diabetes LADA diabetes who are on insulin Type 2 diabetes who have decreased beta cell function, or people who have had a pancreatectomy (surgical removal of the pancreas) Why are ketone levels important? Ketone levels rise when cells in the body need energy but there is not enough insulin in the body to let glucose from the blood into those cells. As a result the body turns to metabolizing fats and proteins to form ketones to use as energy. If the body needs to convert energy in this way for an extended period of time, it can cause higher levels of acidic ketones to develop in the blood and have a toxic effect on the body, resulting in a dangerous condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). People that don’t make enough of their own insulin need to be aware of any instances in which ketones levels are rising too high. When to test? It is advisable to test for ketones in the following situations: If your blood glucose levels are 240 mg/dL or more If you develop higher sugar levels when ill If you are vomiting or experiencing diarrhea During pregnancy How to test Ketone tests can be carried either using urine ketone testing strips or using a specialist blood glucose meter that takes blood ketone strips as well as blood glucose test strips. Most urine k Continue reading >>

Ketosis & Measuring Ketones

Ketosis & Measuring Ketones

Generally, ketone concentrations are lower in the morning and higher in the evening. Whatever time you pick to measure ketone levels, make sure to keep it consistent. Also, do not measure your ketone levels right after exercise. Ketone levels tend to be lower while your glucose levels higher so you won't get representative numbers. Keep in mind there are daily fluctuations caused by changes in hormone levels. Don't get discouraged! Another aspect that affects the level of ketones is the amount of fat in your diet. Some of you may show higher concentration of ketones after a high-fat meal. Coconut oil contains MCTs that will help you boost ketones. To easily increase your fat intake on a ketogenic diet, try fat bombs - snacks with at least 80% fat content. Ketone levels tend to be higher after extensive aerobic exercise as your body depletes glycogen stores. Exercise may help you get into ketosis faster. ketogenic "fruity" breath is not pleasant for most people. To avoid this, drink a lot of water, mint tea and make sure you eat foods rich in electrolytes. Avoid too many chewing gums and mints, as it may put you out of ketosis; there may be hidden carbs affecting your blood sugar. Increase your electrolyte intake, especially potassium. You are likely going to lose some sodium and potassium when switching to the keto diet. Finally, if you find it hard to lose weight on a ketogenic diet, there may be plenty other reasons than the level of ketone bodies: Not Losing Weight on Low-Carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up and Read Further. Continue reading >>

Ketone Levels

Ketone Levels

The classic 1983 study by Dr Phinney measured the athletes blood BOHB as 1.28 mmol/L at rest[6]. This makes me wonder if there is a "Goldilocks effect" to ketone levels. Too high may indicate too little protein, and poor glycogen stores, that may impair endurance performance. The level required to be ketogenic (hyperketonemia) has been suggested as 0.2 mmol/L measured as the combination of AcAc and BOHB in whole blood as this is slightly above the levels seen in "normal" individuals[7]. Personally, I'd argue this is too low to be considered ketogenic, as this level is seen in people on a high carbohydrate diet after a night's sleep. The book "The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living" calls the range 0.5 to 5.0 mmol/L of blood ketones "nutritional ketosis"[8] The follow on book "The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance" suggests that BOHB levels of 0.5 mmol/L to 3.0 mmol/L is "optimal"[9], with benefits starting at 0.5 mmol/L and improving to 3.0 mmol/L, but levels above 3.0 mmol/L not producing additional benefits[10]. (It is unclear what research these levels are based on.) For epilepsy, the recommendation is for AcAc to be 80-160 mmol/L as measured by urine dipstick[11], though this level is not necessarily sufficient[12]. The range of 2 to 7 mmol/L[13] or 2 to 5 mmol/L[14] has been suggested in some literature as a "therapeutic" range. A study of 74 children on the ketogenic diet for epilepsy found that blood BOHB levels of greater than 4 mmol/L were correlated with better seizure control than those with lower levels[12]. A 28 day study of five Parkinson's patients on the Ketogenic Diet had blood BOHB levels averaging 6.6 mmol/L (range 4.8 to 8.9) and showed some signs of improvements, though the study was too small for any conclusions to be drawn [1 Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

Roles And Responsibilities

Roles And Responsibilities

Nursing staff have an important role and clear responsibilities when treating patients with diabetes or who are having tests to diagnose diabetes. This role and associated responsibilities will be specified in local workplace guidance and policies and by each member of the nursing team's level of competence. If you are not familiar with the guidance in relation to diabetes care in your work setting, it is important to find out where it is so you can be sure you're providing safe patient care, particularly if you are required to perform tests and observations for your patients. Explore the following activity to learn more about some of the specific competencies relating to caring for a patient with diabetes. Screening, prevention and early detection of type 2 diabetes To prevent and aid early detection of type 2 diabetes you should be able to: describe the risk factors for type 2 diabetes explain the importance of prevention or delay of onset of type 2 diabetes in individuals at risk explain the role that exercise plays in the prevention of, or delay in progression to, type 2 diabetes explain the importance of weight control and the role that diet plays in the prevention of, or delay in progression to, type 2 diabetes. Promoting self-care In order to support the patient to self-care their diabetes you should be able to: support the patient and help them develop their own self-care with guidance from a registered nurse observe and report any concerns that you may have about a patient that would affect their ability to self-care encourage patients to use their personalised care plans. Mental health To care for someone with diabetes and mental illness you should be able to: have an understanding and awareness of how mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety, can Continue reading >>

Blood Ketones Test

Blood Ketones Test

What are the other Names for this Test? (Equivalent Terms) Ketone Bodies Test Plasma Ketone Test Serum Ketone Test What is Blood Ketones Test? (Background Information) Blood Ketones Test is used to measure the amount of ketones in blood. Ketones are toxic chemicals produced as a result of fat metabolism, when glucose is not available for energy Glucose is normally metabolized in the body for energy. If sugar (glucose) is not sufficiently available in the diet, to provide energy to the body, or if the body cannot utilize the sugar present in the body (as with type I and type II diabetes), fat is metabolized in the body producing ketones Ketones accumulate in the body leading to a condition, called ketosis, and ultimately ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening condition, commonly seen during uncontrolled type I diabetes. The blood sugar may reach very high levels in diabetic patients; especially during an infection, illness, pregnancy, etc. resulting in ketoacidosis The common causes resulting in ketosis or ketoacidosis are: Uncontrolled type I diabetes and sometimes, type II diabetes Starvation, fasting, or eating disorder, like anorexia nervosa or bulimia Alcoholism or alcohol poisoning High-fat low-sugar diet Pregnancy Vigorous exercising What are the Clinical Indications for performing the Blood Ketones Test? Following are the clinical indications for performing a Blood Ketones Test: The test is frequently performed during uncontrolled type I diabetes, when ketoacidosis is suspected. This condition is called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) It is used to screen, detect, and monitor patients, with ketoacidosis The common signs and symptoms suggestive of ketoacidosis are: Increased thirst Frequent urination Rapid and deep breathing, shortness of breath Continue reading >>

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