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What Happens To Unused Glucose In The Body?

If Unused Carbs Turn Into Fat In Our Body, What Do Protein And Fat Turn Into?

If Unused Carbs Turn Into Fat In Our Body, What Do Protein And Fat Turn Into?

Answered Sep 12, 2017 Author has 393 answers and 185.4k answer views Protein is a vital macronutrient required as a component of all the cells in our bodies, it also controls the rate at which the myriad of chemical conversions in our cells take place. Protein is involved in growth, repair (healing) and general maintenance of the body. An adequate supply of dietary protein is essential to maintain cellular integrity and function and for health and reproduction. From dietary protein we can create between 50 and 70,000 new types of proteins to support the function of our bodies. Unlike carbohydrate protein is not generally stored by the body and must be obtained through regular eating. We do not store reserves of protein except in the form of muscle, so we need a daily intake to maintain all the various processes that require protein. Fats fall into 3 categories, saturated fats, monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats. It is interesting to note that nearly all foods contain a mixture of all 3 of these fats. Butter for example is 52% saturated fat, 21% monounsaturated fat and 3% polyunsaturated fat, with olive oil being 14% saturated fat, 73% monounsaturated fat and 8% polyunsaturated fat. Interestingly even spinach contains a balance of all 3 types of fat with 0.1% saturated fat, 0.1% monounsaturated fat and 0.5% polyunsaturated fat. Fats are key components of your cell membranes, protect your nervous system and are a rich source of energy. Fat in the diet also enables the absorption of vital fat soluble vitamins and health supporting phytochemicals. For more information and the foods highest in protein, meat, vegetarian and vegan, see - Protein For more information and the foods highest in fats, meat, vegetarian and vegan, see - Fats Answered Sep 12, 2017 Author h Continue reading >>

Utilization Of Dietary Glucose In The Metabolic Syndrome

Utilization Of Dietary Glucose In The Metabolic Syndrome

Utilization of dietary glucose in the metabolic syndrome 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 2CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Spain 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 2CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Spain Received 2011 Sep 20; Accepted 2011 Oct 26. Copyright 2011 Alemany; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This review is focused on the fate of dietary glucose under conditions of chronically high energy (largely fat) intake, evolving into the metabolic syndrome. We are adapted to carbohydrate-rich diets similar to those of our ancestors. Glucose is the main energy staple, but fats are our main energy reserves. Starvation drastically reduces glucose availability, forcing the body to shift to fatty acids as main energy substrate, sparing glucose and amino acids. We are not prepared for excess dietary energy, our main defenses being decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, largely enhanced metabolic activity and thermogenesis. High lipid availability is a powerful factor decreasing glucose and amino acid oxidation. Present-day diets are often hyperenergetic, high on lipids, with abundant protein and limited amounts of starchy carbohydrates. Dietary lipids favor their metabolic processing, saving glucose, which additionally spares amino acids. The glucose excess elicits hyperinsulinemia, wh Continue reading >>

This Is Exactly What Happens To Your Body When You Eat A Ton Of Sugar

This Is Exactly What Happens To Your Body When You Eat A Ton Of Sugar

As mouth-watering as a sugar-laden sundae or icing-topped cupcake is, we should all know by now that sugar isn't exactly healthy. In fact, it may be one of the worst things you can eat (that is, if you're trying to live a long, healthy life). One study from UC San Francisco actually found that drinking sugary drinks like soda can age your body on a cellular level as quickly as cigarettes. The way the sweet stuff impacts your body is way more complex than just causing weight gain. In fact, when you eat a ton of sugar, almost every part of your body feels the strain—and that's bad news for your health in both the short term and especially the long term. From an initial insulin spike to upping your chances of kidney failure down the road, this is what really happens in your body when you load up on sugar. Your brain responds to sugar the same way it would to cocaine. Eating sugar creates a surge of feel-good brain chemicals dopamine and serotonin. So does using certain drugs, like cocaine. And just like a drug, your body craves more after the initial high. "You then become addicted to that feeling, so every time you eat it you want to eat more," explains Gina Sam, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Gastrointestinal Motility Center at The Mount Sinai Hospital. Your insulin spikes to regulate your blood sugar. "Once you eat glucose, your body releases insulin, a hormone from your pancreas," Dr. Sam explains. The insulin's job is to absorb the excess glucose in the blood and stabilize sugar levels. And a little while later you get that familiar sugar crash. Once the insulin does its job, your blood sugar drops again. Which means you've just experienced a sugar rush, and then a drastic drop, leaving you feeling drained. "That's the feeling you get when you've gone to the buffet a Continue reading >>

Protein Will Not Make You Fat

Protein Will Not Make You Fat

Here's what you need to know... While it's biochemically possible for protein to turn into fat by ingesting extremely high numbers of calories or extremely large amounts of protein, it's unlikely you'll ever be in that situation. You can pretty much eat as much protein as you want and it won't turn to fat. That old chestnut about only being able to absorb 30 grams of protein in one sitting is bunk. Aside from building muscle, protein provides essential amino acids that serve as the building blocks for other proteins, enzymes, and hormones within the body that are vital for normal functioning. Without this steady supply of amino acids, the body resorts to breaking down its own proteins – typically from muscle – in order to meet this demand. Protein has its share of misconceptions. It's not uncommon to hear claims that dietary protein eaten in excess of some arbitrary number will be stored as body fat. Even those who are supposed to be reputable sources for nutrition information propagate this untenable dogma. While paging through a nutrition textbook I came across a section in the protein chapter regarding amino acids and energy metabolism (1). To quote the book directly: "Eating extra protein during times of glucose and energy sufficiency generally contributes to more fat storage, not muscle growth. This is because, during times of glucose and energy excess, your body redirects the flow of amino acids away from gluconeogenesis and ATP-producing pathways and instead converts them to lipids. The resulting lipids can subsequently be stored as body fat for later use." This is, more or less, supported by another textbook I own (2): "In times of excess energy and protein intakes coupled with adequate carbohydrate intake, the carbon skeleton of amino acids may be used to s Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

When it comes to your body, you probably spend more time thinking about your hair than your hormones. For some people, though, a problem with a hormone called insulin causes a health condition called type 2 diabetes (pronounced: dye-uh-BEE-tees). Diabetes is a disease that affects how the body uses glucose (pronounced: GLOO-kose), a sugar that is the body's main source of fuel. Your body needs glucose to keep running. Here's how it should work: Glucose from the food gets into your bloodstream. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin (pronounced: IN-suh-lin). Insulin helps the glucose get into the body's cells. The pancreas is a long, flat gland in your belly that helps your body digest food. It also makes insulin. Insulin is like a key that opens the doors to the cells of the body. It lets the glucose in. Then the glucose can move out of the blood and into the cells. But if someone has diabetes, either the body can't make insulin or the insulin doesn't work in the body like it should. The glucose can't get into the cells normally, so the blood sugar level gets too high. Lots of sugar in the blood makes people sick if they don't get treatment. There are two major types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Each type causes high blood sugar levels in a different way. In type 1 diabetes , the pancreas can't make insulin. The body can still get glucose from food, but the glucose can't get into the cells, where it's needed, and glucose stays in the blood. This makes the blood sugar level very high. With type 2 diabetes, the body still makes insulin. But a person with type 2 diabetes doesn't respond normally to the insulin the body makes. So glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of supplying energy. When glucose can't enter the cells in this way, doctors call Continue reading >>

What Happens To Unburned Carbohydrates?

What Happens To Unburned Carbohydrates?

Your body uses mostly carbohydrates as well as fats for energy. Because the body doesn’t store carbs efficiently, they’re used first. Carbohydrates turn into glucose, which your body burns immediately or converts to glycogen to be stored in the muscles and liver for between meals. If you eat more calories from carbs or other sources than your body can use, the cells store the excess as fat. Of the three major nutrients -- carbohydrates, fat and protein -- the body burns carbs first for energy because they can’t be stored in great quantities. The carbohydrates in food get broken down into glucose, which moves into the small intestine, then the liver and into the blood. As blood sugar rises, the pancreas produces insulin, which signals the cells to take up sugar. Whatever glucose the cells don’t need immediately for energy is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. When the blood sugar levels fall -- such as between meals -- the liver releases glycogen. This cycle keeps your body supplied with a steady source of fuel. Insulin Resistance If you have insulin resistance or diabetes, the sugar-insulin cycle doesn’t work properly, leading to too much sugar and insulin circulating in the blood until eventually your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or is resistant to its effects. This is why people with diabetes or prediabetes often track the carbs they eat; eating too many carbohydrates, especially sugars and refined starches, can cause blood sugar and/or insulin to spike to potentially dangerous levels in people with diabetes. How Carbs Turn Into Fat When you eat too many calories, especially in the form of sugars and quickly burned starches, your body may reach its storage capacity for glycogen. The liver converts the stored sugars into triglycerides, or f Continue reading >>

What Happens To The Excess Food?

What Happens To The Excess Food?

Thought this article would be fun to share. An oldie but goodie that I wrote up years ago. A fun little piece on digestion… What happens to the excess food? A look at a bite of pepperoni pizza to see what happens to its sugar, fat and protein. Open wide! The food enters your mouth: Saliva contains enzymes that break any starch in the food down to sugar. This, along with any fat and water in the food, travel to the stomach, which churns them up. Pepsin (an enzyme that digests protein) and hydrochloric acid further break down the food, turning it into a substance called chyme. The mixture enters the duodenum, (the place where the gall bladder secretes its bile). This bile dissolves the fat in water, thinning it out and making it easier to absorb. Enzymes from the pancreas enter the duodenum and further break down the sugar, fat and protein. Now everything is dissolved and is in fluid form, so it is absorbed through the lining of the small bowel. Fat, sugar and protein wave good-bye to each other and go their separate ways. What happens to the sugar? It also goes directly into the blood stream, and several different organs take the sugar they need as it passes by. Some is stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen to be used as energy. It also goes to the brain for it’s sole source of energy. Whatever is not stored as energy or immediately used and is “left over” is converted to fat and stored in fat cells with the excess fat above. What happens to the fat? First, it goes into the blood stream and travels to the liver. The liver burns some of the fat, converts some to other substances (one is cholesterol) and sends the rest to fat cells, where they wait until they are needed. What happens to the protein? It is broken down into building blocks known as peptides. The Continue reading >>

Is Glucose Stored In The Human Body?

Is Glucose Stored In The Human Body?

Glucose is a sugar that serves as a primary energy source for your body. It also provides fuel for optimal brain and nervous system activity, which may help support cognitive functions such as learning and memory. The human body stores glucose in several forms to meet immediate and future energy requirements. Video of the Day Glucose is not present in food sources. Instead, your body converts carbohydrates from foods into glucose with the help of amylase, an enzyme produced by your saliva glands and pancreas. Carbohydrates are found in all plant-based foods -- grains and starchy vegetables such as corn and potatoes are particularly abundant in carbohydrates. Beans, vegetables, seeds, fruits and nuts also supply carbohydrates. Dairy products are the only animal-based foods that contain this nutrient. As you body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, it delivers it to your bloodstream to supply your body's cells with fuel for energy. Insulin, which is produced by your pancreas, aids in the transfer of glucose through cell walls. Unused glucose is converted to glycogen by a chemical process called glycogenesis, and is stored in muscle tissues and your liver. Glycogen serves as a backup fuel source when blood glucose levels drop. Your liver and muscles can only store a limited amount of glycogen. If your bloodstream contains more glucose than your body can store as glycogen, your body stores excess glucose as fat cells. Like glycogen, fat is stored for future energy; however, glucose storage as fat can contribute to weight gain and obesity. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and heart disease, and can increase strain on your bones and joints. Your body must store glucose in your bloodstream before converting and storing it as glycogen or fat. Excess glucose in your blo Continue reading >>

You And Your Hormones

You And Your Hormones

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas. Here, insulin is released into the bloodstream by specialised cells called beta cells found in areas of the pancreas called islets of langerhans (the term insulin comes from the Latin insula meaning island). Insulin can also be given as a medicine for patients with diabetes because they do not make enough of their own. It is usually given in the form of an injection. Insulin is released from the pancreas into the bloodstream. It is a hormone essential for us to live and has many effects on the whole body, mainly in controlling how the body uses carbohydrate and fat found in food. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat (adipose tissue) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food. This provides energy to the cells. This glucose can also be converted into fat to provide energy when glucose levels are too low. In addition, insulin has several other metabolic effects (such as stopping the breakdown of protein and fat). How is insulin controlled? When we eat food, glucose is absorbed from our gut into the bloodstream. This rise in blood glucose causes insulin to be released from the pancreas. Proteins in food and other hormones produced by the gut in response to food also stimulate insulin release. However, once the blood glucose levels return to normal, insulin release slows down. In addition, hormones released in times of acute stress, such as adrenaline, stop the release of insulin, leading to higher blood glucose levels. The release of insulin is tightly regulated in healthy people in order to balance food intake and the metabolic needs of the body. Insulin works in tandem with glucagon, another hormone produced by the pan Continue reading >>

What Happens To Carbohydrates That The Body Does Not Use For Energy?

What Happens To Carbohydrates That The Body Does Not Use For Energy?

There are three types of carbohydrates: starch, sugar and fiber. Starches are broken down into sugars, including the glucose that provides your body with energy and is the preferred source of energy for your brain. However, not all carbohydrates are immediately used for energy. Some glucose is stored for later use, and fiber is not used for energy at all. Your body cannot digest fiber, but it provides health benefits, including lowering your risk for high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes and constipation. While a small amount of fiber is fermented by bacteria in your colon and turned into short-chain fatty acids, which are easily absorbed by your body, most fiber passes through your body undigested and is excreted in your feces. Storage as Glycogen After carbohydrates are broken down in your body, some of the glucose that isn't needed immediately for energy is stored as glycogen in your liver and muscles for later use. Athletes sometimes consume high amounts of carbohydrates prior to major events in an effort to increase their glycogen stores, since glycogen is one of the main types of fuel for exercise. Storage as Fat Once your glycogen stores are filled, excess glucose may be stored as fat. However, storage of extra carbohydrate as fat is not very efficient, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. Diets high in carbohydrates, especially complex carbohydrates, are less likely to result in fat accumulation than diets high in fat. Considerations The Food and Agriculture Organization recommends getting at least 55 percent of your calories from carbohydrates, and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends consuming between 45 and 65 percent of your calories as carbohydrates, with most of these carbohydrates coming from nutrient-dense carbohydrate Continue reading >>

Curiocity - Curiocit | What Is Glucose For?

Curiocity - Curiocit | What Is Glucose For?

This article was originally published on January 23, 2012 and reviewed and updated by the CurioCity team in September 2017. Why can't my diabetic grandmother have sugar in her coffee? The answers to all these questions started at the very beginning of life on earth, before diseases or the ability to taste even existed. Like a dollar at the shopping mall, glucose is a unit of currency. Glucose is a sugar, and its the basic unit of currency for life. At the mall, you can exchange dollars for food, clothes, games and many other things. In your body, glucose can be exchanged for energy energy that is used to make heat, to move muscles, and to sustain all of the chemical reactions that keep you alive. Tiny organelles called mitochondria work inside cells to convert glucose into ATP , which is the universal body energy source. Did you know? Mitochondria have their own special DNA and proteins. Scientists think that when life began, mitochondria were separate organisms that were eventually engulfed by larger cells. This arrangement worked for both the mitochondria and the larger cell, and so it continued for billions of years! Mitochondria are now the main energy powerhouses of cells and use glucose as their fuel. Glucose is also exchangeable for other important materials in the body. For instance, your body converts glucose to fat or glycogen for storage. You can burn that fat by exercising, as the fat gets converted back to glucose (and then energy) to move your muscles. You can even convert proteins and amino acids into glucose, starting with your muscles. This is why athletes and bodybuilders have such large appetites if they don't keep eating, their muscles start to eat themselves! (Of course, if they keep eating the same and aren't exercising, they begin to store glucos Continue reading >>

Does Unused Protein Turn Into Fat?

Does Unused Protein Turn Into Fat?

Protein from the diet supplies amino acids, required for a variety of body functions including making hormones, enzymes and neurotransmitters and building muscle. There are four uses for amino acids once they are absorbed: They are used as energy, are incorporated into structural protein (muscle), produce other compounds or are stored in the form of fat. Amino acids are not the most useful form of energy. The body prefers glucose derived from carbohydrates because they are easier to digest, absorb and use. However, if amino acids are available when glucose is not, the body will use them for fuel. This process is called gluconeogenesis, meaning production of new glucose. Gluconeogensis is not cost-effective for the body because it requires more energy than simply using available glucose. Think of it this way: Using amino acids instead of carbohydrates for fuel is like using a piece of fine jewelry to pay for groceries when you have cash on hand. When muscle is stressed, as in exercise, amino acids are needed to repair and build the tissue to strengthen it. The more this occurs, the more muscle mass is built. Eating more protein alone does not make this happen, although adequate amounts are needed in exercise to support muscle growth. Muscle is viewed as a structural, not a storage, form of protein. A constant pool of amino acids in the blood is broken down and synthesized into whatever amino acids or compounds the body requires. Muscle is not broken down for fuel -- the body does everything, including using fat stores first, to preserve it in times of starvation or dieting. Arguably the most important role of amino acids in the body is synthesis of a variety of compounds the body uses. Hormones, enzymes, immune factors, neurotransmitters and other amino acids are all sy Continue reading >>

What Happens To Food In Your Body?

What Happens To Food In Your Body?

Just thinking about eating causes your body to start secreting insulin, a hormone that helps keep blood sugar (glucose) under control. Insulin is made by the pancreas. As you eat, more insulin is released, in response to the carbohydrates in the meal. Insulin is released when you eat protein-rich foods, but at a slower rate. If your pancreas is functioning properly, the amount of carbohydrates in what you’re eating usually determines how much insulin is released. As you digest carbohydrates, they go into the blood stream as glucose. To keep blood sugar levels under control, insulin signals the cells in your body to take in glucose from the blood stream. The cells use some of glucose for energy and store some for later use. The way glucose is stored depends on the type of cell doing the storing. Muscle cells store glucose as glycogen. Liver cells store some glucose as glycogen and convert some to fat. Fat cells store glucose as fat. As glucose is removed from the blood stream, insulin levels go down and your cells start using fat for fuel instead of glucose. This is why you can go for long stretches – overnight, for example, when you’re sleeping, without eating. Your cells rely on fat for fuel. There are two types of body fat: fatty acids and triglycerides. Fatty acids are small enough to move in and out of cells and be used as fuel for cells. Fat is stored inside fat cells as triglycerides, three fatty acids bound together. Triglycerides are too big to flow through cell membranes and so are stored for future use. Insulin also plays a major role in telling your body when to store and use fat and protein. It does this by affecting the actions of two enzymes, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). LPL sits on the surface of cells and pulls fat o Continue reading >>

4 Ways Sugar Can Make You Fat

4 Ways Sugar Can Make You Fat

Different foods affect the body in different ways and sugar is uniquely fattening. Sugar (sucrose) and high fructose corn syrup contain two molecules: glucose and fructose. Glucose is absolutely vital to life and is an integral part of our metabolism. Our bodies produce it and we have a constant reservoir of it in the bloodstream. Every cell in the body can use glucose for energy. If we don't get glucose from the diet, our bodies produce what we need out of proteins and fats. Fructose, however, is very different. This molecule is not a natural part of metabolism and humans do not produce it. In fact, very few cells in the body can make use of it except liver cells. When we eat a lot of sugar, most of the fructose gets metabolized by the liver. There it gets turned into fat, which is then secreted into the blood. Have you ever heard of the hormone insulin? It is one of the key hormones that regulate human metabolism and energy use. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas, then travels in the blood to peripheral cells like muscle cells. Insulin sends a signal to these cells that they should put transporters for glucose onto their surface, thereby allowing glucose to get into the cells where it can be used. When we eat a high carb meal, glucose levels go up. Excess glucose is toxic so insulin rapidly goes up in order to get the glucose out of the bloodstream and into the cells. If we didn't have insulin or it wasn't functioning correctly, blood glucose would reach toxic levels. In healthy people, this mechanism works very well and enables us to eat meals that are high in carbohydrates without our blood glucose levels becoming too high. However, this mechanism tends to break. Cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, which makes the pancreas have to secrete even more to Continue reading >>

Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?

Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?

Dear Reader, Ah, poor carbohydrates, maligned by diets such as Atkins’ and the ketogenic diet. However, carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy — in fact your muscles and brain cells prefer carbs more than other sources of energy (triglycerides and fat, for example). To answer your question: research completed over the last several decades suggests that if you are eating a diet that is appropriate for your levels of daily activity, little to no carbohydrate is converted to fat in your body. For most people (unless you have a metabolic disorder) when you eat carbs they are digested, broken down to glucose, and then transported to all the cells in your body. They are then metabolized and used to support cellular processes. If you’re active and eating appropriately for your activity level, most of the carbs you consume are more or less burned immediately. There are two caveats here: first, if you’re eating a lot more calories per day than you are burning, then yes, your liver will convert excess calories from carbohydrate into fats; second, not all carbs are created equal. If you consume too many calories from simple sugars like sucrose and fructose (think sugary sodas sweetened by sugar and high fructose corn syrup) then your body will more readily take some of those sugars and turn them into triglycerides (fat) in your liver. What happens to excess calories that come from carbs? The answer depends on several things: what kind of carbs you consumed, your genetics, as well as how many extra calories we’re talking about. For those who eat a well-balanced diet and have no metabolic disorders, excess dietary carbohydrates are converted by the liver into complex chains of glucose called glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscle cells and is a sec Continue reading >>

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