What Happens To Carbohydrates That The Body Does Not Use For Energy?
There are three types of carbohydrates: starch, sugar and fiber. Starches are broken down into sugars, including the glucose that provides your body with energy and is the preferred source of energy for your brain. However, not all carbohydrates are immediately used for energy. Some glucose is stored for later use, and fiber is not used for energy at all. Your body cannot digest fiber, but it provides health benefits, including lowering your risk for high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes and constipation. While a small amount of fiber is fermented by bacteria in your colon and turned into short-chain fatty acids, which are easily absorbed by your body, most fiber passes through your body undigested and is excreted in your feces. Storage as Glycogen After carbohydrates are broken down in your body, some of the glucose that isn't needed immediately for energy is stored as glycogen in your liver and muscles for later use. Athletes sometimes consume high amounts of carbohydrates prior to major events in an effort to increase their glycogen stores, since glycogen is one of the main types of fuel for exercise. Storage as Fat Once your glycogen stores are filled, excess glucose may be stored as fat. However, storage of extra carbohydrate as fat is not very efficient, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. Diets high in carbohydrates, especially complex carbohydrates, are less likely to result in fat accumulation than diets high in fat. Considerations The Food and Agriculture Organization recommends getting at least 55 percent of your calories from carbohydrates, and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends consuming between 45 and 65 percent of your calories as carbohydrates, with most of these carbohydrates coming from nutrient-dense carbohydrate Continue reading >>
Nutrition Study Guide: Part One
Peas, legumes -pinto, peanuts, garbanzo, etc all carbs are converted to glucose; body's main source of energy Glycogen is stored in the muscles and liver When more energy is needed body converts glycogen back to glucose When all glycogen stores are filled body coverts excess glucose to fat An indigestible complex carbohydrate found in the tough, stringy part of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains 25 gramps per day (women), 38 grams (men) Because it cannot be digested it provides no energy for the body Helps prevent intestinal problems such as constipation Helps control disables by reducing blood glucose levels Fruits and darker leafy vegetables with edible skin Whole grain products: bran cereals, oatmeal, brown rice nutrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues there are 20 amino acids, your body can make all but 9 4 cal/g (but not a preferred source of energy) The 9 amino acids you must get in your diet are from foods you eat. The body makes amino acids form scratch or modifies other amino acids In the United States, the recommended daily allowance of protein is 46 grams per day for women over 19 years of age adn 56 grams per day for men over 19 years of age. Build new cells and tissues, muscles, bone, skin, hair, etc. Makes up the enzymes that power many chemical reactions Makes up hemoglobin that carries oxygen in your blood At least 10,000 different proteins make you what you are Polyunsaturated (omega 3, Omega 6), monounsaturated Food: walnut, Almond, Flax seeds, Avocado, Other seeds and nuts Bad oils: canola (rapeseed), vegetable, soybean *pay attention to how the oils are processed *oils can go rancid, then they end up doing more harm than good Tried to create a solid from what they thought at the time was a healthier oil Trains fats have a grea Continue reading >>
Is Glucose Stored In The Human Body?
Glucose is a sugar that serves as a primary energy source for your body. It also provides fuel for optimal brain and nervous system activity, which may help support cognitive functions such as learning and memory. The human body stores glucose in several forms to meet immediate and future energy requirements. Video of the Day Glucose is not present in food sources. Instead, your body converts carbohydrates from foods into glucose with the help of amylase, an enzyme produced by your saliva glands and pancreas. Carbohydrates are found in all plant-based foods -- grains and starchy vegetables such as corn and potatoes are particularly abundant in carbohydrates. Beans, vegetables, seeds, fruits and nuts also supply carbohydrates. Dairy products are the only animal-based foods that contain this nutrient. As you body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, it delivers it to your bloodstream to supply your body's cells with fuel for energy. Insulin, which is produced by your pancreas, aids in the transfer of glucose through cell walls. Unused glucose is converted to glycogen by a chemical process called glycogenesis, and is stored in muscle tissues and your liver. Glycogen serves as a backup fuel source when blood glucose levels drop. Your liver and muscles can only store a limited amount of glycogen. If your bloodstream contains more glucose than your body can store as glycogen, your body stores excess glucose as fat cells. Like glycogen, fat is stored for future energy; however, glucose storage as fat can contribute to weight gain and obesity. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and heart disease, and can increase strain on your bones and joints. Your body must store glucose in your bloodstream before converting and storing it as glycogen or fat. Excess glucose in your blo Continue reading >>
Protein Will Not Make You Fat
Here's what you need to know... While it's biochemically possible for protein to turn into fat by ingesting extremely high numbers of calories or extremely large amounts of protein, it's unlikely you'll ever be in that situation. You can pretty much eat as much protein as you want and it won't turn to fat. That old chestnut about only being able to absorb 30 grams of protein in one sitting is bunk. Aside from building muscle, protein provides essential amino acids that serve as the building blocks for other proteins, enzymes, and hormones within the body that are vital for normal functioning. Without this steady supply of amino acids, the body resorts to breaking down its own proteins – typically from muscle – in order to meet this demand. Protein has its share of misconceptions. It's not uncommon to hear claims that dietary protein eaten in excess of some arbitrary number will be stored as body fat. Even those who are supposed to be reputable sources for nutrition information propagate this untenable dogma. While paging through a nutrition textbook I came across a section in the protein chapter regarding amino acids and energy metabolism (1). To quote the book directly: "Eating extra protein during times of glucose and energy sufficiency generally contributes to more fat storage, not muscle growth. This is because, during times of glucose and energy excess, your body redirects the flow of amino acids away from gluconeogenesis and ATP-producing pathways and instead converts them to lipids. The resulting lipids can subsequently be stored as body fat for later use." This is, more or less, supported by another textbook I own (2): "In times of excess energy and protein intakes coupled with adequate carbohydrate intake, the carbon skeleton of amino acids may be used to s Continue reading >>
Curiocity - Curiocit | What Is Glucose For?
This article was originally published on January 23, 2012 and reviewed and updated by the CurioCity team in September 2017. Why can't my diabetic grandmother have sugar in her coffee? The answers to all these questions started at the very beginning of life on earth, before diseases or the ability to taste even existed. Like a dollar at the shopping mall, glucose is a unit of currency. Glucose is a sugar, and its the basic unit of currency for life. At the mall, you can exchange dollars for food, clothes, games and many other things. In your body, glucose can be exchanged for energy energy that is used to make heat, to move muscles, and to sustain all of the chemical reactions that keep you alive. Tiny organelles called mitochondria work inside cells to convert glucose into ATP , which is the universal body energy source. Did you know? Mitochondria have their own special DNA and proteins. Scientists think that when life began, mitochondria were separate organisms that were eventually engulfed by larger cells. This arrangement worked for both the mitochondria and the larger cell, and so it continued for billions of years! Mitochondria are now the main energy powerhouses of cells and use glucose as their fuel. Glucose is also exchangeable for other important materials in the body. For instance, your body converts glucose to fat or glycogen for storage. You can burn that fat by exercising, as the fat gets converted back to glucose (and then energy) to move your muscles. You can even convert proteins and amino acids into glucose, starting with your muscles. This is why athletes and bodybuilders have such large appetites if they don't keep eating, their muscles start to eat themselves! (Of course, if they keep eating the same and aren't exercising, they begin to store glucos Continue reading >>
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Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms
When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more of it can be stored in cells for later use. If you consume so many extra carbohydrates that your body stores more and more glucose, all your glycogen may be compactly structured, but you no longer will be. Starch it, please: Storing glucose in plants The storage form of glucose in plants is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide. The leaves of a plant make sugar during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs in light (photo = light), such as when the sun is shining. The energy from the sunlight is used to make energy for the plant. So, when plants are making sugar (for fuel, energy) o Continue reading >>
Unused Carbs: What Happens?
What happens to carbs that are unused? Simple and complex. I was always told it pretty much goes straight to fat. Then I've heard that you're an idiot if you think that. -Runescape: Alex_Osu (banned, RIP) New RS Name: Molinus Once carbohydrate enters the system, it has several fates. All generally occur to some extent with any carbohydrate ingestion, although certain processes predominate at all levels, and with small amounts of carbohydrate ingestion, it's primarily a fuel. The fates of carbs are... 1. oxidation as fuel, predominantly through glycolysis, anaerobisis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. 3. conversion to other essential carbohydrate/protein molecules for use in processes and synthesis of essential cellular molecules, i.e. glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, etc. So yes, enough excess of any fuel molecule leads to storage as fat. Carbohydrate is converted to AcetylCoA, which is a precursor for fat synthesis. Essentially, if you have, say, just 50 grams of carbohydrate, most is going to go to fuel, and much smaller amonuts to fat storage, whereas if you take in, say, 500g, much more is going to be converted to fat What happens to carbs that are unused? Simple and complex. I was always told it pretty much goes straight to fat. Then I've heard that you're an idiot if you think that. Under relatively normal dietary conditions - i.e. not gross excesses of carbs especially fructose, very little end up going down the pathway of de novo lipogenesis - i.e. being converted to fatty acids. Plus, adipose doesn't contain an appreciable quantity of citrate lyase which is a necessary enzyme in the lipogenesis pathway so adipose can't convert much glucose to fatty acids, while the liver has a higher capacity. However, glucose can be used in adipose to f Continue reading >>
Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?
Dear Reader, Ah, poor carbohydrates, maligned by diets such as Atkins’ and the ketogenic diet. However, carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy — in fact your muscles and brain cells prefer carbs more than other sources of energy (triglycerides and fat, for example). To answer your question: research completed over the last several decades suggests that if you are eating a diet that is appropriate for your levels of daily activity, little to no carbohydrate is converted to fat in your body. For most people (unless you have a metabolic disorder) when you eat carbs they are digested, broken down to glucose, and then transported to all the cells in your body. They are then metabolized and used to support cellular processes. If you’re active and eating appropriately for your activity level, most of the carbs you consume are more or less burned immediately. There are two caveats here: first, if you’re eating a lot more calories per day than you are burning, then yes, your liver will convert excess calories from carbohydrate into fats; second, not all carbs are created equal. If you consume too many calories from simple sugars like sucrose and fructose (think sugary sodas sweetened by sugar and high fructose corn syrup) then your body will more readily take some of those sugars and turn them into triglycerides (fat) in your liver. What happens to excess calories that come from carbs? The answer depends on several things: what kind of carbs you consumed, your genetics, as well as how many extra calories we’re talking about. For those who eat a well-balanced diet and have no metabolic disorders, excess dietary carbohydrates are converted by the liver into complex chains of glucose called glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscle cells and is a sec Continue reading >>
4 Ways Sugar Can Make You Fat
Different foods affect the body in different ways and sugar is uniquely fattening. Sugar (sucrose) and high fructose corn syrup contain two molecules: glucose and fructose. Glucose is absolutely vital to life and is an integral part of our metabolism. Our bodies produce it and we have a constant reservoir of it in the bloodstream. Every cell in the body can use glucose for energy. If we don't get glucose from the diet, our bodies produce what we need out of proteins and fats. Fructose, however, is very different. This molecule is not a natural part of metabolism and humans do not produce it. In fact, very few cells in the body can make use of it except liver cells. When we eat a lot of sugar, most of the fructose gets metabolized by the liver. There it gets turned into fat, which is then secreted into the blood. Have you ever heard of the hormone insulin? It is one of the key hormones that regulate human metabolism and energy use. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas, then travels in the blood to peripheral cells like muscle cells. Insulin sends a signal to these cells that they should put transporters for glucose onto their surface, thereby allowing glucose to get into the cells where it can be used. When we eat a high carb meal, glucose levels go up. Excess glucose is toxic so insulin rapidly goes up in order to get the glucose out of the bloodstream and into the cells. If we didn't have insulin or it wasn't functioning correctly, blood glucose would reach toxic levels. In healthy people, this mechanism works very well and enables us to eat meals that are high in carbohydrates without our blood glucose levels becoming too high. However, this mechanism tends to break. Cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, which makes the pancreas have to secrete even more to Continue reading >>
This Is Exactly What Happens To Your Body When You Eat A Ton Of Sugar
As mouth-watering as a sugar-laden sundae or icing-topped cupcake is, we should all know by now that sugar isn't exactly healthy. In fact, it may be one of the worst things you can eat (that is, if you're trying to live a long, healthy life). One study from UC San Francisco actually found that drinking sugary drinks like soda can age your body on a cellular level as quickly as cigarettes. The way the sweet stuff impacts your body is way more complex than just causing weight gain. In fact, when you eat a ton of sugar, almost every part of your body feels the strain—and that's bad news for your health in both the short term and especially the long term. From an initial insulin spike to upping your chances of kidney failure down the road, this is what really happens in your body when you load up on sugar. Your brain responds to sugar the same way it would to cocaine. Eating sugar creates a surge of feel-good brain chemicals dopamine and serotonin. So does using certain drugs, like cocaine. And just like a drug, your body craves more after the initial high. "You then become addicted to that feeling, so every time you eat it you want to eat more," explains Gina Sam, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Gastrointestinal Motility Center at The Mount Sinai Hospital. Your insulin spikes to regulate your blood sugar. "Once you eat glucose, your body releases insulin, a hormone from your pancreas," Dr. Sam explains. The insulin's job is to absorb the excess glucose in the blood and stabilize sugar levels. And a little while later you get that familiar sugar crash. Once the insulin does its job, your blood sugar drops again. Which means you've just experienced a sugar rush, and then a drastic drop, leaving you feeling drained. "That's the feeling you get when you've gone to the buffet a Continue reading >>
Kidneys And Diabetes
Tweet The kidneys are remarkable organs of the human body that are responsible for many essential regulatory roles, including filtering the blood to keep it clean and chemically balanced. Diabetes, however, can cause this vital filtering system to break down. High levels of blood sugar can damage the kidneys and cause them to fail, thus eliminating their ability to filter out waste, which over time can lead to kidney disease (nephropathy). What are the Kidneys? The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that are located near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage with one on each side of the spine. Of the many roles they perform, one of the most important is the removal of waste products from the blood, which come from food and the normal breakdown of active tissues, such as muscles. Other key functions of the kidneys include the secretion of three important hormones: Erythropoietin - which is released in response to hypoxia (low levels of oxygen at tissue level) to stimulate the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Calcitriol - the active form of vitamin D, which helps maintain calcium for bones and for normal chemical balance in the body Renin - an enzyme involved in the regulation of blood pressure The Kidneys and Blood Sugar Levels Each kidney is made up of millions of tiny blood vessels called nephrons, which act as filters to help keep the blood clean. Each nephron interlinks with a small tube to keep useful substances, such as proteins and red blood cells, in the bloodstream and allow extra fluid and waste products to pass through, where they become part of the urine. This filtration system can, however, be damaged by high levels of blood sugar. Excess glucose in the bloodstream can cause the kidneys to filter too much blood. Over time, this extra w Continue reading >>
What Happens To Food In Your Body?
Just thinking about eating causes your body to start secreting insulin, a hormone that helps keep blood sugar (glucose) under control. Insulin is made by the pancreas. As you eat, more insulin is released, in response to the carbohydrates in the meal. Insulin is released when you eat protein-rich foods, but at a slower rate. If your pancreas is functioning properly, the amount of carbohydrates in what you’re eating usually determines how much insulin is released. As you digest carbohydrates, they go into the blood stream as glucose. To keep blood sugar levels under control, insulin signals the cells in your body to take in glucose from the blood stream. The cells use some of glucose for energy and store some for later use. The way glucose is stored depends on the type of cell doing the storing. Muscle cells store glucose as glycogen. Liver cells store some glucose as glycogen and convert some to fat. Fat cells store glucose as fat. As glucose is removed from the blood stream, insulin levels go down and your cells start using fat for fuel instead of glucose. This is why you can go for long stretches – overnight, for example, when you’re sleeping, without eating. Your cells rely on fat for fuel. There are two types of body fat: fatty acids and triglycerides. Fatty acids are small enough to move in and out of cells and be used as fuel for cells. Fat is stored inside fat cells as triglycerides, three fatty acids bound together. Triglycerides are too big to flow through cell membranes and so are stored for future use. Insulin also plays a major role in telling your body when to store and use fat and protein. It does this by affecting the actions of two enzymes, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). LPL sits on the surface of cells and pulls fat o Continue reading >>
Utilization Of Dietary Glucose In The Metabolic Syndrome
Utilization of dietary glucose in the metabolic syndrome 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 2CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Spain 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 2CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Spain Received 2011 Sep 20; Accepted 2011 Oct 26. Copyright 2011 Alemany; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This review is focused on the fate of dietary glucose under conditions of chronically high energy (largely fat) intake, evolving into the metabolic syndrome. We are adapted to carbohydrate-rich diets similar to those of our ancestors. Glucose is the main energy staple, but fats are our main energy reserves. Starvation drastically reduces glucose availability, forcing the body to shift to fatty acids as main energy substrate, sparing glucose and amino acids. We are not prepared for excess dietary energy, our main defenses being decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, largely enhanced metabolic activity and thermogenesis. High lipid availability is a powerful factor decreasing glucose and amino acid oxidation. Present-day diets are often hyperenergetic, high on lipids, with abundant protein and limited amounts of starchy carbohydrates. Dietary lipids favor their metabolic processing, saving glucose, which additionally spares amino acids. The glucose excess elicits hyperinsulinemia, wh Continue reading >>
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If Unused Carbs Turn Into Fat In Our Body, What Do Protein And Fat Turn Into?
Answered Sep 12, 2017 Author has 393 answers and 185.4k answer views Protein is a vital macronutrient required as a component of all the cells in our bodies, it also controls the rate at which the myriad of chemical conversions in our cells take place. Protein is involved in growth, repair (healing) and general maintenance of the body. An adequate supply of dietary protein is essential to maintain cellular integrity and function and for health and reproduction. From dietary protein we can create between 50 and 70,000 new types of proteins to support the function of our bodies. Unlike carbohydrate protein is not generally stored by the body and must be obtained through regular eating. We do not store reserves of protein except in the form of muscle, so we need a daily intake to maintain all the various processes that require protein. Fats fall into 3 categories, saturated fats, monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats. It is interesting to note that nearly all foods contain a mixture of all 3 of these fats. Butter for example is 52% saturated fat, 21% monounsaturated fat and 3% polyunsaturated fat, with olive oil being 14% saturated fat, 73% monounsaturated fat and 8% polyunsaturated fat. Interestingly even spinach contains a balance of all 3 types of fat with 0.1% saturated fat, 0.1% monounsaturated fat and 0.5% polyunsaturated fat. Fats are key components of your cell membranes, protect your nervous system and are a rich source of energy. Fat in the diet also enables the absorption of vital fat soluble vitamins and health supporting phytochemicals. For more information and the foods highest in protein, meat, vegetarian and vegan, see - Protein For more information and the foods highest in fats, meat, vegetarian and vegan, see - Fats Answered Sep 12, 2017 Author h Continue reading >>
What Happens To Unburned Carbohydrates?
Your body uses mostly carbohydrates as well as fats for energy. Because the body doesn’t store carbs efficiently, they’re used first. Carbohydrates turn into glucose, which your body burns immediately or converts to glycogen to be stored in the muscles and liver for between meals. If you eat more calories from carbs or other sources than your body can use, the cells store the excess as fat. Of the three major nutrients -- carbohydrates, fat and protein -- the body burns carbs first for energy because they can’t be stored in great quantities. The carbohydrates in food get broken down into glucose, which moves into the small intestine, then the liver and into the blood. As blood sugar rises, the pancreas produces insulin, which signals the cells to take up sugar. Whatever glucose the cells don’t need immediately for energy is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. When the blood sugar levels fall -- such as between meals -- the liver releases glycogen. This cycle keeps your body supplied with a steady source of fuel. Insulin Resistance If you have insulin resistance or diabetes, the sugar-insulin cycle doesn’t work properly, leading to too much sugar and insulin circulating in the blood until eventually your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or is resistant to its effects. This is why people with diabetes or prediabetes often track the carbs they eat; eating too many carbohydrates, especially sugars and refined starches, can cause blood sugar and/or insulin to spike to potentially dangerous levels in people with diabetes. How Carbs Turn Into Fat When you eat too many calories, especially in the form of sugars and quickly burned starches, your body may reach its storage capacity for glycogen. The liver converts the stored sugars into triglycerides, or f Continue reading >>