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What Happens To Excess Glucose Quizlet

Ch. 16: Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

Ch. 16: Metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

this is the creation of large molecules from small ones with the use of energy (ATP) a tryglyceride is composed of 3 fatty acid chains attatched to one molecule of glycerol proteins are long chains of amino acids linked together what is the composition of carbohydrates? long chains of monosaccarides joined together when large molecules are broken down in our digestive system, what are the two things that can POTENTIALLY happen to them? what are the functions of building blocks? 1. create new structures in the form of ATP what are the stored forms of fat, aminoacid, glucose? 3. Amino Acids = structural/ functional proteins what is the body's first second and last choice of energy source? List the percentage of energy from source How long can glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids stay in their storage form ? And where are they stored? 1. glucose = less than one day, stored in liver and skeletal muscle 3. Amino acids= till death, stored in muscle where does glycolysis occur and what kind of a reaction is it? glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and is anaerobic since it DOES NOT require oxygen. It produces 2 ATP where does the citric acid cycle (krebs) occur and what kind of a reaction is it Krebs occurs in the mitochondria , it DOES need oxygen therefore it is an aerobic reaction and it produces 2 ATP per one molecule of glucose how can amino acids enter glycolysis or the krebs cycle amino acids enter glycolysis by being broken down into pyruvate. They enter krebs cycle by being broken down into acetyl coenzyme A How can fatty acids enter glycolysis and krebs cycle? Fatty acids are broken down into glycerol this allows them to enter glycolysis. The free fatty acids are converted into acetyl coA to enter krebs cycle what is the major fuel source for the brain and where is i Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates (test #2)

Carbohydrates (test #2)

Why are the complex carbohydrates referred to as "complex"? The ability for something to dissolve in water In relation to fiber, what is considered to be the soluble part? The meat (or pulp) of a fruit or vegetable (Example: the middle of an apple or pear) In relation to fiber, what is considered to be the insoluble part? The peel or skin of a fruit or vegetable (Example: kiwi fruit or potato) Complex carbohydrates are also known as ... Which carbohydrates are not digestible? Why? (2) 1. Fiber (we do not have an enzyme to digest it) 2. Monosaccharides (it's already in its smallest form) What are some sources of carbohydrates? (3) 1. Anything made from flour (bread, pasta, etc.) 2. Starchy vegetables and fruits (corn, potatoes, pears, bananas, etc.) 3. A lot of added sugars (pop, candy, etc.) Which monosaccharide does pop have a lot of? If you have high added sugar intake you probably ... (4) 1. Missing fiber (due to eating foods that do not have a lot of fiber containing carbohydrates) 2. Over consuming calories (increased caloric density due to a lot of empty calories - causing weight gain) 3. Putting stresses on the body's blood sugar regulation (diabetes, etc.) 4. Excess simple carbohydrates that are likely to be converted to fats (increasing your body's fat mass) Eating a lot of added sugars means you are consuming a lot of _____ calories ... What can happen to the pancreas under the right conditions and what is it related to? (related to blood sugar) What is an important health benefit of fiber in relation to digestion and absorption? It slows gastric emptying (slows the food moving out of the stomach and into the small intestine) and it slows the amount of nutrients that enter the small intestine What is an important health benefit of fiber in relation to blood s Continue reading >>

Biology Ft3 Ch21 Flashcards | Quizlet

Biology Ft3 Ch21 Flashcards | Quizlet

Five characteristics of the ileum that allow effective absorption of soluble food? Very long, numerous villi, lining of the epithelium is one cell thick, each villus contains nany blood capillaries, each villus contains a lacteal for absorption of fats. By what process do amino acids and glucose get absorbed within the blood stream? Facilitated diffusion and active transport. What is the function of the hepatic portal vein? Carries glucose and amino acids from the intestines to the liver. How do human body cells use absorbed glucose? It is oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and water during respiration to produce energy to power chemical reactions. Build up membranes and cell structures, provides twice the amount of energy of carbs, hormone synthesizing. What happens to excess glucose in the body? It is converted into glycogen in the liver as short term storage. Most glucose is stored in liver. Some glycogen is stored in muscles. Excess glucose not stored as glycogen is converted into fat and stored in the adipose tissue. There is no limit to amount of fat stored. Fats are stored in the adipose tissue as long term energy store. Adipose tissue is located in the abdomen, around the kidneys, under the skin. They are carried to liver when they are deaminated. Deamination results in toxic ammonia production. The liver quickly converts this ammonia into urea for excretion. The remaining acid group is converted into glycogen. Regulates blood sugar by removing excess glucose after meals. Produces bile for digestion, deaminates amino acids and converts it into urea to be excreted as urine, stores iron from broken down hemoglobin from old blood cells, stores vitamin A and D, detoxifies drugs and chemicals by converting to harmless substances. The process by which poisonous subst Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

-Predominant in plant-based foods such as grains (rice and pasta), fruits vegetables, nuts and legumes (dry beans and peas). You need carbohydrates because they are the most desirable source of energy for your body. Providing 4 calories per gram, their main role is to supply fuel. Are found most abundantly in plant-based foods. Your body cells, including brain cells and red blood cells, use them for energy. Many cultures around the world rely on carbohydrate-based foods as staples in their diets. Glucose is created in plants through the process of photosynthesis, and it is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature. The most abundant sugar molecule, a monosaccharide generally found in combination with other sugars; the preferred source of energy for the brain and an important source of energy for all cells. A process by which green plants create carbohydrates using the energy from sunlight. The green pigment in plants that absorbs energy from sunlight to being the process of photosynthesis A category of carbohydrate that contain a single sugar unit or two sugar units combined. Include monosaccahrides and disaccharides. One sugar unit. There are three monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, and galactose. Two sugar units combined there are three: sucrose, lactose, maltose. A category of carbohydrates that contain many sugar units combined. A polysaccharide is a complete carbohydrate. Many sugar units combined. Including starch, glycogen, and fiber. The sweetest of the monosaccharides. Also known as fruit sugar. A monosaccharide that links with glucose to create the sugar found in dairy foods. When glucose and fructose join together. This disaccharide is formed. Also, called table sugar. glucose + glucose creates this disaccharide. Is the sugar found in grains, such as barley. Continue reading >>

Nutrition: Ch 4

Nutrition: Ch 4

Sort - Enhances flavor - Supplies texture and color to baked goods - Provides fuel for fermentation, causing break to rise of producing alcohol - Acts as a bulking agent in ice cream and baked goods - Balances the acidity of tomato- and vinegar- based products As an additive, sugar: Table sugar = 2 monosaccharides bonded together as a disaccharide, sucrose whereas in honey some of them are free Both contain glucose and fructose and both end up as glucose and fructose in the body Similarities / differences honey vs table sugar - Limit between-meal juices and snacks containing sugars and starches - Brush with fluoride - Floss - Rinse with water if brushing and flossing are not possible - Routine dental checkups To prevent dental caries: Continue reading >>

Chapter 5 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 5 Flashcards | Quizlet

-converted into fat (adipose tissue) unlimited storage capacity limited source of stored carbohydrate in the liver and skeletal muscle regulated by the actions of pancreatic hormones (insulin and glucagon) pancreas in response to increased blood glucose -secretes insulin in response to increased blood glucose -promotes storage of excess glucose as glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle -promotes conversion of excess glucose to fat in liver and adipose pancreas in response to decreased blood glucose -secretes glucagon in response to decreased blood glucose -signals liver to release glucose into the blood -Gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) -pancreatic cells that secrete insulin are destroyed by the body's immune system -extremely low insulin levels limit body's ability to use glucose (muscle and adipose tissues cannot take up glucose) -blood glucose levels increase (hyperglycemia) what happens when the use of glucose is limited? the body releases fatty acids from adipose tissue -serve as energy source to minimize breakdown of muscle protein -requires aligning insulin with food intake and activity to maintain desirable blood glucose level -primarily attributed to prevalence of obesity and decreased physical activity -occurs when cells are less sensitive to the effects of insulin -cells resist the effects of insulin, impairing the uptake of glucose into cells -pancreas overworks to make more insulin to attempt to lower blood glucose -lower blood glucose than type 2, but still elevated above normal levels -often turns into type 2 diabetes without intervention or treatment prediabetes and diabetes are diagnosed based on blood glucose concentrations short term effects of elevated blood glucose Continue reading >>

Case Study 4a: Sweeteners And Kcalorie Control

Case Study 4a: Sweeteners And Kcalorie Control

Sort Mr. P. notes that his mother was recently diagnosed with diabetes and wonders if that might be in his future. A review of his medical records indicates a recent fasting blood glucose test was consistent with prediabetes. What range is consistent with prediabetes? 100-125 mg⁄dL Continue reading >>

A&p Chapter 25 Flashcards | Quizlet

A&p Chapter 25 Flashcards | Quizlet

water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals Which nutrients are required in large quantities? carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water Which nutrients are required in small quantities? Why do essential nutrients have to be ingested? because the body cannot manufacture them itself or is unable to manufacture adequate amounts What is the energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius? 1 kilocalorie is equal to how many calories? How many kilocalories do a gram of fat, carbs, and protein yield? Glucose, fructose, and galactose are what type of carbs? Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are what type of carbs? Starch, glycogen, and cellulose are what type of carbs? Polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to _____________ True or False: during digestion, polysaccharides and disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides before absorption converts monosaccharides into glucose which is then used as an energy source to produce ATP What happens to excess glucose in the body? converted to glycogen and stored in muscles and liver cells What happens to excess glucose beyond storage in muscles and liver cells? triglycerides, cholesterol, linoleic acids, phospholipids forms other molecules (hormones, steriods, bile salts) and is part of the membrane What type of lipids construct myelin sheath? What is the difference between essential and non essential amino acids? What are the functions of protein in the body? protection, regulation, structure, muscle contraction, transportation, and receptors as a coenzyme (combine with an enzyme and make it functional) What is the difference between lipid-soluble and water-soluble vitamins? water--remain in the body for a short time then are excreted Vitamin A, D, E, and K are examples of wh Continue reading >>

Chapter 22 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 22 Flashcards | Quizlet

Which is NOT a method of measuring metabolic rate? What is the definition of basal metabolic rate? The lowest metabolic rate a person can have, usually occurring when they are asleep Several things, including food ingestion, amount of lean muscle mass and gender can affect metabolic rate. What other factor can affect metabolic rate? Excess amino acids in the diet, that are not used to make proteins, undergo ________. What happens to excess glucose in the body? What is the primary site of nutrient pools that are available for immediate use in the body? What is the primary molecule used for gluconeogenesis? Target cells do not respond normally to insulin What happens in your body after a sugary snack? 3. Insulin binds to receptors on target cells When blood glucose levels are high what happens? A liver cell responds to insulin by doing what? Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose? Body cells that respond to insulin include... Liver cells as well as most other cells of the body The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase. The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions is called Continue reading >>

Physiology Chapter 22 (mastering A&p)

Physiology Chapter 22 (mastering A&p)

Insulin is produced by the ________ cells of the pancreas. Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose? Body cells that respond to insulin include Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions is called The level of ketone bodies in the blood increases when high levels of ________ are being metabolized. target cells do not respond normally to insulin When blood glucose levels rise, as in the "fed" state, A primary target tissue for insulin is the In type I diabetes, a hyperglycemic hyperosmotic state may occur. Which of the following best describes this state? Plasma glucose and blood osmolarity levels are above normal ________ is a condition of insulin deficiency from beta cell destruction. The loss of water in the urine due to unreabsorbed solutes is known as The combination of type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and high blood pressure is called In type 2 diabetes, insulin levels are frequently normal, yet the target cells are less sensitive to the effects of insulin. This suggests that the target cells may have a defect in their signal transduction pathway Both insulin and glucagon are peptide hormones that target liver cells. The responses of the target cells to these two hormones are exactly the opposite of each other. This information implies that each of the two hormones uses a different second messenger creating glucose from glycerol, amino acids, or lactate The ________ rate represents the minimum energy expenditures of an individual Excess amino acids in the diet, that are not used to make proteins, un Continue reading >>

Nutrition Test 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Test 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

chemical processes involved in maintaining life, breaking down of molecules, sum of all chemicals What is the major energy carrier of our cells? What are the four stages of cell respiration What are the products of cell respiration, where do they take place, and what stages produce these products? -Glycolosis, happens in the cytosol2 NADH, 2 ATP -Transition Reaction, occurs in the mitochondria, 2 acetate molecules, 2 CO2, 2NADH - Citric Acid Cycle, 2 ATP, 4 CO2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH transporting fatty acids to the mitochondria Where are the fatty acids produced and broken down inside the cell? Ketones, how are they formed? What are the three types of ketones? What tissues can use ketones as energy? Ketone is produced in the liver during the breakdown of fat when carbohydrate intake is very low, adipose tissue can use ketones as energy What happens the the excess glucose and amino acids when there is ample ATP? What portion of the amino acid is not used for the production ATP? What is the fate of this molecule? What is the gluconeogenesis? What nutrients can be used in the gluconeogenesis? Pathway of producing glucose from some amino acids, biotin, riboflavin, niacin, B-6 What is the fuel of choice by the brain after prolonged fasting? What metabolic pathways are accelerated during fasting or semi starvation? ketones, gluconeogenesis is the metabolic pathway Monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharides mono- simple sugar, not broken down any further by digestion di- class of sugars formed by the chemical bonding of 2 monos substance in plant food that is not broken down by the digestive process of the stomach of small intestine Diverticula are small, bulging pouches that can form in the lining of your digestive system Hypoglycemia vs hyperglycemia cause of each, how are fats a Continue reading >>

Ess 3 Nutrition For Health

Ess 3 Nutrition For Health

What is the end product of both simple and complex carbohydrate consumption in humans? What is the stored form of glucose called? What happens when eating sugar before short term events (sprints, field events)? Blood glucose level shoots up and then has a dramatic fall. Eating sugar is not good for you at all, you don't need to completely remove it from your diet, but it will never improve performance. Glucagon is a hormone that is secreted from the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood and raise blood glucose levels. What does your body do to regulate blood glucose level when it is too low? The pancreas releases glucagon to stimulate the liver in order for it to release glucose into the blood and raise blood glucose levels. Insulin is a hormone secreted from the pancreas that regulates glucose entry into all tissues. Insulin lowers and regulates blood glucose levels. What does your body do to regulate blood glucose levels when it is too high? The pancreas secretes insulin that regulates glucose entry into tissues (liver, muscles, adipose cells) Makes sure excess glucose is not in the blood. Fructose is the sweetest of all sugars, even sweeter than table sugar (sucrose). Does fiber provide any calories to the human body? No, fiber is indigestible, therefore it cannot be absorbed and if it is not absorbed then your body cannot take any calories from it. But, fiber is still nutritionally important and helps prevent certain diseases. What is the main source of energy for the human body? Carbohydrates are our main source of energy. Which of the two contains more calories (spoon for spoon) sugar or honey? Fibers can be broken down by the human body? False, fibers are indigestible. Although, they can be water soluble, or water insoluble. The in Continue reading >>

Physiology - Chapter 22

Physiology - Chapter 22

Where is neuropeptide Y released and what is its effect on appetite? What physiological disturbances have been caused by anorexia nervosa? Provide an accurate comparison between bulimia nervosa (BN) and anorexia nervosa (AN)? In BN, the afflicted person overeats and then purges while in AN, the afflicted person does not eat The lowest metabolic rate a person can have, usually occurring when they are asleep Some scientist believe the single largest cholesterol risk factor for coronary artery disease is elevated _____ in the blood. Insulin is produced by the _____ cells of the pancreas. Explain why rings on your fingers typically fit tighter in the summer as opposed to winter The body is trying to maintain normal body temperature by dissipating heat from the body. One way to do that is for the cutaneous blood vessels to dilate. This dilation results in the swelling of the fingers How does binding of insulin to its receptor cause glucose uptake from the bloodstream? It causes insertion of GLUT4 transporters in the membrane What happens when blood glucose levels are high? How does a liver cell respond to insulin? Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose? Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body What happens when blood glucose levels are low? The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions The brain neurotransmitter that is an important stimulus for food intake The first law of thermodynamics states that _____. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed and thus must be accounted for The feeding and satiety centers are located where? One kilocalorie (kca Continue reading >>

A&p 2 Ch. 25a Flashcards | Quizlet

A&p 2 Ch. 25a Flashcards | Quizlet

contains twice as much energy as carbs, they are harder to catabolize. is a form of lipid catabolism. catabolized into glycerol and fatty acids by bile and lipases. This is promoted by cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine. is converted to glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate, part of the glycolysis pathway. If individual DOES NOT need ATP, G 3-P converted into glucose to be stored for later! if individual DOES need ATP, G 3-P will undergo glycolysis, producing pyruvic acid which will continue through the steps of cellular respiration. is called beta oxidation (occurs in inner matrix of mitochondria) fatty acid chain broken down into small fragments consisting on two carbon atoms. The two carbon fragments are attached to coenzymes A to form acetyl coenzyme A which can enter the krebs cycle and continue through cell respiration. hepatocytes can take two acetyl Co A molecules and condense them into X acid this will occur if there are many acetyl CoA molecules in blood. Some acetoacetic acid is converted into B-hydroxybutyric acid and acetone (all three substances called ketone bodies) Detone bodies diffuse into the blood and can be used by other cells to make acetyl CoA again. excessive production of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are acidic and must be buffered, but if there are too many then the buffer systems can't keep up. accumulation of too many ketone bodies cause an abnormally low blood pH-> causes depression of the CNS which can lead to a coma or death. is a type of anabolism which occurs when more calories are ingested than are needed to make ATP. X is the most common lipid in our diet and are stored as they are. This is also called lipogenesis and is a type of anabolism. are converted to triglycerides and then stored. This is also called lipogenesis and is a type of an Continue reading >>

Nutrition And Fitness Chapter 5

Nutrition And Fitness Chapter 5

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth Most carbohydrate digestions occurs in the small intestine Glucose is primary fuel for the body and is preferred energy source of the brain and red blood cells. When body's immediate energy needs are met, excess glucose ca nbe stored as Depending on a person's activity level, the body stores enough glycogen to last for about A condition that occurs when blood glucose levels are lower than normal Condition that occurs when the blood glucose levels are higher thannormal Characterized by hyperglycemia or high blood sugar. no insulin is produced or when the insulin produced is not used properly. A type of Diabetes that occurs when the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin are damaged or destroyed. Usually diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood. Most common form of Diabetes. Usually diagnosed later in life whereby the body doesn't make enough insulin or the cells do not response as they should to insulin. Glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Develops in approx. 4% of all pregnancies in the US. Continue reading >>

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