What Electrolytes Are Lost In Dka?

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

Diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, is a serious health problem that can happen to a person with diabetes. It happens when chemicals called ketones build up in the blood. Normally, the cells of your body take in and use glucose as a source of energy. Glucose moves through the body in the bloodstream. Insulin is a hormone that helps your cells take in the glucose from the blood. If you have diabetes, your cells can’t take in and use this glucose in a normal way. This may be because your body doesn’t make enough insulin. Or it may be because your cells don’t respond to it normally. As a result, glucose builds up in your bloodstream and doesn’t reach your cells. Without glucose to use, the cells in your body burn fat instead of glucose for energy. When cells burn fat, they make ketones. High levels of ketones can poison the body. High levels of glucose can also build up in your blood and cause other symptoms. Ketoacidosis also changes the amount of other substances in your blood. These include electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate. This can lead to other problems. Ketoacidosis happens most often in a person with type 1 diabetes. This is a condition where the body Continue reading >>

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  1. K

    Acetone breath

    Any other mommies experiencing this? I called the peds office which of course tried to send me to the er telling me my son ingested nail polish remover. (I always leave acetone soaked cotton balls on my sons playmat, doesn't everybody?
    ) So I've been researching a bit on my own and maybe he's not getting enough fat and carbs from me? It seems like the smell might be from him burning his fat stores. I had him tested for diabetes and it was negative. I'm wondering if I've been eating too healthy. He gets purees twice a day and oatmeal once a day but I'm thinking of bumping up his carb intake. He also nurses 5-6 times a day. He's 6 1/2 months, 30 inches and about 20 pounds. The first time I noticed it was after his vaccines and his 6 month appointment but it's been on and off for abot two weeks. Thanks!

  2. allik527

    Your milk is nutritionally perfect, even if your diet isn't. Women who are malnourished have continued to BF healthy babies. Does anyone else notice this smell? What about your pedi?

  3. germaphobemomma

    Ketosis is the only thing I know of that causes people to smell like acetone. I would try upping his carbs and see if that helps. You don't want your little guy losing weight. If it keeps up, I would definitely take him in to be checked out. Good luck!

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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Ketoacidosis: An Introduction

SHARE RATE★★★★★ Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dangerous short-term complication of diabetes that results from uncontrolled high blood glucose. A rare complication in people with type 2 diabetes, ketoacidosis occurs when elevated blood glucose persists and is uncorrected, resulting in chemicals called ketones accumulating in the blood. Because a person with diabetes is unable to use glucose for energy, if they are not being treated properly, their body may burn fat instead to get energy. Burning fat causes the production of ketones, which can be toxic if they build up in the blood. While ketoacidosis is a complication that mostly affects people with type 1 diabetes, it can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes.1 What causes ketoacidosis? Ketoacidosis can affect someone with type 2 or type 1 diabetes who is not taking insulin as directed (in some cases, their insulin pump may not be working properly), or someone who is not getting a sufficient amount of insulin, or someone who is taking certain medications or illegal drugs that affect how insulin works. Additionally, a person with type 1 diabetes who has a major health problem, such as a heart attack or infection, is Continue reading >>

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  1. Madmax640

    I always wondered about this. How do you loose weight if you still eat carbs and do not enter ketosis? I know that, broadly speaking, weight loss will occur from a calorie deficit, but if you are not in ketosis, how is you body getting to the fat? If it is burning glucose and glycogen, how is your body fat reduced? Thanks guys!

  2. wm1989

    You really don't have to be low carb to go into ketosis. Low enough calories will cause it to happen.

    Ketosis is not actually how you burn most of the fat. It is only a response to get energy across the blood brain barrier.

    Even during ketosis, most fat is burned through tradition fatty acid metabolism. This is why ketone production will go down the more deep into the keto diet you go. Your body gets good at using fatty acids (more mitochondria).

    Lipolysis can be triggered by glucagon (low carb and low calorie environments), testosterone, growth hormone, epinephrine... And probably others. No need to reduce carbs for the others.

    You use fat stores for energy even when gaining weight, you just add to them faster than your body uses them. Think of it as a balanced system normally. Keto diets shifts the energy usage balance sharply towards fats, also limits the body's ability to store extra fat.

  3. patron_vectras

    Ketosis is not actually how you burn most of the fat. It is only a response to get energy across the blood brain barrier.
    Is this mentioned in all the books about eating a diet not-so-rich in carbs that I have not read? Taubes, Ninoltz, etc? It isn't something I've known before just now and I watch videos and read up online, but don't have time for books.

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Hyperglycemic crises: Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (HHNK) versus DKA. See DKA video here: https://youtu.be/r2tXTjb7EqU This video and similar images/videos are available for instant download licensing here https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/g... Voice by: Penelope Hammet Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or HHS, is another ACUTE and life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. It develops slower than DKA, typically in the course of several days, but has a much higher mortality rate. Like DKA, HHS is triggered when diabetic patients suffer from ADDITIONAL physiologic stress such as infections, other illness, INadequate diabetic treatment or certain drugs. Similar to DKA, the RISE in COUNTER-regulatory hormones is the major culprit. These hormones stimulate FURTHER production and release of glucose into the blood, causing it to overflow into urine, resulting in excessive LOSS of water and electrolytes. The major DIFFERENCE between HHS and DKA is the ABSENCE of acidosis in HHS. This is because, unlike DKA, the level of insulin in HHS patients is HIGH enough to SUPPRESS lipolysis and hence ketogenesis. This explains why HHS occurs more often in type 2 diabetics, who have more or less normal level of circulating insulin. Reminder: type 2 diabetics DO produce insulin but their cells do NOT respond to insulin and therefore cannot use glucose. Because symptoms of acidosis are NOT present, development of HHS may go UNnoticed until blood glucose levels become EXTREMELY high. Severe dehydration results in INcreased concentrations of solutes in the blood, raising its osmolarity. HyPERosmotic blood plasma drives water OUT of bodys tissues causing cellular dysfunction. Primary symptom of HHS is ALTERED consciousness due to excessive dehydration of brain tissues. This can range from confusion to coma. Emergency treatment consists of intravenous fluid, insulin and potassium similar to those used in DKA.

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And The Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Go to: Pathogenesis In both DKA and HHS, the underlying metabolic abnormality results from the combination of absolute or relative insulin deficiency and increased amounts of counterregulatory hormones. Glucose and lipid metabolism When insulin is deficient, the elevated levels of glucagon, catecholamines and cortisol will stimulate hepatic glucose production through increased glycogenolysis and enhanced gluconeogenesis4 (Fig. 1). Hypercortisolemia will result in increased proteolysis, thus providing amino acid precursors for gluconeogenesis. Low insulin and high catecholamine concentrations will reduce glucose uptake by peripheral tissues. The combination of elevated hepatic glucose production and decreased peripheral glucose use is the main pathogenic disturbance responsible for hyperglycemia in DKA and HHS. The hyperglycemia will lead to glycosuria, osmotic diuresis and dehydration. This will be associated with decreased kidney perfusion, particularly in HHS, that will result in decreased glucose clearance by the kidney and thus further exacerbation of the hyperglycemia. In DKA, the low insulin levels combined with increased levels of catecholamines, cortisol and growth hormone Continue reading >>

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  1. atheista

    My boyfriend suffers from depression and since starting keto a couple of days ago he's been really sensitive. He's seemed a bit withdrawn, and has said that everything's been making him feel really upset. He looked like he almost burst into tears when we were at the vet today and a woman said she was having her dog put down. He couldn't be in there any more and had to go and wait in the car.
    I'd like to hear from other ketoers who suffer from depression. Has keto had an impact on your depression? Improvement? Worsening? No change? Did you go through some tough days when first entering ketosis?
    Thanks :o)
    EDIT: Thank you so much to everyone who has replied, it's been a big help! It's good to see that in the long run people have experienced more positive rather than negative effects. I'll encourage my boyfriend to keep going and get him some supplements to counter any deficiencies. Hopefully he'll be through the worst of it soon!

  2. JenCarpeDiem

    You're only a couple of days into a completely different diet -- that can have a huge effect on your mood, whether depressed or not. I felt awful for the first week or so, but then I felt better. Much better. Far less bad days, and a hell of a lot more normal ones. You both just need to wait this part out, make sure you stay hydrated, stay away from tempting 'sad food' and treat yourselves to some luxurious steak. Once your energy levels work themselves out, he'll feel a whole lot better. :)

  3. new_weather

    Hey man, thanks so much for your comment here- it's the most relevant to my situation I've found on the internet.
    I am about 2 weeks into this keto diet, and I'm feeling rough. I am so depressed, having the crazy vivid dreams, no cravings for carbs just a huge appetite for all my keto foods. Like, I can still eat all day. However, I also just quit smoking week after being a serious pothead. There is a pattern to stopping getting high- initially I lose my appetite completely and I get the vivid dreams (sleep is exhausting!), but then my appetite comes back in full force almost to make up for the lack of calories I got during the 5 or so days of no appetite. So perhaps that's why I am so hungry, despite being good about this keto diet?
    I have not lost any weight at all, think I've gained some, because I have been eating so much. I also just moved to Singapore (hence the quitting smoking weed) and I don't have a ton of friends yet so I have spent a lot of time cooking/food shopping/focusing my life of keto...and eating!
    I don't feel "brain fog" so much, I guess I'm a bit more tired or off-feeling but mostly I am sad. Like, super emotional, want to cry over everything. "Unstable mindset" sums it up well. I haven't found a pharmacy that carries keto stix so I don't even know if I am in ketosis, I don't have most of the "symptoms" but I've been pretty strict about it...
    There isn't really any point to this at all and sorry for choosing you to vent to, but you seem like the only person on the internet going through something similar. I'm struggling, not with sticking to the keto diet, but with not stuffing my face and crying all day. There is a lot going on in my life at the moment, considering I just moved across the planet. Thanks for listening.
    Anyway this was 3 months ago, hows it going? Have you been sticking with it? Do you feel better? Is your mental environment more stable? Have the dreams gone away, or is this just something that happens when you sleep that I didn't know about because I've been high for a decade?

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