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What Happens To Unused Glucose In The Body?

What Happens To Food In Your Body?

What Happens To Food In Your Body?

Just thinking about eating causes your body to start secreting insulin, a hormone that helps keep blood sugar (glucose) under control. Insulin is made by the pancreas. As you eat, more insulin is released, in response to the carbohydrates in the meal. Insulin is released when you eat protein-rich foods, but at a slower rate. If your pancreas is functioning properly, the amount of carbohydrates in what you’re eating usually determines how much insulin is released. As you digest carbohydrates, they go into the blood stream as glucose. To keep blood sugar levels under control, insulin signals the cells in your body to take in glucose from the blood stream. The cells use some of glucose for energy and store some for later use. The way glucose is stored depends on the type of cell doing the storing. Muscle cells store glucose as glycogen. Liver cells store some glucose as glycogen and convert some to fat. Fat cells store glucose as fat. As glucose is removed from the blood stream, insulin levels go down and your cells start using fat for fuel instead of glucose. This is why you can go for long stretches – overnight, for example, when you’re sleeping, without eating. Your cells rely on fat for fuel. There are two types of body fat: fatty acids and triglycerides. Fatty acids are small enough to move in and out of cells and be used as fuel for cells. Fat is stored inside fat cells as triglycerides, three fatty acids bound together. Triglycerides are too big to flow through cell membranes and so are stored for future use. Insulin also plays a major role in telling your body when to store and use fat and protein. It does this by affecting the actions of two enzymes, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). LPL sits on the surface of cells and pulls fat o Continue reading >>

How Fat Cells Work

How Fat Cells Work

In the last section, we learned how fat in the body is broken down and rebuilt into chylomicrons, which enter the bloodstream by way of the lymphatic system. Chylomicrons do not last long in the bloodstream -- only about eight minutes -- because enzymes called lipoprotein lipases break the fats into fatty acids. Lipoprotein lipases are found in the walls of blood vessels in fat tissue, muscle tissue and heart muscle. Insulin When you eat a candy bar or a meal, the presence of glucose, amino acids or fatty acids in the intestine stimulates the pancreas to secrete a hormone called insulin. Insulin acts on many cells in your body, especially those in the liver, muscle and fat tissue. Insulin tells the cells to do the following: The activity of lipoprotein lipases depends upon the levels of insulin in the body. If insulin is high, then the lipases are highly active; if insulin is low, the lipases are inactive. The fatty acids are then absorbed from the blood into fat cells, muscle cells and liver cells. In these cells, under stimulation by insulin, fatty acids are made into fat molecules and stored as fat droplets. It is also possible for fat cells to take up glucose and amino acids, which have been absorbed into the bloodstream after a meal, and convert those into fat molecules. The conversion of carbohydrates or protein into fat is 10 times less efficient than simply storing fat in a fat cell, but the body can do it. If you have 100 extra calories in fat (about 11 grams) floating in your bloodstream, fat cells can store it using only 2.5 calories of energy. On the other hand, if you have 100 extra calories in glucose (about 25 grams) floating in your bloodstream, it takes 23 calories of energy to convert the glucose into fat and then store it. Given a choice, a fat cell w Continue reading >>

Nutrition Study Guide: Part One

Nutrition Study Guide: Part One

Peas, legumes -pinto, peanuts, garbanzo, etc all carbs are converted to glucose; body's main source of energy Glycogen is stored in the muscles and liver When more energy is needed body converts glycogen back to glucose When all glycogen stores are filled body coverts excess glucose to fat An indigestible complex carbohydrate found in the tough, stringy part of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains 25 gramps per day (women), 38 grams (men) Because it cannot be digested it provides no energy for the body Helps prevent intestinal problems such as constipation Helps control disables by reducing blood glucose levels Fruits and darker leafy vegetables with edible skin Whole grain products: bran cereals, oatmeal, brown rice nutrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues there are 20 amino acids, your body can make all but 9 4 cal/g (but not a preferred source of energy) The 9 amino acids you must get in your diet are from foods you eat. The body makes amino acids form scratch or modifies other amino acids In the United States, the recommended daily allowance of protein is 46 grams per day for women over 19 years of age adn 56 grams per day for men over 19 years of age. Build new cells and tissues, muscles, bone, skin, hair, etc. Makes up the enzymes that power many chemical reactions Makes up hemoglobin that carries oxygen in your blood At least 10,000 different proteins make you what you are Polyunsaturated (omega 3, Omega 6), monounsaturated Food: walnut, Almond, Flax seeds, Avocado, Other seeds and nuts Bad oils: canola (rapeseed), vegetable, soybean *pay attention to how the oils are processed *oils can go rancid, then they end up doing more harm than good Tried to create a solid from what they thought at the time was a healthier oil Trains fats have a grea Continue reading >>

What Happens To Your Body An Hour After Eating Sugar?

What Happens To Your Body An Hour After Eating Sugar?

What happens to your body an hour after eating sugar? Humans are programmed to love sugar - this is what the substance does to our bodies Sugar is an important and popular part of our daily diet. Along with starch, it falls within the carbohydrate group as it consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms and acts as fuel for the body. In fact, carbohydrates are our main source of energy, converted by the body to power our cells and keep us alive and growing. However, many of us are overindulging in the white stuff, with the average adult consuming approximately 63 grams (2.2 ounces), nearly 16 teaspoons, of sugar each day. Thats over twice the recommended daily intake. The main attraction to sugar, for both humans and animals, is its sweet taste. In nature, this is a useful indication of which foods are safe to eat, as poisonous fruits and plants tend to be sour or bitter, but in the modern world of processed foods and fizzy drinks, sweetness is mainly associated with pleasure. As a result, sugar is added to many of the foods we consume each day to artificially boost the flavour or texture, or act as a preservative by hindering the growth of bacteria. This may be good news for our taste buds, but its not so good for our health. By eating more sugar than our bodies actually need, we are storing the excess as fat, leading to an increase in obesity and many other health problems throughout the world. Keeping track of how much sugar we eat can be difficult, though, as it goes by many different names and is hidden in some unlikely foods. Plus, not all sugars are bad, but working out which ones are good can be a challenge. Find out below exactly what sugar does to your body. When we digest sugar, enzymes in the small intestine break it down into glucose. This glucose is then Continue reading >>

What Actually Happens To Your Body When You Burn A Calorie

What Actually Happens To Your Body When You Burn A Calorie

What Actually Happens To Your Body When You Burn A Calorie What is lost when a calorie is burned? originally appeared on Quora : the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world. Answer by Bart Loews , exercise enthusiast, on Quora : According to the laws of thermodynamics, nothing is lost when a calorie is burned. In terms of your body, its not terribly helpful to think in terms of calories, because theyre just a measure of heat. Lets drill down to your energy systems and how your muscles work. Your muscles are composed of two strands of proteins: myosin and actin. The mysoin has little hooks that grab on to the actin and then pull it in to create a contraction. It does this using ATP. The mysoin head takes on the ATP and sheers one of the phosphate molecules off. The remaining ADP binds to the actin and then rotates pulling the actin down. The ADP molecule is then released and a new ATP molecule is taken on. The ADP molecule is then recycled. This is what is actually happening when your muscles contract. The shearing of the phosphate from the ATP does generate heat and creates a little bit of excess waste, which is where the calorie theory started from, how you heat up when you perform activities. ATP cannot be stored long term. Its a comparatively large molecule and it is water soluble, so it will break down inside the cells if left unused. Your body has to have a way of creating it on the fly using fuel sources that can be stored long term. Both sugar and fat can be broken down in to acetyl CoA in the cell and then turned into ATP using the Krebs (or Citric Acid) cycle. During this cycle the primary yield is ATP, while the primary byproducts are water and CO2. The CO2 is exhaled while the water is either Continue reading >>

What Happens To Excess Calories In Your Body?

What Happens To Excess Calories In Your Body?

Where are extra calories stored in the body? This is more complicated than you think it is. The first step is to stop thinking in terms of calories. Calories are a measurement of energy. Its like saying how do I save gallons? rather than how do I save gas? in reference to your car. Energy in your body comes from three sources: amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids. Glucose is the simplest for your body to use. Fatty acids are the next, while amino acids take a little more work to break down. All of them go through some metabolic processing to be broken down into acetyl-coa which is then broken down into ATP and used for energy. Glucose is located in the bloodstream (blood sugar) and in your muscles and liver (glycogen stores). Your blood sugar levels are regulated by various glands. If it gets low, your body is told to release energy from various stores to maintain its level. Fatty acids are stored in adipose cells in the form of triglycerides. Fatty acids are also often found in your blood stream, as well either as free fatty acids or cholesterol. Fats contain more than twice the amount of energy as glucose, but take a little more processing to get to and requires oxygen to get there while glucose can create energy without oxygen. Amino acids are found in many places, primarily your muscles. If you need energy, your body will break down muscles as well as fat to create that energy. Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids can all be converted to triglycerides. Triglycerides and amino acids can also be converted to glycogen for storage if your muscles and liver run low this is the primary method that you lose fat through exercise, by your liver and muscles being replenished. This question originally appeared on Quora the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people Continue reading >>

What Happens To The Excess Food?

What Happens To The Excess Food?

Thought this article would be fun to share. An oldie but goodie that I wrote up years ago. A fun little piece on digestion… What happens to the excess food? A look at a bite of pepperoni pizza to see what happens to its sugar, fat and protein. Open wide! The food enters your mouth: Saliva contains enzymes that break any starch in the food down to sugar. This, along with any fat and water in the food, travel to the stomach, which churns them up. Pepsin (an enzyme that digests protein) and hydrochloric acid further break down the food, turning it into a substance called chyme. The mixture enters the duodenum, (the place where the gall bladder secretes its bile). This bile dissolves the fat in water, thinning it out and making it easier to absorb. Enzymes from the pancreas enter the duodenum and further break down the sugar, fat and protein. Now everything is dissolved and is in fluid form, so it is absorbed through the lining of the small bowel. Fat, sugar and protein wave good-bye to each other and go their separate ways. What happens to the sugar? It also goes directly into the blood stream, and several different organs take the sugar they need as it passes by. Some is stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen to be used as energy. It also goes to the brain for it’s sole source of energy. Whatever is not stored as energy or immediately used and is “left over” is converted to fat and stored in fat cells with the excess fat above. What happens to the fat? First, it goes into the blood stream and travels to the liver. The liver burns some of the fat, converts some to other substances (one is cholesterol) and sends the rest to fat cells, where they wait until they are needed. What happens to the protein? It is broken down into building blocks known as peptides. The Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

When it comes to your body, you probably spend more time thinking about your hair than your hormones. For some people, though, a problem with a hormone called insulin causes a health condition called type 2 diabetes (pronounced: dye-uh-BEE-tees). Diabetes is a disease that affects how the body uses glucose (pronounced: GLOO-kose), a sugar that is the body's main source of fuel. Your body needs glucose to keep running. Here's how it should work: Glucose from the food gets into your bloodstream. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin (pronounced: IN-suh-lin). Insulin helps the glucose get into the body's cells. The pancreas is a long, flat gland in your belly that helps your body digest food. It also makes insulin. Insulin is like a key that opens the doors to the cells of the body. It lets the glucose in. Then the glucose can move out of the blood and into the cells. But if someone has diabetes, either the body can't make insulin or the insulin doesn't work in the body like it should. The glucose can't get into the cells normally, so the blood sugar level gets too high. Lots of sugar in the blood makes people sick if they don't get treatment. There are two major types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Each type causes high blood sugar levels in a different way. In type 1 diabetes , the pancreas can't make insulin. The body can still get glucose from food, but the glucose can't get into the cells, where it's needed, and glucose stays in the blood. This makes the blood sugar level very high. With type 2 diabetes, the body still makes insulin. But a person with type 2 diabetes doesn't respond normally to the insulin the body makes. So glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of supplying energy. When glucose can't enter the cells in this way, doctors call Continue reading >>

Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms

Storage Forms Of Glucose In Organisms

When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream. The bloodstream then carries the glucose molecules throughout the body. Glucose enters each cell of the body and is used by the cell’s mitochondrion as fuel. Carbohydrates are in nearly every food, not just bread and pasta, which are known for “carbo loading.” Fruits, vegetables, and meats also contain carbohydrates. Any food that contains sugar has carbohydrates. And, most foods are converted to sugars when they are digested. Once an organism has taken in food, the food is digested, and needed nutrients are sent through the bloodstream. When the organism has used all the nutrients it needs to maintain proper functioning, the remaining nutrients are excreted or stored. You store it: Glycogen Animals (including humans) store some glucose in the cells so that it is available for quick shots of energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver as the large compound called glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose, but its structure allows it to pack compactly, so more of it can be stored in cells for later use. If you consume so many extra carbohydrates that your body stores more and more glucose, all your glycogen may be compactly structured, but you no longer will be. Starch it, please: Storing glucose in plants The storage form of glucose in plants is starch. Starch is a polysaccharide. The leaves of a plant make sugar during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs in light (photo = light), such as when the sun is shining. The energy from the sunlight is used to make energy for the plant. So, when plants are making sugar (for fuel, energy) o Continue reading >>

You And Your Hormones

You And Your Hormones

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas. Here, insulin is released into the bloodstream by specialised cells called beta cells found in areas of the pancreas called islets of langerhans (the term insulin comes from the Latin insula meaning island). Insulin can also be given as a medicine for patients with diabetes because they do not make enough of their own. It is usually given in the form of an injection. Insulin is released from the pancreas into the bloodstream. It is a hormone essential for us to live and has many effects on the whole body, mainly in controlling how the body uses carbohydrate and fat found in food. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat (adipose tissue) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food. This provides energy to the cells. This glucose can also be converted into fat to provide energy when glucose levels are too low. In addition, insulin has several other metabolic effects (such as stopping the breakdown of protein and fat). How is insulin controlled? When we eat food, glucose is absorbed from our gut into the bloodstream. This rise in blood glucose causes insulin to be released from the pancreas. Proteins in food and other hormones produced by the gut in response to food also stimulate insulin release. However, once the blood glucose levels return to normal, insulin release slows down. In addition, hormones released in times of acute stress, such as adrenaline, stop the release of insulin, leading to higher blood glucose levels. The release of insulin is tightly regulated in healthy people in order to balance food intake and the metabolic needs of the body. Insulin works in tandem with glucagon, another hormone produced by the pan Continue reading >>

Curiocity - Curiocit | What Is Glucose For?

Curiocity - Curiocit | What Is Glucose For?

This article was originally published on January 23, 2012 and reviewed and updated by the CurioCity team in September 2017. Why can't my diabetic grandmother have sugar in her coffee? The answers to all these questions started at the very beginning of life on earth, before diseases or the ability to taste even existed. Like a dollar at the shopping mall, glucose is a unit of currency. Glucose is a sugar, and its the basic unit of currency for life. At the mall, you can exchange dollars for food, clothes, games and many other things. In your body, glucose can be exchanged for energy energy that is used to make heat, to move muscles, and to sustain all of the chemical reactions that keep you alive. Tiny organelles called mitochondria work inside cells to convert glucose into ATP , which is the universal body energy source. Did you know? Mitochondria have their own special DNA and proteins. Scientists think that when life began, mitochondria were separate organisms that were eventually engulfed by larger cells. This arrangement worked for both the mitochondria and the larger cell, and so it continued for billions of years! Mitochondria are now the main energy powerhouses of cells and use glucose as their fuel. Glucose is also exchangeable for other important materials in the body. For instance, your body converts glucose to fat or glycogen for storage. You can burn that fat by exercising, as the fat gets converted back to glucose (and then energy) to move your muscles. You can even convert proteins and amino acids into glucose, starting with your muscles. This is why athletes and bodybuilders have such large appetites if they don't keep eating, their muscles start to eat themselves! (Of course, if they keep eating the same and aren't exercising, they begin to store glucos Continue reading >>

Can The Human Body Turn Excess Glucose Into Proteins?

Can The Human Body Turn Excess Glucose Into Proteins?

Answered Apr 19, 2016 Author has 8.4k answers and 5.9m answer views No. Glucose is absorbed into our living cells via insulin for instant energy and any excess energy will be first stored in our liver and muscle glycogen then once your glycogen storages are full, they will be converted into fatty acids. Glucose is hydrocarbon chain while amino acids have nitride in the backbone. You can't create nitride out of nowhere. Answered Dec 26, 2017 Author has 1.5k answers and 370.1k answer views Yes. Glucose is the starting point for the synthesis of the nonessential amino acids, which are then incorporated into proteins. A simple pathway to illustrate the point is glucose pyruvate alanine. The last step involves transamination, so you need glucose plus nitrogen from the bodys nitrogen pool. Excess glucose can not be directly converted into protein as it is converted into glycogen and beyond its storage of glycogen in liver and muscles cells into fats. But glucose involved in metabolic pathway indirectly contribute to protein formation. Proteins are made up of amino acids. Amino acids has amino group and a carbon skeleton. During amino acid synthesis amino group for most of amino acid is derived from glutamate but carbon skeletons are derived from commonly available metabolic intermediates of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, or the pentosr phosphate pathway. The primary carbon sources are glycerate-3-phosphate, pyruvate, PEP , alpha ketoglutarate, oxaloacetate, ribose-5-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate. Most of body usable carbohydrates are converted to glucose and glucose undergo glycolysis followed by TCA or Pentose phosphate pathway and above mentioned products are formed during that. The body does to some extent indirectly convert glucose into pro Continue reading >>

4 Ways Sugar Can Make You Fat

4 Ways Sugar Can Make You Fat

Different foods affect the body in different ways and sugar is uniquely fattening. Sugar (sucrose) and high fructose corn syrup contain two molecules: glucose and fructose. Glucose is absolutely vital to life and is an integral part of our metabolism. Our bodies produce it and we have a constant reservoir of it in the bloodstream. Every cell in the body can use glucose for energy. If we don't get glucose from the diet, our bodies produce what we need out of proteins and fats. Fructose, however, is very different. This molecule is not a natural part of metabolism and humans do not produce it. In fact, very few cells in the body can make use of it except liver cells. When we eat a lot of sugar, most of the fructose gets metabolized by the liver. There it gets turned into fat, which is then secreted into the blood. Have you ever heard of the hormone insulin? It is one of the key hormones that regulate human metabolism and energy use. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas, then travels in the blood to peripheral cells like muscle cells. Insulin sends a signal to these cells that they should put transporters for glucose onto their surface, thereby allowing glucose to get into the cells where it can be used. When we eat a high carb meal, glucose levels go up. Excess glucose is toxic so insulin rapidly goes up in order to get the glucose out of the bloodstream and into the cells. If we didn't have insulin or it wasn't functioning correctly, blood glucose would reach toxic levels. In healthy people, this mechanism works very well and enables us to eat meals that are high in carbohydrates without our blood glucose levels becoming too high. However, this mechanism tends to break. Cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, which makes the pancreas have to secrete even more to Continue reading >>

This Is Exactly What Happens To Your Body When You Eat A Ton Of Sugar

This Is Exactly What Happens To Your Body When You Eat A Ton Of Sugar

As mouth-watering as a sugar-laden sundae or icing-topped cupcake is, we should all know by now that sugar isn't exactly healthy. In fact, it may be one of the worst things you can eat (that is, if you're trying to live a long, healthy life). One study from UC San Francisco actually found that drinking sugary drinks like soda can age your body on a cellular level as quickly as cigarettes. The way the sweet stuff impacts your body is way more complex than just causing weight gain. In fact, when you eat a ton of sugar, almost every part of your body feels the strain—and that's bad news for your health in both the short term and especially the long term. From an initial insulin spike to upping your chances of kidney failure down the road, this is what really happens in your body when you load up on sugar. Your brain responds to sugar the same way it would to cocaine. Eating sugar creates a surge of feel-good brain chemicals dopamine and serotonin. So does using certain drugs, like cocaine. And just like a drug, your body craves more after the initial high. "You then become addicted to that feeling, so every time you eat it you want to eat more," explains Gina Sam, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Gastrointestinal Motility Center at The Mount Sinai Hospital. Your insulin spikes to regulate your blood sugar. "Once you eat glucose, your body releases insulin, a hormone from your pancreas," Dr. Sam explains. The insulin's job is to absorb the excess glucose in the blood and stabilize sugar levels. And a little while later you get that familiar sugar crash. Once the insulin does its job, your blood sugar drops again. Which means you've just experienced a sugar rush, and then a drastic drop, leaving you feeling drained. "That's the feeling you get when you've gone to the buffet a Continue reading >>

If Unused Carbs Turn Into Fat In Our Body, What Do Protein And Fat Turn Into?

If Unused Carbs Turn Into Fat In Our Body, What Do Protein And Fat Turn Into?

Answered Sep 12, 2017 Author has 393 answers and 185.4k answer views Protein is a vital macronutrient required as a component of all the cells in our bodies, it also controls the rate at which the myriad of chemical conversions in our cells take place. Protein is involved in growth, repair (healing) and general maintenance of the body. An adequate supply of dietary protein is essential to maintain cellular integrity and function and for health and reproduction. From dietary protein we can create between 50 and 70,000 new types of proteins to support the function of our bodies. Unlike carbohydrate protein is not generally stored by the body and must be obtained through regular eating. We do not store reserves of protein except in the form of muscle, so we need a daily intake to maintain all the various processes that require protein. Fats fall into 3 categories, saturated fats, monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats. It is interesting to note that nearly all foods contain a mixture of all 3 of these fats. Butter for example is 52% saturated fat, 21% monounsaturated fat and 3% polyunsaturated fat, with olive oil being 14% saturated fat, 73% monounsaturated fat and 8% polyunsaturated fat. Interestingly even spinach contains a balance of all 3 types of fat with 0.1% saturated fat, 0.1% monounsaturated fat and 0.5% polyunsaturated fat. Fats are key components of your cell membranes, protect your nervous system and are a rich source of energy. Fat in the diet also enables the absorption of vital fat soluble vitamins and health supporting phytochemicals. For more information and the foods highest in protein, meat, vegetarian and vegan, see - Protein For more information and the foods highest in fats, meat, vegetarian and vegan, see - Fats Answered Sep 12, 2017 Author h Continue reading >>

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