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What Is A Dka Episode?

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin ( type 1 diabetes ) or can't respond to insulin properly ( type 2 diabetes ). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or te Continue reading >>

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  1. bpeterson2

    > ultra low carbing and depression/anxiety

    Hi-
    been low carbing since aug '03. started off on south beach, had great, fast results (down 10 pounds, with 15-pound goal) and found it easy to follow. what i noticed is that I stayed on a very, very restrictive version, eating little or no breads, pastas, vegetables, and fruits. I didn't exclude them, just really did embrace them. I guess I was enjoying the weight loss and wanted it to continue. with the exception of a bowl of granola-like cereal and some fruit, I pretty muhc avoided all carbs.
    My question - looking back, i noticed that within a month or so of starting the diet, I began suffering pretty good anxiety. yes, my life grew more stressful, but I felt that i was becoming easily overwhelmed. generally, i felt jittery, nervous with little reason why. this lasted for more than a year, when I entered into a kiund of full-blown anxiety. I am currently in therapy and take an anti-dpressant, which has given me a lot of reliet. However, I'm still not me. the one constant has been my ultra low carb diet. this last week i began eating complex carbs and feel so much better. Anyone else had this kind of reaction to very low carb dieting?
    Thanks,
    Brent

  2. Nancy LC

    I'm glad you're eating more healthily! Get those veggies, and fruits if you're so inclined, back into the diet. Some people just don't do well on extremely low-carb. You might be one of them!

  3. Nancy LC

    Wow, you sure posted this same thing in a lot of places.

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DKA and HHS (HHNS) nursing NCLEX lecture review of the treatment, patient signs/symptoms, and management. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemia nonketotic syndrome are two complications that can present in diabetes mellitus. DKA is more common in type 1 diabetics, whereas, HHNS is more common in type 2 diabetics. Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis will present with ketosis and acidosis and signs/symptoms will include hyperglycemia (greater than 300 mg/dL), Kussmaul breathing, fruity (acetone breath), ketones in the urine, and metabolic acidosis. Patients with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome will NOT have ketosis or acidosis but EXTREME hyperglycemia (greater than 600 mg/dL). In addition, hyperosmolarity will present which will cause major osmotic diuresis and the patient will experience with severe dehydration. Quiz on DKA vs HHNS: http://www.registerednursern.com/dka-... Lecture Notes for this video: http://www.registerednursern.com/dka-... Diabetes NCLEX Review Series: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Video on DKA (detailed lecture): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IxrCV... Video on HHNS (detailed lecture): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LyExA... Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c... Nursing School Supplies: http://www.registerednursern.com/the-... Nursing Job Search: http://www.registerednursern.com/nurs... Visit our website RegisteredNurseRN.com for free quizzes, nursing care plans, salary information, job search, and much more: http://www.registerednursern.com Check out other Videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/Register... Popular Playlists: "NCLEX Study Strategies": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Fluid & Electrolytes Made So Easy": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing Skills Videos": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing School Study Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing School Tips & Questions": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Types of Nursing Specialties": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Healthcare Salary Information": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "New Nurse Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing Career Help": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "EKG Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Personality Types": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Dosage & Calculations for Nurses": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Diabetes Health Managment": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

The hallmark of diabetes is a raised plasma glucose resulting from an absolute or relative lack of insulin action. Untreated, this can lead to two distinct yet overlapping life-threatening emergencies. Near-complete lack of insulin will result in diabetic ketoacidosis, which is therefore more characteristic of type 1 diabetes, whereas partial insulin deficiency will suppress hepatic ketogenesis but not hepatic glucose output, resulting in hyperglycaemia and dehydration, and culminating in the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. Hyperglycaemia is characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly in the previously undiagnosed, but it is the acidosis and the associated electrolyte disorders that make this a life-threatening condition. Hyperglycaemia is the dominant feature of the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, causing severe polyuria and fluid loss and leading to cellular dehydration. Progression from uncontrolled diabetes to a metabolic emergency may result from unrecognised diabetes, sometimes aggravated by glucose containing drinks, or metabolic stress due to infection or intercurrent illness and associated with increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Since diabetic Continue reading >>

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  1. lilnurse

    I messed up, but I am still in Onederland (Under 200 pounds). I'm a 25 year old female who started at 204 pounds last week. I am now 199 pounds...was 197..but messed up twice pretty darn bad. I noticed it's ALWAYS when I have diet coke..so I am steering clear of fake sugars. I plan on doing Stillman's as long as I can..my only complaint is nausea. My cravings for bad stuff aren't really strong..but I have this feeling that I want to have bread or something to calm my nausea. That's the only thing I dislike for now. I messed up last night so I am trying to stay on it today. I'm already sick of the food choices lol. I'm a meat eater, but this is restricted. Hey, at least it's easy.
    I'm feeling a little pressured because I have an event in exactly 2 months from Monday. I really want to be as "slimmed" down as possible by then. I won't be anywhere near my goal weight, but hopefully look halfway acceptable. I do carry my weight really well. I was curious, how much did you guys lose in the first 2 months? What is your height, age, and starting weight? I have done calorie counting diets where I maintained 1,450/day and I lose around 30 pounds in just under 3 months..no working out involved. I was also 196 pounds to start. So yes, like now, I was chunky.
    Lastly, how long did it take you guys to go into ketosis, and after that did you notice your weight loss increase?
    PS. Right now I am taking a multi-vitamin, potassium, calcium, and occasional magnesium tablet.

  2. aleriaaa

    Hi lilnurse!!! I lost 10 pounds this week! I normally feel a little off the first few days of Stillmans. Sometimes I feel like I have a cold, sometimes Im sick to my stomach, and most of all, Im really cranky. This lasts about 2-3 days. Those first 2-3 days are also the hardest to get through because we feel so crappy. I can assure you, and the others will agree, that this passes, and by day 4 and 5, your appetite and cravings will be minimal, and you'll get your energy back. If you feel nauseous, just eat a little more meat, or have an egg. (the extra fat in the egg will probably help).
    Im guessing it takes me 2-3 days for ketosis, cause thats about the time when I feel like myself again! If you get a week under your belt you'll think your eyes are playin tricks on you when you look at the scale!!
    If you can commit to the first few days, you will be golden. Its gonna take a lot of willpower, so summon it up!!! The worst thing we can do to ourselves is get through those days and then cheat. Then we are stuck doing it all over again.
    You can lose this weight in time for your event, but any bite off plan will set you back a week. Those arent my words, they are Stillmans.
    I also wanted to point out his 14-day Shape up plan. It includes small amounts of yogurt, and veggies. This might be an option for you if you are having trouble sticking to plain ole meat.
    I want you to succeed and I know you can. We're here if you need to chat, or complain, or have more questions! Keep checkin in and you will be amazed at your results!!!

  3. lilnurse

    I'm on day 2..I didn't mess up yesterday...lost about 3 pounds in a day...most obviously from all those carbs I pigged out on the day before. I'm now 196.2 pounds. Not bad. I just had a shrimp omelette with ketchup. That seems to be my saving grace...ketchup. I'm going to start a thread on moderation. I use leftover small packets from my guy's eating out or order-in stuff. I honestly used about 3, which means I had about 30 calories in ketchup. Those things are small. I would like to get to the point where I'm not using them at all. Tonight I am going to use my george foreman and chop up onions and season some ground turkey with adobe to make burgers. I will squeeze some mustard on those. I know I am probably only following the QWL about 90ish%, but I am getting there. I feel OK today, funny enough. I was a little blah when I first started...then I ended up cheating that next day...today I want to stick to this QWL for more than a week..that's my mini-goal. Thanks aleria

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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half Continue reading >>

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