What Happens To The Excess Food?
Thought this article would be fun to share. An oldie but goodie that I wrote up years ago. A fun little piece on digestion… What happens to the excess food? A look at a bite of pepperoni pizza to see what happens to its sugar, fat and protein. Open wide! The food enters your mouth: Saliva contains enzymes that break any starch in the food down to sugar. This, along with any fat and water in the food, travel to the stomach, which churns them up. Pepsin (an enzyme that digests protein) and hydrochloric acid further break down the food, turning it into a substance called chyme. The mixture enters the duodenum, (the place where the gall bladder secretes its bile). This bile dissolves the fat in water, thinning it out and making it easier to absorb. Enzymes from the pancreas enter the duodenum and further break down the sugar, fat and protein. Now everything is dissolved and is in fluid form, so it is absorbed through the lining of the small bowel. Fat, sugar and protein wave good-bye to each other and go their separate ways. What happens to the sugar? It also goes directly into the blood stream, and several different organs take the sugar they need as it passes by. Some is stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen to be used as energy. It also goes to the brain for it’s sole source of energy. Whatever is not stored as energy or immediately used and is “left over” is converted to fat and stored in fat cells with the excess fat above. What happens to the fat? First, it goes into the blood stream and travels to the liver. The liver burns some of the fat, converts some to other substances (one is cholesterol) and sends the rest to fat cells, where they wait until they are needed. What happens to the protein? It is broken down into building blocks known as peptides. The Continue reading >>
Unused Carbs: What Happens?
What happens to carbs that are unused? Simple and complex. I was always told it pretty much goes straight to fat. Then I've heard that you're an idiot if you think that. -Runescape: Alex_Osu (banned, RIP) New RS Name: Molinus Once carbohydrate enters the system, it has several fates. All generally occur to some extent with any carbohydrate ingestion, although certain processes predominate at all levels, and with small amounts of carbohydrate ingestion, it's primarily a fuel. The fates of carbs are... 1. oxidation as fuel, predominantly through glycolysis, anaerobisis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. 3. conversion to other essential carbohydrate/protein molecules for use in processes and synthesis of essential cellular molecules, i.e. glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, etc. So yes, enough excess of any fuel molecule leads to storage as fat. Carbohydrate is converted to AcetylCoA, which is a precursor for fat synthesis. Essentially, if you have, say, just 50 grams of carbohydrate, most is going to go to fuel, and much smaller amonuts to fat storage, whereas if you take in, say, 500g, much more is going to be converted to fat What happens to carbs that are unused? Simple and complex. I was always told it pretty much goes straight to fat. Then I've heard that you're an idiot if you think that. Under relatively normal dietary conditions - i.e. not gross excesses of carbs especially fructose, very little end up going down the pathway of de novo lipogenesis - i.e. being converted to fatty acids. Plus, adipose doesn't contain an appreciable quantity of citrate lyase which is a necessary enzyme in the lipogenesis pathway so adipose can't convert much glucose to fatty acids, while the liver has a higher capacity. However, glucose can be used in adipose to f Continue reading >>
Kidneys And Diabetes
Tweet The kidneys are remarkable organs of the human body that are responsible for many essential regulatory roles, including filtering the blood to keep it clean and chemically balanced. Diabetes, however, can cause this vital filtering system to break down. High levels of blood sugar can damage the kidneys and cause them to fail, thus eliminating their ability to filter out waste, which over time can lead to kidney disease (nephropathy). What are the Kidneys? The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that are located near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage with one on each side of the spine. Of the many roles they perform, one of the most important is the removal of waste products from the blood, which come from food and the normal breakdown of active tissues, such as muscles. Other key functions of the kidneys include the secretion of three important hormones: Erythropoietin - which is released in response to hypoxia (low levels of oxygen at tissue level) to stimulate the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Calcitriol - the active form of vitamin D, which helps maintain calcium for bones and for normal chemical balance in the body Renin - an enzyme involved in the regulation of blood pressure The Kidneys and Blood Sugar Levels Each kidney is made up of millions of tiny blood vessels called nephrons, which act as filters to help keep the blood clean. Each nephron interlinks with a small tube to keep useful substances, such as proteins and red blood cells, in the bloodstream and allow extra fluid and waste products to pass through, where they become part of the urine. This filtration system can, however, be damaged by high levels of blood sugar. Excess glucose in the bloodstream can cause the kidneys to filter too much blood. Over time, this extra w Continue reading >>
Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?
Dear Reader, Ah, poor carbohydrates, maligned by diets such as Atkins’ and the ketogenic diet. However, carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy — in fact your muscles and brain cells prefer carbs more than other sources of energy (triglycerides and fat, for example). To answer your question: research completed over the last several decades suggests that if you are eating a diet that is appropriate for your levels of daily activity, little to no carbohydrate is converted to fat in your body. For most people (unless you have a metabolic disorder) when you eat carbs they are digested, broken down to glucose, and then transported to all the cells in your body. They are then metabolized and used to support cellular processes. If you’re active and eating appropriately for your activity level, most of the carbs you consume are more or less burned immediately. There are two caveats here: first, if you’re eating a lot more calories per day than you are burning, then yes, your liver will convert excess calories from carbohydrate into fats; second, not all carbs are created equal. If you consume too many calories from simple sugars like sucrose and fructose (think sugary sodas sweetened by sugar and high fructose corn syrup) then your body will more readily take some of those sugars and turn them into triglycerides (fat) in your liver. What happens to excess calories that come from carbs? The answer depends on several things: what kind of carbs you consumed, your genetics, as well as how many extra calories we’re talking about. For those who eat a well-balanced diet and have no metabolic disorders, excess dietary carbohydrates are converted by the liver into complex chains of glucose called glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscle cells and is a sec Continue reading >>
What Happens To Carbohydrates That The Body Does Not Use For Energy?
There are three types of carbohydrates: starch, sugar and fiber. Starches are broken down into sugars, including the glucose that provides your body with energy and is the preferred source of energy for your brain. However, not all carbohydrates are immediately used for energy. Some glucose is stored for later use, and fiber is not used for energy at all. Your body cannot digest fiber, but it provides health benefits, including lowering your risk for high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes and constipation. While a small amount of fiber is fermented by bacteria in your colon and turned into short-chain fatty acids, which are easily absorbed by your body, most fiber passes through your body undigested and is excreted in your feces. Storage as Glycogen After carbohydrates are broken down in your body, some of the glucose that isn't needed immediately for energy is stored as glycogen in your liver and muscles for later use. Athletes sometimes consume high amounts of carbohydrates prior to major events in an effort to increase their glycogen stores, since glycogen is one of the main types of fuel for exercise. Storage as Fat Once your glycogen stores are filled, excess glucose may be stored as fat. However, storage of extra carbohydrate as fat is not very efficient, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. Diets high in carbohydrates, especially complex carbohydrates, are less likely to result in fat accumulation than diets high in fat. Considerations The Food and Agriculture Organization recommends getting at least 55 percent of your calories from carbohydrates, and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends consuming between 45 and 65 percent of your calories as carbohydrates, with most of these carbohydrates coming from nutrient-dense carbohydrate Continue reading >>
What Happens To Unburned Carbohydrates?
Your body uses mostly carbohydrates as well as fats for energy. Because the body doesn’t store carbs efficiently, they’re used first. Carbohydrates turn into glucose, which your body burns immediately or converts to glycogen to be stored in the muscles and liver for between meals. If you eat more calories from carbs or other sources than your body can use, the cells store the excess as fat. Of the three major nutrients -- carbohydrates, fat and protein -- the body burns carbs first for energy because they can’t be stored in great quantities. The carbohydrates in food get broken down into glucose, which moves into the small intestine, then the liver and into the blood. As blood sugar rises, the pancreas produces insulin, which signals the cells to take up sugar. Whatever glucose the cells don’t need immediately for energy is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. When the blood sugar levels fall -- such as between meals -- the liver releases glycogen. This cycle keeps your body supplied with a steady source of fuel. Insulin Resistance If you have insulin resistance or diabetes, the sugar-insulin cycle doesn’t work properly, leading to too much sugar and insulin circulating in the blood until eventually your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or is resistant to its effects. This is why people with diabetes or prediabetes often track the carbs they eat; eating too many carbohydrates, especially sugars and refined starches, can cause blood sugar and/or insulin to spike to potentially dangerous levels in people with diabetes. How Carbs Turn Into Fat When you eat too many calories, especially in the form of sugars and quickly burned starches, your body may reach its storage capacity for glycogen. The liver converts the stored sugars into triglycerides, or f Continue reading >>
Does Unused Protein Turn Into Fat?
Protein from the diet supplies amino acids, required for a variety of body functions including making hormones, enzymes and neurotransmitters and building muscle. There are four uses for amino acids once they are absorbed: They are used as energy, are incorporated into structural protein (muscle), produce other compounds or are stored in the form of fat. Amino acids are not the most useful form of energy. The body prefers glucose derived from carbohydrates because they are easier to digest, absorb and use. However, if amino acids are available when glucose is not, the body will use them for fuel. This process is called gluconeogenesis, meaning production of new glucose. Gluconeogensis is not cost-effective for the body because it requires more energy than simply using available glucose. Think of it this way: Using amino acids instead of carbohydrates for fuel is like using a piece of fine jewelry to pay for groceries when you have cash on hand. When muscle is stressed, as in exercise, amino acids are needed to repair and build the tissue to strengthen it. The more this occurs, the more muscle mass is built. Eating more protein alone does not make this happen, although adequate amounts are needed in exercise to support muscle growth. Muscle is viewed as a structural, not a storage, form of protein. A constant pool of amino acids in the blood is broken down and synthesized into whatever amino acids or compounds the body requires. Muscle is not broken down for fuel -- the body does everything, including using fat stores first, to preserve it in times of starvation or dieting. Arguably the most important role of amino acids in the body is synthesis of a variety of compounds the body uses. Hormones, enzymes, immune factors, neurotransmitters and other amino acids are all sy Continue reading >>
Utilization Of Dietary Glucose In The Metabolic Syndrome
Utilization of dietary glucose in the metabolic syndrome 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 2CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Spain 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 2CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Spain Received 2011 Sep 20; Accepted 2011 Oct 26. Copyright 2011 Alemany; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This review is focused on the fate of dietary glucose under conditions of chronically high energy (largely fat) intake, evolving into the metabolic syndrome. We are adapted to carbohydrate-rich diets similar to those of our ancestors. Glucose is the main energy staple, but fats are our main energy reserves. Starvation drastically reduces glucose availability, forcing the body to shift to fatty acids as main energy substrate, sparing glucose and amino acids. We are not prepared for excess dietary energy, our main defenses being decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, largely enhanced metabolic activity and thermogenesis. High lipid availability is a powerful factor decreasing glucose and amino acid oxidation. Present-day diets are often hyperenergetic, high on lipids, with abundant protein and limited amounts of starchy carbohydrates. Dietary lipids favor their metabolic processing, saving glucose, which additionally spares amino acids. The glucose excess elicits hyperinsulinemia, wh Continue reading >>
- Diabetes Care Management Teams Did Not Reduce Utilization When Compared With Traditional Care: A Randomized Cluster Trial
- Diet Soda Intake and Risk of Incident Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)*
- Ultraviolet Radiation Suppresses Obesity and Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome Independently of Vitamin D in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
You And Your Hormones
What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas. Here, insulin is released into the bloodstream by specialised cells called beta cells found in areas of the pancreas called islets of langerhans (the term insulin comes from the Latin insula meaning island). Insulin can also be given as a medicine for patients with diabetes because they do not make enough of their own. It is usually given in the form of an injection. Insulin is released from the pancreas into the bloodstream. It is a hormone essential for us to live and has many effects on the whole body, mainly in controlling how the body uses carbohydrate and fat found in food. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat (adipose tissue) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food. This provides energy to the cells. This glucose can also be converted into fat to provide energy when glucose levels are too low. In addition, insulin has several other metabolic effects (such as stopping the breakdown of protein and fat). How is insulin controlled? When we eat food, glucose is absorbed from our gut into the bloodstream. This rise in blood glucose causes insulin to be released from the pancreas. Proteins in food and other hormones produced by the gut in response to food also stimulate insulin release. However, once the blood glucose levels return to normal, insulin release slows down. In addition, hormones released in times of acute stress, such as adrenaline, stop the release of insulin, leading to higher blood glucose levels. The release of insulin is tightly regulated in healthy people in order to balance food intake and the metabolic needs of the body. Insulin works in tandem with glucagon, another hormone produced by the pan Continue reading >>
Nutrition Study Guide: Part One
Peas, legumes -pinto, peanuts, garbanzo, etc all carbs are converted to glucose; body's main source of energy Glycogen is stored in the muscles and liver When more energy is needed body converts glycogen back to glucose When all glycogen stores are filled body coverts excess glucose to fat An indigestible complex carbohydrate found in the tough, stringy part of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains 25 gramps per day (women), 38 grams (men) Because it cannot be digested it provides no energy for the body Helps prevent intestinal problems such as constipation Helps control disables by reducing blood glucose levels Fruits and darker leafy vegetables with edible skin Whole grain products: bran cereals, oatmeal, brown rice nutrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues there are 20 amino acids, your body can make all but 9 4 cal/g (but not a preferred source of energy) The 9 amino acids you must get in your diet are from foods you eat. The body makes amino acids form scratch or modifies other amino acids In the United States, the recommended daily allowance of protein is 46 grams per day for women over 19 years of age adn 56 grams per day for men over 19 years of age. Build new cells and tissues, muscles, bone, skin, hair, etc. Makes up the enzymes that power many chemical reactions Makes up hemoglobin that carries oxygen in your blood At least 10,000 different proteins make you what you are Polyunsaturated (omega 3, Omega 6), monounsaturated Food: walnut, Almond, Flax seeds, Avocado, Other seeds and nuts Bad oils: canola (rapeseed), vegetable, soybean *pay attention to how the oils are processed *oils can go rancid, then they end up doing more harm than good Tried to create a solid from what they thought at the time was a healthier oil Trains fats have a grea Continue reading >>
Protein Will Not Make You Fat
Here's what you need to know... While it's biochemically possible for protein to turn into fat by ingesting extremely high numbers of calories or extremely large amounts of protein, it's unlikely you'll ever be in that situation. You can pretty much eat as much protein as you want and it won't turn to fat. That old chestnut about only being able to absorb 30 grams of protein in one sitting is bunk. Aside from building muscle, protein provides essential amino acids that serve as the building blocks for other proteins, enzymes, and hormones within the body that are vital for normal functioning. Without this steady supply of amino acids, the body resorts to breaking down its own proteins – typically from muscle – in order to meet this demand. Protein has its share of misconceptions. It's not uncommon to hear claims that dietary protein eaten in excess of some arbitrary number will be stored as body fat. Even those who are supposed to be reputable sources for nutrition information propagate this untenable dogma. While paging through a nutrition textbook I came across a section in the protein chapter regarding amino acids and energy metabolism (1). To quote the book directly: "Eating extra protein during times of glucose and energy sufficiency generally contributes to more fat storage, not muscle growth. This is because, during times of glucose and energy excess, your body redirects the flow of amino acids away from gluconeogenesis and ATP-producing pathways and instead converts them to lipids. The resulting lipids can subsequently be stored as body fat for later use." This is, more or less, supported by another textbook I own (2): "In times of excess energy and protein intakes coupled with adequate carbohydrate intake, the carbon skeleton of amino acids may be used to s Continue reading >>
How The Body Controls Blood Sugar - Topic Overview
The bloodstream carries glucose-a type of sugar produced from the digestion of carbohydrates and other foods-to provide energy to cells throughout the body. Unused glucose is stored mainly in the liver as glycogen. Insulin, glucagon, and other hormone levels rise and fall to keep blood sugar in a normal range. Too little or too much of these hormones can cause blood sugar levels to fall too low (hypoglycemia) or rise too high (hyperglycemia). Normally, blood glucose levels increase after you eat a meal. When blood sugar rises, cells in the pancreas release insulin, causing the body to absorb glucose from the blood and lowering the blood sugar level to normal. When blood sugar drops too low, the level of insulin declines and other cells in the pancreas release glucagon, which causes the liver to turn stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the blood. This brings blood sugar levels back up to normal. Continue reading >>
- British doctors trial simple gut operation that 'cures or controls' diabetes
- Insulin, glucagon and somatostatin stores in the pancreas of subjects with type-2 diabetes and their lean and obese non-diabetic controls
- Price controls on diabetes drugs, licenses for sales reps key features of pharmaceutical bill
What Happens To Food In Your Body?
Just thinking about eating causes your body to start secreting insulin, a hormone that helps keep blood sugar (glucose) under control. Insulin is made by the pancreas. As you eat, more insulin is released, in response to the carbohydrates in the meal. Insulin is released when you eat protein-rich foods, but at a slower rate. If your pancreas is functioning properly, the amount of carbohydrates in what you’re eating usually determines how much insulin is released. As you digest carbohydrates, they go into the blood stream as glucose. To keep blood sugar levels under control, insulin signals the cells in your body to take in glucose from the blood stream. The cells use some of glucose for energy and store some for later use. The way glucose is stored depends on the type of cell doing the storing. Muscle cells store glucose as glycogen. Liver cells store some glucose as glycogen and convert some to fat. Fat cells store glucose as fat. As glucose is removed from the blood stream, insulin levels go down and your cells start using fat for fuel instead of glucose. This is why you can go for long stretches – overnight, for example, when you’re sleeping, without eating. Your cells rely on fat for fuel. There are two types of body fat: fatty acids and triglycerides. Fatty acids are small enough to move in and out of cells and be used as fuel for cells. Fat is stored inside fat cells as triglycerides, three fatty acids bound together. Triglycerides are too big to flow through cell membranes and so are stored for future use. Insulin also plays a major role in telling your body when to store and use fat and protein. It does this by affecting the actions of two enzymes, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). LPL sits on the surface of cells and pulls fat o Continue reading >>
Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms
When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more of it can be stored in cells for later use. If you consume so many extra carbohydrates that your body stores more and more glucose, all your glycogen may be compactly structured, but you no longer will be. Starch it, please: Storing glucose in plants The storage form of glucose in plants is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide. The leaves of a plant make sugar during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs in light (photo = light), such as when the sun is shining. The energy from the sunlight is used to make energy for the plant. So, when plants are making sugar (for fuel, energy) o Continue reading >>
Can The Human Body Turn Excess Glucose Into Proteins?
Answered Apr 19, 2016 Author has 8.4k answers and 5.9m answer views No. Glucose is absorbed into our living cells via insulin for instant energy and any excess energy will be first stored in our liver and muscle glycogen then once your glycogen storages are full, they will be converted into fatty acids. Glucose is hydrocarbon chain while amino acids have nitride in the backbone. You can't create nitride out of nowhere. Answered Dec 26, 2017 Author has 1.5k answers and 370.1k answer views Yes. Glucose is the starting point for the synthesis of the nonessential amino acids, which are then incorporated into proteins. A simple pathway to illustrate the point is glucose pyruvate alanine. The last step involves transamination, so you need glucose plus nitrogen from the bodys nitrogen pool. Excess glucose can not be directly converted into protein as it is converted into glycogen and beyond its storage of glycogen in liver and muscles cells into fats. But glucose involved in metabolic pathway indirectly contribute to protein formation. Proteins are made up of amino acids. Amino acids has amino group and a carbon skeleton. During amino acid synthesis amino group for most of amino acid is derived from glutamate but carbon skeletons are derived from commonly available metabolic intermediates of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, or the pentosr phosphate pathway. The primary carbon sources are glycerate-3-phosphate, pyruvate, PEP , alpha ketoglutarate, oxaloacetate, ribose-5-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate. Most of body usable carbohydrates are converted to glucose and glucose undergo glycolysis followed by TCA or Pentose phosphate pathway and above mentioned products are formed during that. The body does to some extent indirectly convert glucose into pro Continue reading >>