diabetestalk.net

What Happens To Excess Glucose Quizlet

Chapter 18 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 18 Flashcards | Quizlet

Explain what happens to excess glucose in the body. The body can only store a certain amount of glycogen so when there is excess amount the glucose reacts to form fat and is stored in adipose tissue Name two uses of carbohydrates other than supplying energy production of certain molecules- ribose & deoxyribose converts to fats and stores in adipose tissue why do daily requirements for carbohydrates vary from person to person? The requirements for carbs varies due to individual energy requirements. If a person is sedentary they don't require as many carbs as an active person who needs more energy to keep their body functioning Which fatty acids are essential nutrients? What is the role of the liver in the use of lipids? The liver can convert/synthesize fatty acids from one form to another but cannot synthesize essential fatty acids. synthesizes cholesterol and releases into the blood, excrete as bile, NOT a source of energy undergoes Deamination to convert amino acids into energy meats, cheese, nuts, seafood, poultry, milk, eggs, and cereals Why are some amino acids called essential? there are 8 amino acids that the body needs that cannot be synthesized sufficiently by the body Distinguish between a complete protein and an incomplete protein. Complete- the adequate amount of essential amino acids to maintain human body tissues and promote normal growth and development Incomplete- lack one or more essential amino acids and cannot maintain human tissues or support growth and development the amount of nitrogen being excreted is more than what the diet is replacing in the body This develops in growing children, pregnant women, or athletes in training when the amount of nitrogen being excreted is less than what is being replaced/taken in How can inadequate nutrition cause ed Continue reading >>

Ch. 16: Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

Ch. 16: Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

this is the creation of large molecules from small ones with the use of energy (ATP) a tryglyceride is composed of 3 fatty acid chains attatched to one molecule of glycerol proteins are long chains of amino acids linked together what is the composition of carbohydrates? long chains of monosaccarides joined together when large molecules are broken down in our digestive system, what are the two things that can POTENTIALLY happen to them? what are the functions of building blocks? 1. create new structures in the form of ATP what are the stored forms of fat, aminoacid, glucose? 3. Amino Acids = structural/ functional proteins what is the body's first second and last choice of energy source? List the percentage of energy from source How long can glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids stay in their storage form ? And where are they stored? 1. glucose = less than one day, stored in liver and skeletal muscle 3. Amino acids= till death, stored in muscle where does glycolysis occur and what kind of a reaction is it? glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and is anaerobic since it DOES NOT require oxygen. It produces 2 ATP where does the citric acid cycle (krebs) occur and what kind of a reaction is it Krebs occurs in the mitochondria , it DOES need oxygen therefore it is an aerobic reaction and it produces 2 ATP per one molecule of glucose how can amino acids enter glycolysis or the krebs cycle amino acids enter glycolysis by being broken down into pyruvate. They enter krebs cycle by being broken down into acetyl coenzyme A How can fatty acids enter glycolysis and krebs cycle? Fatty acids are broken down into glycerol this allows them to enter glycolysis. The free fatty acids are converted into acetyl coA to enter krebs cycle what is the major fuel source for the brain and where is i Continue reading >>

Unit 2 Lesson 1 Section 3

Unit 2 Lesson 1 Section 3

Maintaining blood glucose levels is the job of what organ? What two hormones are produced in the pancreas? blood glucose levels are high or low in morning? what happens when blood glucose levels fall below a certain set point? stimulates the breakdown of glycogen previously stored in the liver, resulting in the release of glucose molecules into the blood stream when blood glucose levels approach the upper set point what does the pancreas do? switches its effort to insulin production What do cells that recognize insulin do when insulin is produced by pancreas? they remove glucose molecules from the blood stream what does liver do with some of the glucose in the blood? it converts it into glycogen to be stored in liver for the next time blood glucose levels fall How does insulin enable cells to remove glucose from blood stream? basically insulin is a hormone and therefore functions as a signal molecule. when cell membrane receives the signal it activates the glucose transport molecules so glucose can move into cell body does not produce insulin or is unable to use insulin. it is disorder of immune system where antibodies do not recognize the insulin producing cells as friendly and treat them as foe and attack and destroy them usually develops suddenly, rapid weigh tloss, frequent urination, always thirsty, always hungry, fatigue hyperglycermia occurs, but cells are starved for glucose body develops insulin resistance. pancreas produces insulin but the insulin receptor proteins at the cell membrane are overworked and do not recognize the presence of insulin. can't detect insulin then glucose not removed from blood stream constant hunger, weight gain, thirsty, glucose in urine associated with obesity and lack of physical inactivity diabetes occurs during pregnancy. women o Continue reading >>

Chapter 5 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 5 Flashcards | Quizlet

-converted into fat (adipose tissue) unlimited storage capacity limited source of stored carbohydrate in the liver and skeletal muscle regulated by the actions of pancreatic hormones (insulin and glucagon) pancreas in response to increased blood glucose -secretes insulin in response to increased blood glucose -promotes storage of excess glucose as glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle -promotes conversion of excess glucose to fat in liver and adipose pancreas in response to decreased blood glucose -secretes glucagon in response to decreased blood glucose -signals liver to release glucose into the blood -Gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) -pancreatic cells that secrete insulin are destroyed by the body's immune system -extremely low insulin levels limit body's ability to use glucose (muscle and adipose tissues cannot take up glucose) -blood glucose levels increase (hyperglycemia) what happens when the use of glucose is limited? the body releases fatty acids from adipose tissue -serve as energy source to minimize breakdown of muscle protein -requires aligning insulin with food intake and activity to maintain desirable blood glucose level -primarily attributed to prevalence of obesity and decreased physical activity -occurs when cells are less sensitive to the effects of insulin -cells resist the effects of insulin, impairing the uptake of glucose into cells -pancreas overworks to make more insulin to attempt to lower blood glucose -lower blood glucose than type 2, but still elevated above normal levels -often turns into type 2 diabetes without intervention or treatment prediabetes and diabetes are diagnosed based on blood glucose concentrations short term effects of elevated blood glucose Continue reading >>

Ess 3 Nutrition For Health

Ess 3 Nutrition For Health

What is the end product of both simple and complex carbohydrate consumption in humans? What is the stored form of glucose called? What happens when eating sugar before short term events (sprints, field events)? Blood glucose level shoots up and then has a dramatic fall. Eating sugar is not good for you at all, you don't need to completely remove it from your diet, but it will never improve performance. Glucagon is a hormone that is secreted from the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood and raise blood glucose levels. What does your body do to regulate blood glucose level when it is too low? The pancreas releases glucagon to stimulate the liver in order for it to release glucose into the blood and raise blood glucose levels. Insulin is a hormone secreted from the pancreas that regulates glucose entry into all tissues. Insulin lowers and regulates blood glucose levels. What does your body do to regulate blood glucose levels when it is too high? The pancreas secretes insulin that regulates glucose entry into tissues (liver, muscles, adipose cells) Makes sure excess glucose is not in the blood. Fructose is the sweetest of all sugars, even sweeter than table sugar (sucrose). Does fiber provide any calories to the human body? No, fiber is indigestible, therefore it cannot be absorbed and if it is not absorbed then your body cannot take any calories from it. But, fiber is still nutritionally important and helps prevent certain diseases. What is the main source of energy for the human body? Carbohydrates are our main source of energy. Which of the two contains more calories (spoon for spoon) sugar or honey? Fibers can be broken down by the human body? False, fibers are indigestible. Although, they can be water soluble, or water insoluble. The in Continue reading >>

A&p Chapter 25 Flashcards | Quizlet

A&p Chapter 25 Flashcards | Quizlet

water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals Which nutrients are required in large quantities? carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water Which nutrients are required in small quantities? Why do essential nutrients have to be ingested? because the body cannot manufacture them itself or is unable to manufacture adequate amounts What is the energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius? 1 kilocalorie is equal to how many calories? How many kilocalories do a gram of fat, carbs, and protein yield? Glucose, fructose, and galactose are what type of carbs? Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are what type of carbs? Starch, glycogen, and cellulose are what type of carbs? Polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to _____________ True or False: during digestion, polysaccharides and disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides before absorption converts monosaccharides into glucose which is then used as an energy source to produce ATP What happens to excess glucose in the body? converted to glycogen and stored in muscles and liver cells What happens to excess glucose beyond storage in muscles and liver cells? triglycerides, cholesterol, linoleic acids, phospholipids forms other molecules (hormones, steriods, bile salts) and is part of the membrane What type of lipids construct myelin sheath? What is the difference between essential and non essential amino acids? What are the functions of protein in the body? protection, regulation, structure, muscle contraction, transportation, and receptors as a coenzyme (combine with an enzyme and make it functional) What is the difference between lipid-soluble and water-soluble vitamins? water--remain in the body for a short time then are excreted Vitamin A, D, E, and K are examples of wh Continue reading >>

Nutrition Test 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Test 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

chemical processes involved in maintaining life, breaking down of molecules, sum of all chemicals What is the major energy carrier of our cells? What are the four stages of cell respiration What are the products of cell respiration, where do they take place, and what stages produce these products? -Glycolosis, happens in the cytosol2 NADH, 2 ATP -Transition Reaction, occurs in the mitochondria, 2 acetate molecules, 2 CO2, 2NADH - Citric Acid Cycle, 2 ATP, 4 CO2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH transporting fatty acids to the mitochondria Where are the fatty acids produced and broken down inside the cell? Ketones, how are they formed? What are the three types of ketones? What tissues can use ketones as energy? Ketone is produced in the liver during the breakdown of fat when carbohydrate intake is very low, adipose tissue can use ketones as energy What happens the the excess glucose and amino acids when there is ample ATP? What portion of the amino acid is not used for the production ATP? What is the fate of this molecule? What is the gluconeogenesis? What nutrients can be used in the gluconeogenesis? Pathway of producing glucose from some amino acids, biotin, riboflavin, niacin, B-6 What is the fuel of choice by the brain after prolonged fasting? What metabolic pathways are accelerated during fasting or semi starvation? ketones, gluconeogenesis is the metabolic pathway Monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharides mono- simple sugar, not broken down any further by digestion di- class of sugars formed by the chemical bonding of 2 monos substance in plant food that is not broken down by the digestive process of the stomach of small intestine Diverticula are small, bulging pouches that can form in the lining of your digestive system Hypoglycemia vs hyperglycemia cause of each, how are fats a Continue reading >>

Topic 7: Carbohydrates

Topic 7: Carbohydrates

What are the three types of carbohydrates? Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides Name three monosaccharides and how they can be metabolized Glucose, fructose, galactose (and all C6 sugars) Metabolized by cellular respiration (which releases some ATP) Name three disaccharides and their composition Maltose: glucose + glucose; results from starch breakdown Starch: polymer of glucose, made by plants for energy storage; can be hydrolyzed to maltose, then glucose, and used for energy Glycogen: polymer of glucose, only found in animals, stores glucose, not a dietary carbohydrate Fiber: indigestible, mostly plant carbohydrates; don't contribute energy Describe fiber (soluble, insoluble, health benefits) Structural parts of plants, not digestible by humans. Soluble fibers: dissolve in water or form gels (viscous); easily digestible by bacteria in the colon (fermentable) Insoluble fibers: do not dissolve; found mostly in whole grains; promote bowel movements High fiber diets associated with lower blood cholesterol, reduced heart disease, cancer. Mouth: small amount, mostly mechanical breakdown and salivary amylase, small amount of glucose absorption Small intestine: Pancreatic and intestinal amylases break down most of the digestible carbs; most carbohydrate absorption occurs here; since carbohydrates are hydrophilic, they pass into blood capillaries, then move through the hepatic portal vein to the liver Large intestine: colonic bacteria digest some fiber Babies produce the enzyme lactase in the intestine, which cleave the disaccharide lactose into two absorbable monosaccharides. Most humans lose the ability in adulthood to make lactase. --Intact lactose can't be absorbed in the small intestine. --It travels instead to the colon, where bacteria break it down produ Continue reading >>

Motivation- Ch.5 Flashcards | Quizlet

Motivation- Ch.5 Flashcards | Quizlet

What are carrying costs? Carrying cost refers to the cost in calories of transporting one's weight. The portion size of a meal is thought to play a role in how much people are overweight. This is because as portion size increases, the amount eaten usually also How do conditioned food or conditioned taste preference develop? The flavor of food is associated with another flavor that tastes pleasant. salivary, gastric, and insulin reactions. What happens to excess glucose after eating a meal, i.e., glucose not needed immediately for energy? Excess glucose Based on the boundary model of eating, some individuals have a large zone of biological indifference. These individuals usually use cognitive control to begin eating and to stop eating. What statement defines a physiological need? A physiological need is the discrepancy between a physiological set point and the actual physiological state. Taste aversion is most likely associated with what characteristic of food? Taste aversion is associated with the Continue reading >>

Brs - Metabolism During The Fed State

Brs - Metabolism During The Fed State

What is the immediate fate of glucose in the liver? oxidation to carbon dioxide and water for hepatic energy needs What is the fate of excess glucose in the liver? stored in the liver as glycogen for use during periods of fasting What happens to excess glucose if it is not stored as glycogen in the liver? Glucose is converted to fatty acids and glycerol to form triacylglycerols that are released into the blood as very-low-density lipoproteins, which is then transported to adipocytes. it is oxidized into carbon dioxide and water for ATP production What happens to glucose in red blood cells? oxidized to pyruvate and lactate which are released into the blood Why do red blood cells oxidize glucose to pyruvate and lactate instead of carbon dioxide and water? RBCs lack mitochondria. Because RBCs lack mitochondria, they cannot carry out aerobic respiration in the form of oxidative phosphorylation. For this reason, RBCs must carry out anaerobic respiration via lactate dehydrogenase. What is required for muscle intake of glucose? What happens to excess glucose in muscles? What is required for adipocyte intake of glucose? What happens to glucose in adipocytes in addition to oxidation for energy? glucose is converted into the glycerol moiety for the use of triacylglycerol storage What are the fates of chylomicrons and VLDL during the fed state? lipoprotein lipases located in the capillaries convert them into fatty acids and glycerol, and the fatty acids are taken up by adipocytes for triacylglycerol formation What is the fate of amino acids in the fed state? Continue reading >>

Case Study 4a: Sweeteners And Kcalorie Control

Case Study 4a: Sweeteners And Kcalorie Control

Sort Mr. P. notes that his mother was recently diagnosed with diabetes and wonders if that might be in his future. A review of his medical records indicates a recent fasting blood glucose test was consistent with prediabetes. What range is consistent with prediabetes? 100-125 mg⁄dL Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

-Predominant in plant-based foods such as grains (rice and pasta), fruits vegetables, nuts and legumes (dry beans and peas). You need carbohydrates because they are the most desirable source of energy for your body. Providing 4 calories per gram, their main role is to supply fuel. Are found most abundantly in plant-based foods. Your body cells, including brain cells and red blood cells, use them for energy. Many cultures around the world rely on carbohydrate-based foods as staples in their diets. Glucose is created in plants through the process of photosynthesis, and it is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature. The most abundant sugar molecule, a monosaccharide generally found in combination with other sugars; the preferred source of energy for the brain and an important source of energy for all cells. A process by which green plants create carbohydrates using the energy from sunlight. The green pigment in plants that absorbs energy from sunlight to being the process of photosynthesis A category of carbohydrate that contain a single sugar unit or two sugar units combined. Include monosaccahrides and disaccharides. One sugar unit. There are three monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, and galactose. Two sugar units combined there are three: sucrose, lactose, maltose. A category of carbohydrates that contain many sugar units combined. A polysaccharide is a complete carbohydrate. Many sugar units combined. Including starch, glycogen, and fiber. The sweetest of the monosaccharides. Also known as fruit sugar. A monosaccharide that links with glucose to create the sugar found in dairy foods. When glucose and fructose join together. This disaccharide is formed. Also, called table sugar. glucose + glucose creates this disaccharide. Is the sugar found in grains, such as barley. Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates (test #2)

Carbohydrates (test #2)

Why are the complex carbohydrates referred to as "complex"? The ability for something to dissolve in water In relation to fiber, what is considered to be the soluble part? The meat (or pulp) of a fruit or vegetable (Example: the middle of an apple or pear) In relation to fiber, what is considered to be the insoluble part? The peel or skin of a fruit or vegetable (Example: kiwi fruit or potato) Complex carbohydrates are also known as ... Which carbohydrates are not digestible? Why? (2) 1. Fiber (we do not have an enzyme to digest it) 2. Monosaccharides (it's already in its smallest form) What are some sources of carbohydrates? (3) 1. Anything made from flour (bread, pasta, etc.) 2. Starchy vegetables and fruits (corn, potatoes, pears, bananas, etc.) 3. A lot of added sugars (pop, candy, etc.) Which monosaccharide does pop have a lot of? If you have high added sugar intake you probably ... (4) 1. Missing fiber (due to eating foods that do not have a lot of fiber containing carbohydrates) 2. Over consuming calories (increased caloric density due to a lot of empty calories - causing weight gain) 3. Putting stresses on the body's blood sugar regulation (diabetes, etc.) 4. Excess simple carbohydrates that are likely to be converted to fats (increasing your body's fat mass) Eating a lot of added sugars means you are consuming a lot of _____ calories ... What can happen to the pancreas under the right conditions and what is it related to? (related to blood sugar) What is an important health benefit of fiber in relation to digestion and absorption? It slows gastric emptying (slows the food moving out of the stomach and into the small intestine) and it slows the amount of nutrients that enter the small intestine What is an important health benefit of fiber in relation to blood s Continue reading >>

Physiology - Chapter 22

Physiology - Chapter 22

Where is neuropeptide Y released and what is its effect on appetite? What physiological disturbances have been caused by anorexia nervosa? Provide an accurate comparison between bulimia nervosa (BN) and anorexia nervosa (AN)? In BN, the afflicted person overeats and then purges while in AN, the afflicted person does not eat The lowest metabolic rate a person can have, usually occurring when they are asleep Some scientist believe the single largest cholesterol risk factor for coronary artery disease is elevated _____ in the blood. Insulin is produced by the _____ cells of the pancreas. Explain why rings on your fingers typically fit tighter in the summer as opposed to winter The body is trying to maintain normal body temperature by dissipating heat from the body. One way to do that is for the cutaneous blood vessels to dilate. This dilation results in the swelling of the fingers How does binding of insulin to its receptor cause glucose uptake from the bloodstream? It causes insertion of GLUT4 transporters in the membrane What happens when blood glucose levels are high? How does a liver cell respond to insulin? Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose? Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body What happens when blood glucose levels are low? The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions The brain neurotransmitter that is an important stimulus for food intake The first law of thermodynamics states that _____. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed and thus must be accounted for The feeding and satiety centers are located where? One kilocalorie (kca Continue reading >>

Nutrition And Fitness Chapter 5

Nutrition And Fitness Chapter 5

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth Most carbohydrate digestions occurs in the small intestine Glucose is primary fuel for the body and is preferred energy source of the brain and red blood cells. When body's immediate energy needs are met, excess glucose ca nbe stored as Depending on a person's activity level, the body stores enough glycogen to last for about A condition that occurs when blood glucose levels are lower than normal Condition that occurs when the blood glucose levels are higher thannormal Characterized by hyperglycemia or high blood sugar. no insulin is produced or when the insulin produced is not used properly. A type of Diabetes that occurs when the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin are damaged or destroyed. Usually diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood. Most common form of Diabetes. Usually diagnosed later in life whereby the body doesn't make enough insulin or the cells do not response as they should to insulin. Glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Develops in approx. 4% of all pregnancies in the US. Continue reading >>

More in ketosis