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What Happens To Glucose In The Body?

How The Body Controls Blood Sugar - Topic Overview

How The Body Controls Blood Sugar - Topic Overview

The bloodstream carries glucose-a type of sugar produced from the digestion of carbohydrates and other foods-to provide energy to cells throughout the body. Unused glucose is stored mainly in the liver as glycogen. Insulin, glucagon, and other hormone levels rise and fall to keep blood sugar in a normal range. Too little or too much of these hormones can cause blood sugar levels to fall too low (hypoglycemia) or rise too high (hyperglycemia). Normally, blood glucose levels increase after you eat a meal. When blood sugar rises, cells in the pancreas release insulin, causing the body to absorb glucose from the blood and lowering the blood sugar level to normal. When blood sugar drops too low, the level of insulin declines and other cells in the pancreas release glucagon, which causes the liver to turn stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the blood. This brings blood sugar levels back up to normal. Continue reading >>

Controlling Blood Sugar Levels

Controlling Blood Sugar Levels

Glucose is a sugar needed by cells for respiration. It is important that the concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at a constant level. Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, controls blood sugar levels in the body. It travels from the pancreas to the liver in the bloodstream. As with other responses controlled by hormones, the response is slower but longer lasting than if it had been controlled by the nervous system. Blood sugar levels- Higher tier What happens when glucose levels in the blood become too high or too low glucose level effect on pancreas effect on liver effect on glucose level too high insulin secreted into the blood liver converts glucose into glycogen goes down too low insulin not secreted into the blood liver does not convert glucose into glycogen goes up Use the animation to make sure you understand how this works. You have an old or no version of flash - you need to upgrade to view this funky content! Go to the WebWise Flash install guide Diabetes is a disorder in which the blood glucose levels remain too high. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1, which usually develops during childhood Type 2, which usually develops in later life. The table summarises some differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Some differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Who it mainly affects Children and teenagers. Adults under the age of 40. Adults, normally over the age of 40 (there is a greater risk in those who have poor diets and/or are overweight). How it works The pancreas stops making enough insulin. The body no longer responds to its insulin. How it is controlled Injections of insulin for life and an appropriate diet. Exercise and appropriate diet. When treating Type 1 diabetes, the dosage of in Continue reading >>

Ks3 Bitesize

Ks3 Bitesize

Respiration Respiration is a chemical reaction that happens in all living cells. It is the way that energy is released from glucose, for our cells to use to keep us functioning. Remember that respiration is not the same as breathing (which is properly called ventilation). Aerobic respiration The glucose and oxygen react together in the cells to produce carbon dioxide and water. The reaction is called aerobic respiration because oxygen from the air is needed for it to work. Here is the word equation for aerobic respiration: glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy) (Energy is released in the reaction. We show it in brackets in the equation because energy is not a substance.) Now we will look at how glucose and oxygen get to the cells so that respiration can take place and how we get rid of the carbon dioxide. Glucose from food to cells Glucose is a type of carbohydrate, obtained through digestion of the food we eat. Digestion breaks food down into small molecules. These can be absorbed across the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Glucose is carried round the body dissolved in blood plasma, the pale yellow liquid part of our blood. The dissolved glucose can diffuse into the cells of the body from the capillaries. Once in the cell glucose can be used in respiration. Oxygen from the air to cells When we breathe in oxygen enters the small air sacs, called alveoli, in the lungs. Oxygen diffuses from there into the bloodstream. Oxygen is not carried in the plasma, but is carried by the red blood cells. These contain a red substance called haemoglobin, which joins onto oxygen and carries it around the body in the blood, then lets it go when necessary. Like glucose, oxygen can diffuse into cells from the capillaries. Red blood cells carry oxygen arou Continue reading >>

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin into the bloodstream. When insulin is released from the pancreas, it travels through the bloodstream to the body's cells and tells the cell doors to open up to let the glucose in. Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy to use right then or store it to use later. As glucose moves from the bloodstream into the cells, blood sugar levels start to drop. The beta cells in the pancreas can tell this is happening, so they slow down the amount of insulin they're making. At the same time, the pancreas slows down the amount of insulin that it's releasing into the bloodstream. When this happens, Continue reading >>

What Happens To Your Body An Hour After Eating Sugar?

What Happens To Your Body An Hour After Eating Sugar?

What happens to your body an hour after eating sugar? Humans are programmed to love sugar - this is what the substance does to our bodies Sugar is an important and popular part of our daily diet. Along with starch, it falls within the carbohydrate group as it consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms and acts as fuel for the body. In fact, carbohydrates are our main source of energy, converted by the body to power our cells and keep us alive and growing. However, many of us are overindulging in the white stuff, with the average adult consuming approximately 63 grams (2.2 ounces), nearly 16 teaspoons, of sugar each day. Thats over twice the recommended daily intake. The main attraction to sugar, for both humans and animals, is its sweet taste. In nature, this is a useful indication of which foods are safe to eat, as poisonous fruits and plants tend to be sour or bitter, but in the modern world of processed foods and fizzy drinks, sweetness is mainly associated with pleasure. As a result, sugar is added to many of the foods we consume each day to artificially boost the flavour or texture, or act as a preservative by hindering the growth of bacteria. This may be good news for our taste buds, but its not so good for our health. By eating more sugar than our bodies actually need, we are storing the excess as fat, leading to an increase in obesity and many other health problems throughout the world. Keeping track of how much sugar we eat can be difficult, though, as it goes by many different names and is hidden in some unlikely foods. Plus, not all sugars are bad, but working out which ones are good can be a challenge. Find out below exactly what sugar does to your body. When we digest sugar, enzymes in the small intestine break it down into glucose. This glucose is then Continue reading >>

Is Glucose Stored In The Human Body?

Is Glucose Stored In The Human Body?

Glucose is a sugar that serves as a primary energy source for your body. It also provides fuel for optimal brain and nervous system activity, which may help support cognitive functions such as learning and memory. The human body stores glucose in several forms to meet immediate and future energy requirements. Video of the Day Glucose is not present in food sources. Instead, your body converts carbohydrates from foods into glucose with the help of amylase, an enzyme produced by your saliva glands and pancreas. Carbohydrates are found in all plant-based foods -- grains and starchy vegetables such as corn and potatoes are particularly abundant in carbohydrates. Beans, vegetables, seeds, fruits and nuts also supply carbohydrates. Dairy products are the only animal-based foods that contain this nutrient. As you body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, it delivers it to your bloodstream to supply your body's cells with fuel for energy. Insulin, which is produced by your pancreas, aids in the transfer of glucose through cell walls. Unused glucose is converted to glycogen by a chemical process called glycogenesis, and is stored in muscle tissues and your liver. Glycogen serves as a backup fuel source when blood glucose levels drop. Your liver and muscles can only store a limited amount of glycogen. If your bloodstream contains more glucose than your body can store as glycogen, your body stores excess glucose as fat cells. Like glycogen, fat is stored for future energy; however, glucose storage as fat can contribute to weight gain and obesity. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and heart disease, and can increase strain on your bones and joints. Your body must store glucose in your bloodstream before converting and storing it as glycogen or fat. Excess glucose in your blo Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Control

Blood Sugar Control

The concentration of glucose in our blood is important and must be carefully regulated. This is done by the pancreas, which releases hormones that regulate the usage and storage of glucose by cells. Type 1 diabetics are unable to make sufficient quantities of one of these hormones – insulin - and must therefore control their blood sugar levels by injecting insulin, as well as by carefully controlling their diet and exercise levels. Controlling rising blood sugar It is important that blood glucose level is kept within a narrow range due to its importance as an energy source for respiration - but also because of the effects it could have in causing the movement of water into and out of cells by osmosis Having eaten a meal containing sugars or starch (eg sweets, potatoes, bread, rice or pasta), the starch and large sugars are digested down into glucose and absorbed across the small intestine wall into the bloodstream. This triggers a rise in blood glucose concentration. The pancreas monitors and controls the concentration of glucose in the blood. In response to an increase in blood glucose level above the normal level, the pancreas produces a hormone called insulin which is released into the bloodstream. Insulin causes glucose to move from the blood into cells, where it is either used for respiration or stored in liver and muscle cells as glycogen. The effect of this is to lower the blood glucose concentration back to normal. The animation below shows how this works. You have an old or no version of Flash - you need to upgrade to view this content! Go to the WebWise Flash install guide Diabetes There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 which usually develops during childhood Type 2 which is usually develops in later life This syllabus focuses on Type 1 diabetes - whic Continue reading >>

Know What Happens To Carbohydrates Inside Body

Know What Happens To Carbohydrates Inside Body

Know What Happens to Carbohydrates Inside Body When you eat carbohydrates you may know that they can provide your body with quick energy, but do you know what happens to the sugar once it is inside your body? Sugar can be categorized as simple, complex, or as fiber and each type of carbohydrate will provide energy to your body, yet each has different effects in your overall health. Everyone enjoys eating sweets and it is strange to imagine a birthday party or any other celebration without having some type of sugar available as food or beverage. It is no surprise that each year people consume pounds of sugar, yet there are major problems with the continuous overconsumption of sugar to your health. Carbohydrates are one major source of energy for your cells and serve as an essential nutrient for you to stay alive , yet you must be a cautious eater to avoid eating excess refined sugars. Sweets are popular among all age groups and even newborns prefer the taste of sugar. You can consider carbohydrates as irresistible nutrients that your body needs, but remember to consume in moderation. Since you will continue to consume carbohydrates it is important that you know what happens to sugar inside your body. When you eat a bowl of cooked oatmeal with milk digestion of the sugars begins in your mouth. Enzymes in your mouth, like salivary amylase, begin to digest some of the sugars in your mouth. The main site for the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates is in your small intestine. An enzyme released by your pancreas (pancreatic amylase) continues with the digestion of sugars in your small intestine. Generally, large sugar molecules, like starch, need to be broken down to smaller parts in the form of glucose. Once starch is broken down it travels to your intestinal bloodstre Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia Overview

Hypoglycemia Overview

Hypoglycemia means low (hypo) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates (e.g., fruit, bread, potatoes, milk, and rice) are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet, and your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose. The glucose is then transported in your blood to cells that need it; it gives your body energy. However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. Sometimes, your blood glucose level can drop too low—that's hypoglycemia. It usually happens quite quickly, and it can be handled quite quickly, as well. People with type 1 diabetes do not make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes fall into two categories when it comes to insulin: either their body doesn't make enough, or their body is unable to use it well (insulin resistance). Normal Blood Glucose The American Diabetes Association published the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes that provide recommended target blood glucose ranges for people with and without diabetes. The standard for measuring blood glucose is “mg/dL,” which means milligrams per deciliter. People without Diabetes After eating (called postprandial) 70 to 140 mg/dL Goals for People with Diabetes Type 2 diabetes (also called type 2 diabetes mellitus) is more common than type 1 diabetes. Around 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National 2014 Diabetes Statistics Report, 29.1 million A Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes—when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread, and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and then transports the glucose to the cells via the bloodstream. Body Needs Insulin However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes may have enough insulin, but their body doesn't use it well; they're insulin resistant. Some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce enough insulin. People with diabetes may become hyperglycemic if they don't keep their blood glucose level under control (by using insulin, medications, and appropriate meal planning). For example, if someone with type 1 diabetes doesn't take enough insulin before eating, the glucose their body makes from that food can build up in their blood and lead to hyperglycemia. Your endocrinologist will tell you what your target blood glucose levels are. Your levels may be different from what is usually considered as normal because of age, pregnancy, and/or other factors. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as when you don't eat for at least eight hours. Recommended range without diabet Continue reading >>

How The Body Processes Sugar

How The Body Processes Sugar

The natural control of blood sugar is complex. It is important to understand what is supposed to happen in your body, and what is different when you have diabetes. The natural control of blood sugar is very complex and can become unbalanced when you have diabetes. It is important to understand what is supposed to happen in your body, and what is different when you have diabetes. These sections will introduce you to the different parts of your body and to hormones that are important in regulating your blood sugar. In this section, you will learn about: The liver and blood sugar: how the liver regulates blood sugar to keep the levels just right Blood sugar and other hormones: other pancreatic and gut hormones that have a role in glucose control Blood sugar and stress: the hormones that rise with stress and can affect blood sugar control Continue reading >>

Absorbing And Storing Energy: How The Body Controls Glucose

Absorbing And Storing Energy: How The Body Controls Glucose

Absorbing and Storing Energy: How the Body Controls Glucose Editors note: Physicians have a special place among the thinkers who have elaborated the argument for intelligent design. Perhaps thats because, more than evolutionary biologists, they are familiar with the challenges of maintaining a functioning complex system, the human body. With that in mind, Evolution News is delighted to offer this series, The Designed Body. For the complete series, see here . Dr. Glicksman practices palliative medicine for a hospice organization. Just like a car needs the energy, in the form of gasoline, to run properly, the body needs the energy in glucose to survive. When we havent eaten for a while, our blood glucose level drops and our stomach is empty, causing the hunger center in our brain to tell us to eat or drink something with calories. As I have explained in my last couple of articles, the complex molecules that are in what we eat and drink enter the gastrointestinal system, where digestive enzymes break them down into simpler molecules so the body can absorb them. Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars, like glucose, which are then absorbed into the blood. Tissues, such as the brain and other organs, rapidly absorb some of this glucose, to be used for their immediate energy needs. However, the amount of glucose absorbed after a meal is usually much more than what the tissues can use right away, causing excess. The body is able to chemically link these excess glucose molecules together to form a carbohydrate called glycogen. Most of the glycogen in the body is made and stored in the liver, with smaller amounts in the muscles, kidneys, and other tissues. Once the liver and other tissues have filled up their glycogen stores, any excess glucose is stored as fat, appare Continue reading >>

How Is Glucose Absorbed?

How Is Glucose Absorbed?

Your body can break down fats and even proteins to get the energy it needs. But it’s glucose, derived from the digestion of carbohydrates, that your body desires. Glucose is the main source of energy for every single cell, and it is the preferred energy type for brain cells. If you have diabetes, your body has problems handling glucose, which can be very dangerous for your health. Video of the Day All carbohydrates, with the exception of fiber, eventually wind up as glucose. However, the way they get there varies. Sugars, which are simple carbs, are very small molecules that convert into glucose quickly after combining with enzymes in your small intestine. Starches, which are complex carbohydrates, undergo numerous steps before glucose is formed. When you chew, your mouth secretes saliva, an enzyme that starts breaking down complex starch compounds. Saliva turns starches into a kind of simple carbohydrate. As the simple molecules approach your small intestine, the enzymes there kick in again to break them down further, converting them into glucose. Your intestinal tract is lined with numerous microvilli, which are tiny fingerlike protrusions that increase surface area for the maximum absorption of nutrients. These microvilli absorb glucose molecules and send them straight into your bloodstream. Once your brain senses that glucose is present, it sends signals to your pancreas to secrete the hormone insulin. Insulin is like a gatekeeper, opening up cell walls and allowing glucose to enter. Whatever glucose isn’t needed right away gets converted into glycogen, a polysaccharide that is stored in your liver and muscles as a backup source of energy. If you have diabetes, your body doesn’t regulate glucose levels well because it has a problem with insulin. With Type 1 di Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Regulation

Blood Glucose Regulation

Glucose is needed by cells for respiration. It is important that the concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at a constant level. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates glucose levels in the blood. How glucose is regulated Glucose level Effect on pancreas Effect on liver Effect on glucose level too high insulin secreted into the blood liver converts glucose into glycogen goes down too low insulin not secreted into the blood liver does not convert glucose into glycogen goes up Use the animation to make sure you understand how this works. You have an old or no version of flash - you need to upgrade to view this funky content! Go to the WebWise Flash install guide Glucagon – Higher tier The pancreas releases another hormone, glucagon, when the blood sugar levels fall. This causes the cells in the liver to turn glycogen back into glucose which can then be released into the blood. The blood sugar levels will then rise. Now try a Test Bite- Higher tier. Diabetes is a disorder in which the blood glucose levels remain too high. It can be treated by injecting insulin. The extra insulin allows the glucose to be taken up by the liver and other tissues, so cells get the glucose they need and blood-sugar levels stay normal. There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin. It can be controlled by: monitoring the diet injecting insulin People with type 1 diabetes have to monitor their blood sugar levels throughout the day as the level of physical activity and diet affect the amount of insulin required. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is caused by a person becoming resistant to insulin. It can be controlled by diet and exercise. There is a link between rising levels of obesity (chronic overweight) and i Continue reading >>

The Liver And Blood Glucose Levels

The Liver And Blood Glucose Levels

Tweet Glucose is the key source of energy for the human body. Supply of this vital nutrient is carried through the bloodstream to many of the body’s cells. The liver produces, stores and releases glucose depending on the body’s need for glucose, a monosaccharide. This is primarily indicated by the hormones insulin - the main regulator of sugar in the blood - and glucagon. In fact, the liver acts as the body’s glucose reservoir and helps to keep your circulating blood sugar levels and other body fuels steady and constant. How the liver regulates blood glucose During absorption and digestion, the carbohydrates in the food you eat are reduced to their simplest form, glucose. Excess glucose is then removed from the blood, with the majority of it being converted into glycogen, the storage form of glucose, by the liver’s hepatic cells via a process called glycogenesis. Glycogenolysis When blood glucose concentration declines, the liver initiates glycogenolysis. The hepatic cells reconvert their glycogen stores into glucose, and continually release them into the blood until levels approach normal range. However, when blood glucose levels fall during a long fast, the body’s glycogen stores dwindle and additional sources of blood sugar are required. To help make up this shortfall, the liver, along with the kidneys, uses amino acids, lactic acid and glycerol to produce glucose. This process is known as gluconeogenesis. The liver may also convert other sugars such as sucrose, fructose, and galactose into glucose if your body’s glucose needs not being met by your diet. Ketones Ketones are alternative fuels that are produced by the liver from fats when sugar is in short supply. When your body’s glycogen storage runs low, the body starts conserving the sugar supplies fo Continue reading >>

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