You And Your Hormones
What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas. Here, insulin is released into the bloodstream by specialised cells called beta cells found in areas of the pancreas called islets of langerhans (the term insulin comes from the Latin insula meaning island). Insulin can also be given as a medicine for patients with diabetes because they do not make enough of their own. It is usually given in the form of an injection. Insulin is released from the pancreas into the bloodstream. It is a hormone essential for us to live and has many effects on the whole body, mainly in controlling how the body uses carbohydrate and fat found in food. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat (adipose tissue) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food. This provides energy to the cells. This glucose can also be converted into fat to provide energy when glucose levels are too low. In addition, insulin has several other metabolic effects (such as stopping the breakdown of protein and fat). How is insulin controlled? When we eat food, glucose is absorbed from our gut into the bloodstream. This rise in blood glucose causes insulin to be released from the pancreas. Proteins in food and other hormones produced by the gut in response to food also stimulate insulin release. However, once the blood glucose levels return to normal, insulin release slows down. In addition, hormones released in times of acute stress, such as adrenaline, stop the release of insulin, leading to higher blood glucose levels. The release of insulin is tightly regulated in healthy people in order to balance food intake and the metabolic needs of the body. Insulin works in tandem with glucagon, another hormone produced by the pan Continue reading >>
What Happens To Excess Calories In Your Body?
Where are extra calories stored in the body? This is more complicated than you think it is. The first step is to stop thinking in terms of calories. Calories are a measurement of energy. Its like saying how do I save gallons? rather than how do I save gas? in reference to your car. Energy in your body comes from three sources: amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids. Glucose is the simplest for your body to use. Fatty acids are the next, while amino acids take a little more work to break down. All of them go through some metabolic processing to be broken down into acetyl-coa which is then broken down into ATP and used for energy. Glucose is located in the bloodstream (blood sugar) and in your muscles and liver (glycogen stores). Your blood sugar levels are regulated by various glands. If it gets low, your body is told to release energy from various stores to maintain its level. Fatty acids are stored in adipose cells in the form of triglycerides. Fatty acids are also often found in your blood stream, as well either as free fatty acids or cholesterol. Fats contain more than twice the amount of energy as glucose, but take a little more processing to get to and requires oxygen to get there while glucose can create energy without oxygen. Amino acids are found in many places, primarily your muscles. If you need energy, your body will break down muscles as well as fat to create that energy. Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids can all be converted to triglycerides. Triglycerides and amino acids can also be converted to glycogen for storage if your muscles and liver run low this is the primary method that you lose fat through exercise, by your liver and muscles being replenished. This question originally appeared on Quora the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people Continue reading >>
Utilization Of Dietary Glucose In The Metabolic Syndrome
Utilization of dietary glucose in the metabolic syndrome 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 2CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Spain 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 2CIBER Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Spain Received 2011 Sep 20; Accepted 2011 Oct 26. Copyright 2011 Alemany; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This review is focused on the fate of dietary glucose under conditions of chronically high energy (largely fat) intake, evolving into the metabolic syndrome. We are adapted to carbohydrate-rich diets similar to those of our ancestors. Glucose is the main energy staple, but fats are our main energy reserves. Starvation drastically reduces glucose availability, forcing the body to shift to fatty acids as main energy substrate, sparing glucose and amino acids. We are not prepared for excess dietary energy, our main defenses being decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, largely enhanced metabolic activity and thermogenesis. High lipid availability is a powerful factor decreasing glucose and amino acid oxidation. Present-day diets are often hyperenergetic, high on lipids, with abundant protein and limited amounts of starchy carbohydrates. Dietary lipids favor their metabolic processing, saving glucose, which additionally spares amino acids. The glucose excess elicits hyperinsulinemia, wh Continue reading >>
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Does Carbohydrate Become Body Fat?
Dear Reader, Ah, poor carbohydrates, maligned by diets such as Atkins’ and the ketogenic diet. However, carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy — in fact your muscles and brain cells prefer carbs more than other sources of energy (triglycerides and fat, for example). To answer your question: research completed over the last several decades suggests that if you are eating a diet that is appropriate for your levels of daily activity, little to no carbohydrate is converted to fat in your body. For most people (unless you have a metabolic disorder) when you eat carbs they are digested, broken down to glucose, and then transported to all the cells in your body. They are then metabolized and used to support cellular processes. If you’re active and eating appropriately for your activity level, most of the carbs you consume are more or less burned immediately. There are two caveats here: first, if you’re eating a lot more calories per day than you are burning, then yes, your liver will convert excess calories from carbohydrate into fats; second, not all carbs are created equal. If you consume too many calories from simple sugars like sucrose and fructose (think sugary sodas sweetened by sugar and high fructose corn syrup) then your body will more readily take some of those sugars and turn them into triglycerides (fat) in your liver. What happens to excess calories that come from carbs? The answer depends on several things: what kind of carbs you consumed, your genetics, as well as how many extra calories we’re talking about. For those who eat a well-balanced diet and have no metabolic disorders, excess dietary carbohydrates are converted by the liver into complex chains of glucose called glycogen. Glycogen is stored in liver and muscle cells and is a sec Continue reading >>
What Happens To The Excess Food?
Thought this article would be fun to share. An oldie but goodie that I wrote up years ago. A fun little piece on digestion… What happens to the excess food? A look at a bite of pepperoni pizza to see what happens to its sugar, fat and protein. Open wide! The food enters your mouth: Saliva contains enzymes that break any starch in the food down to sugar. This, along with any fat and water in the food, travel to the stomach, which churns them up. Pepsin (an enzyme that digests protein) and hydrochloric acid further break down the food, turning it into a substance called chyme. The mixture enters the duodenum, (the place where the gall bladder secretes its bile). This bile dissolves the fat in water, thinning it out and making it easier to absorb. Enzymes from the pancreas enter the duodenum and further break down the sugar, fat and protein. Now everything is dissolved and is in fluid form, so it is absorbed through the lining of the small bowel. Fat, sugar and protein wave good-bye to each other and go their separate ways. What happens to the sugar? It also goes directly into the blood stream, and several different organs take the sugar they need as it passes by. Some is stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen to be used as energy. It also goes to the brain for it’s sole source of energy. Whatever is not stored as energy or immediately used and is “left over” is converted to fat and stored in fat cells with the excess fat above. What happens to the fat? First, it goes into the blood stream and travels to the liver. The liver burns some of the fat, converts some to other substances (one is cholesterol) and sends the rest to fat cells, where they wait until they are needed. What happens to the protein? It is broken down into building blocks known as peptides. The Continue reading >>
Does Unused Protein Turn Into Fat?
Protein from the diet supplies amino acids, required for a variety of body functions including making hormones, enzymes and neurotransmitters and building muscle. There are four uses for amino acids once they are absorbed: They are used as energy, are incorporated into structural protein (muscle), produce other compounds or are stored in the form of fat. Amino acids are not the most useful form of energy. The body prefers glucose derived from carbohydrates because they are easier to digest, absorb and use. However, if amino acids are available when glucose is not, the body will use them for fuel. This process is called gluconeogenesis, meaning production of new glucose. Gluconeogensis is not cost-effective for the body because it requires more energy than simply using available glucose. Think of it this way: Using amino acids instead of carbohydrates for fuel is like using a piece of fine jewelry to pay for groceries when you have cash on hand. When muscle is stressed, as in exercise, amino acids are needed to repair and build the tissue to strengthen it. The more this occurs, the more muscle mass is built. Eating more protein alone does not make this happen, although adequate amounts are needed in exercise to support muscle growth. Muscle is viewed as a structural, not a storage, form of protein. A constant pool of amino acids in the blood is broken down and synthesized into whatever amino acids or compounds the body requires. Muscle is not broken down for fuel -- the body does everything, including using fat stores first, to preserve it in times of starvation or dieting. Arguably the most important role of amino acids in the body is synthesis of a variety of compounds the body uses. Hormones, enzymes, immune factors, neurotransmitters and other amino acids are all sy Continue reading >>
What Happens To Your Body An Hour After Eating Sugar?
What happens to your body an hour after eating sugar? Humans are programmed to love sugar - this is what the substance does to our bodies Sugar is an important and popular part of our daily diet. Along with starch, it falls within the carbohydrate group as it consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms and acts as fuel for the body. In fact, carbohydrates are our main source of energy, converted by the body to power our cells and keep us alive and growing. However, many of us are overindulging in the white stuff, with the average adult consuming approximately 63 grams (2.2 ounces), nearly 16 teaspoons, of sugar each day. Thats over twice the recommended daily intake. The main attraction to sugar, for both humans and animals, is its sweet taste. In nature, this is a useful indication of which foods are safe to eat, as poisonous fruits and plants tend to be sour or bitter, but in the modern world of processed foods and fizzy drinks, sweetness is mainly associated with pleasure. As a result, sugar is added to many of the foods we consume each day to artificially boost the flavour or texture, or act as a preservative by hindering the growth of bacteria. This may be good news for our taste buds, but its not so good for our health. By eating more sugar than our bodies actually need, we are storing the excess as fat, leading to an increase in obesity and many other health problems throughout the world. Keeping track of how much sugar we eat can be difficult, though, as it goes by many different names and is hidden in some unlikely foods. Plus, not all sugars are bad, but working out which ones are good can be a challenge. Find out below exactly what sugar does to your body. When we digest sugar, enzymes in the small intestine break it down into glucose. This glucose is then Continue reading >>
This Is Exactly What Happens To Your Body When You Eat A Ton Of Sugar
As mouth-watering as a sugar-laden sundae or icing-topped cupcake is, we should all know by now that sugar isn't exactly healthy. In fact, it may be one of the worst things you can eat (that is, if you're trying to live a long, healthy life). One study from UC San Francisco actually found that drinking sugary drinks like soda can age your body on a cellular level as quickly as cigarettes. The way the sweet stuff impacts your body is way more complex than just causing weight gain. In fact, when you eat a ton of sugar, almost every part of your body feels the strain—and that's bad news for your health in both the short term and especially the long term. From an initial insulin spike to upping your chances of kidney failure down the road, this is what really happens in your body when you load up on sugar. Your brain responds to sugar the same way it would to cocaine. Eating sugar creates a surge of feel-good brain chemicals dopamine and serotonin. So does using certain drugs, like cocaine. And just like a drug, your body craves more after the initial high. "You then become addicted to that feeling, so every time you eat it you want to eat more," explains Gina Sam, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Gastrointestinal Motility Center at The Mount Sinai Hospital. Your insulin spikes to regulate your blood sugar. "Once you eat glucose, your body releases insulin, a hormone from your pancreas," Dr. Sam explains. The insulin's job is to absorb the excess glucose in the blood and stabilize sugar levels. And a little while later you get that familiar sugar crash. Once the insulin does its job, your blood sugar drops again. Which means you've just experienced a sugar rush, and then a drastic drop, leaving you feeling drained. "That's the feeling you get when you've gone to the buffet a Continue reading >>
What Happens To Unburned Carbohydrates?
Your body uses mostly carbohydrates as well as fats for energy. Because the body doesn’t store carbs efficiently, they’re used first. Carbohydrates turn into glucose, which your body burns immediately or converts to glycogen to be stored in the muscles and liver for between meals. If you eat more calories from carbs or other sources than your body can use, the cells store the excess as fat. Of the three major nutrients -- carbohydrates, fat and protein -- the body burns carbs first for energy because they can’t be stored in great quantities. The carbohydrates in food get broken down into glucose, which moves into the small intestine, then the liver and into the blood. As blood sugar rises, the pancreas produces insulin, which signals the cells to take up sugar. Whatever glucose the cells don’t need immediately for energy is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. When the blood sugar levels fall -- such as between meals -- the liver releases glycogen. This cycle keeps your body supplied with a steady source of fuel. Insulin Resistance If you have insulin resistance or diabetes, the sugar-insulin cycle doesn’t work properly, leading to too much sugar and insulin circulating in the blood until eventually your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or is resistant to its effects. This is why people with diabetes or prediabetes often track the carbs they eat; eating too many carbohydrates, especially sugars and refined starches, can cause blood sugar and/or insulin to spike to potentially dangerous levels in people with diabetes. How Carbs Turn Into Fat When you eat too many calories, especially in the form of sugars and quickly burned starches, your body may reach its storage capacity for glycogen. The liver converts the stored sugars into triglycerides, or f Continue reading >>
What Happens To Food In Your Body?
Just thinking about eating causes your body to start secreting insulin, a hormone that helps keep blood sugar (glucose) under control. Insulin is made by the pancreas. As you eat, more insulin is released, in response to the carbohydrates in the meal. Insulin is released when you eat protein-rich foods, but at a slower rate. If your pancreas is functioning properly, the amount of carbohydrates in what you’re eating usually determines how much insulin is released. As you digest carbohydrates, they go into the blood stream as glucose. To keep blood sugar levels under control, insulin signals the cells in your body to take in glucose from the blood stream. The cells use some of glucose for energy and store some for later use. The way glucose is stored depends on the type of cell doing the storing. Muscle cells store glucose as glycogen. Liver cells store some glucose as glycogen and convert some to fat. Fat cells store glucose as fat. As glucose is removed from the blood stream, insulin levels go down and your cells start using fat for fuel instead of glucose. This is why you can go for long stretches – overnight, for example, when you’re sleeping, without eating. Your cells rely on fat for fuel. There are two types of body fat: fatty acids and triglycerides. Fatty acids are small enough to move in and out of cells and be used as fuel for cells. Fat is stored inside fat cells as triglycerides, three fatty acids bound together. Triglycerides are too big to flow through cell membranes and so are stored for future use. Insulin also plays a major role in telling your body when to store and use fat and protein. It does this by affecting the actions of two enzymes, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). LPL sits on the surface of cells and pulls fat o Continue reading >>
Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms
When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more of it can be stored in cells for later use. If you consume so many extra carbohydrates that your body stores more and more glucose, all your glycogen may be compactly structured, but you no longer will be. Starch it, please: Storing glucose in plants The storage form of glucose in plants is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide. The leaves of a plant make sugar during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs in light (photo = light), such as when the sun is shining. The energy from the sunlight is used to make energy for the plant. So, when plants are making sugar (for fuel, energy) o Continue reading >>
Curiocity - Curiocit | What Is Glucose For?
This article was originally published on January 23, 2012 and reviewed and updated by the CurioCity team in September 2017. Why can't my diabetic grandmother have sugar in her coffee? The answers to all these questions started at the very beginning of life on earth, before diseases or the ability to taste even existed. Like a dollar at the shopping mall, glucose is a unit of currency. Glucose is a sugar, and its the basic unit of currency for life. At the mall, you can exchange dollars for food, clothes, games and many other things. In your body, glucose can be exchanged for energy energy that is used to make heat, to move muscles, and to sustain all of the chemical reactions that keep you alive. Tiny organelles called mitochondria work inside cells to convert glucose into ATP , which is the universal body energy source. Did you know? Mitochondria have their own special DNA and proteins. Scientists think that when life began, mitochondria were separate organisms that were eventually engulfed by larger cells. This arrangement worked for both the mitochondria and the larger cell, and so it continued for billions of years! Mitochondria are now the main energy powerhouses of cells and use glucose as their fuel. Glucose is also exchangeable for other important materials in the body. For instance, your body converts glucose to fat or glycogen for storage. You can burn that fat by exercising, as the fat gets converted back to glucose (and then energy) to move your muscles. You can even convert proteins and amino acids into glucose, starting with your muscles. This is why athletes and bodybuilders have such large appetites if they don't keep eating, their muscles start to eat themselves! (Of course, if they keep eating the same and aren't exercising, they begin to store glucos Continue reading >>
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Can The Human Body Turn Excess Glucose Into Proteins?
Answered Apr 19, 2016 Author has 8.4k answers and 5.9m answer views No. Glucose is absorbed into our living cells via insulin for instant energy and any excess energy will be first stored in our liver and muscle glycogen then once your glycogen storages are full, they will be converted into fatty acids. Glucose is hydrocarbon chain while amino acids have nitride in the backbone. You can't create nitride out of nowhere. Answered Dec 26, 2017 Author has 1.5k answers and 370.1k answer views Yes. Glucose is the starting point for the synthesis of the nonessential amino acids, which are then incorporated into proteins. A simple pathway to illustrate the point is glucose pyruvate alanine. The last step involves transamination, so you need glucose plus nitrogen from the bodys nitrogen pool. Excess glucose can not be directly converted into protein as it is converted into glycogen and beyond its storage of glycogen in liver and muscles cells into fats. But glucose involved in metabolic pathway indirectly contribute to protein formation. Proteins are made up of amino acids. Amino acids has amino group and a carbon skeleton. During amino acid synthesis amino group for most of amino acid is derived from glutamate but carbon skeletons are derived from commonly available metabolic intermediates of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, or the pentosr phosphate pathway. The primary carbon sources are glycerate-3-phosphate, pyruvate, PEP , alpha ketoglutarate, oxaloacetate, ribose-5-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate. Most of body usable carbohydrates are converted to glucose and glucose undergo glycolysis followed by TCA or Pentose phosphate pathway and above mentioned products are formed during that. The body does to some extent indirectly convert glucose into pro Continue reading >>
What Sugar Does To Your Body
Here's what happens to your system when you eat something packed with the sweet stuff. The instant something sweet touches your tongue, your taste buds direct-message your brain: deee-lish. Your noggin's reward system ignites, unleashing dopamine. Meanwhile, the sugar you swallowed lands in your stomach, where it's diluted by digestive juices and shuttled into your small intestine. Enzymes begin breaking down every bit of it into two types of molecules: glucose and fructose. Most added sugar comes from sugar cane or sugar beets and is equal parts glucose and fructose; lab-concocted high-fructose corn syrup, however, often has more processed fructose than glucose. Eaten repeatedly, these molecules can hit your body...hard. MORE: Sugar is Killing Us. Here's Everything You Need to Know. It seeps through the walls of your small intestine, triggering your pancreas to secrete insulin, a hormone that grabs glucose from your blood and delivers it to your cells to be used as energy. But many sweet treats are loaded with so much glucose that it floods your body, lending you a quick and dirty high. Your brain counters by shooting out serotonin, a sleep-regulating hormone. Cue: sugar crash. Insulin also blocks production of leptin, the "hunger hormone" that tells your brain that you're full. The higher your insulin levels, the hungrier you will feel (even if you've just eaten a lot). Now in a simulated starvation mode, your brain directs your body to start storing glucose as belly fat. Busy-beaver insulin is also surging in your brain, a phenomenon that could eventually lead to Alzheimer's disease. Out of whack, your brain produces less dopamine, opening the door for cravings and addiction-like neurochemistry. Still munching? Your pancreas has pumped out so much insulin that your Continue reading >>
What Actually Happens To Your Body When You Burn A Calorie
What Actually Happens To Your Body When You Burn A Calorie What is lost when a calorie is burned? originally appeared on Quora : the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world. Answer by Bart Loews , exercise enthusiast, on Quora : According to the laws of thermodynamics, nothing is lost when a calorie is burned. In terms of your body, its not terribly helpful to think in terms of calories, because theyre just a measure of heat. Lets drill down to your energy systems and how your muscles work. Your muscles are composed of two strands of proteins: myosin and actin. The mysoin has little hooks that grab on to the actin and then pull it in to create a contraction. It does this using ATP. The mysoin head takes on the ATP and sheers one of the phosphate molecules off. The remaining ADP binds to the actin and then rotates pulling the actin down. The ADP molecule is then released and a new ATP molecule is taken on. The ADP molecule is then recycled. This is what is actually happening when your muscles contract. The shearing of the phosphate from the ATP does generate heat and creates a little bit of excess waste, which is where the calorie theory started from, how you heat up when you perform activities. ATP cannot be stored long term. Its a comparatively large molecule and it is water soluble, so it will break down inside the cells if left unused. Your body has to have a way of creating it on the fly using fuel sources that can be stored long term. Both sugar and fat can be broken down in to acetyl CoA in the cell and then turned into ATP using the Krebs (or Citric Acid) cycle. During this cycle the primary yield is ATP, while the primary byproducts are water and CO2. The CO2 is exhaled while the water is either Continue reading >>
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