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What Does Metabolic Acidosis Do To The Body?

Chronic Metabolic Acidosis Destroys Pancreas

Chronic Metabolic Acidosis Destroys Pancreas

Peter Melamed and Felix Melamed Biotherapy Clinic of San Francisco, USA *Corresponding Author: Biotherapy Clinic of San Francisco 2215 Post Street, Suite 1, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA Phone 1 415 3776643 Fax 1 415 4093909 [email protected] Visit for more related articles at JOP. Journal of the Pancreas Abstract One primary reason for the current epidemic of digestive disorders might be chronic metabolic acidosis, which is extremely common in the modern population. Chronic metabolic acidosis primarily affects two alkaline digestive glands, the liver, and the pancreas, which produce alkaline bile and pancreatic juice with a large amount of bicarbonate. Even small acidic alterations in the bile and pancreatic juice pH can lead to serious biochemical/biomechanical changes. The pancreatic digestive enzymes require an alkaline milieu for proper function, and lowering the pH disables their activity. It can be the primary cause of indigestion. Acidification of the pancreatic juice decreases its antimicrobial activity, which can lead to intestinal dysbiosis. Lowering the pH of the pancreatic juice can cause premature activation of the proteases inside the pancreas with the potential development of pancreatitis.The acidification of bile causes precipitation of the bile acids, which irritate the entire biliary system and create bile stone formation. Aggressive mixture of the acidic bile and the pancreatic juice can cause erratic contractions of the duodenum’s walls and subsequent bile reflux into the stomach and the esophagus. Normal exocrine pancreatic function is the core of proper digestion. Currently, there is no effective and safe treatment for enhancing the exocrine pancreatic function. Restoring normal acid-base homeostasis can be a useful toolfor pathophysi Continue reading >>

A Delicate Balance: Understanding Acid-base Issues In Ems Patients

A Delicate Balance: Understanding Acid-base Issues In Ems Patients

The human body has tremendous capacity to maintain internal balance, or homeostasis, in serious, prolonged situations. However, there are several situations in which an imbalance that is left uncorrected can cause serious harm. EMS providers are trained to recognize that a lack of oxygen or glucose will cause the patient to deteriorate in short order. While harder to detect in the field, derangements in the body's acid-base balance can also be catastrophic. However, a basic understanding of this critical concept can help develop a working field diagnosis and promote early interventions that could reduce morbidity. What are acids and bases? Like all organisms, humans live within a water-based environment. Water contains hydrogen and oxygen (H20). Water freely separates, or dissociates, into positively charged hydrogen ions (H+) and negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH-). Hydrogen ions are a weak acid that interacts with a variety of chemical processes. The number of hydrogen ions within a water solution is expressed through a measurement called the power of hydrogen, or pH. pH is measured using a negative logarithmic scale. This means two things. First, the smaller the pH number, the greater the concentration of hydrogen ions. Second, a change in whole number represents a tenfold change in the number of hydrogen ions. Taking those two concepts together, a fluid with a pH value of 5 is 10 times more acidic than a pH of 6; a pH value of 4 is 100 times more acidic than a pH of 6 (10x10). The range of pH is 1 to 14. Water itself is neutral with a value of 7. A pH number less than 7 is considered acidic, while a number above 7 is considered basic. The human body rests in a slightly basic environment, functioning within a range of 7.35 to 7.45. Acid-base balance within the bo Continue reading >>

Acid Base Balance - Health Facts

Acid Base Balance - Health Facts

Acidbase balance is one of the homeostatic mechanisms required to maintain health. It refers to the balance between acids and bases, it is also referred to as body pH. pH is the measurement of electrical resistance between negative and positive ions, or electrolytes in the body. Like electrolyte regulation , it is essential that the pH of the body be tightly controlled in order for cellular functions to occur. Acid base reactions are reversible which means that body has the ability to correct imbalances, given the correct nutrient or metabolic support. [1] ^ When the pH of the body shifts even a little the impact to health can be significant and can result in: The pH scale ranges from 1 to 14 with 7 being neutral. Overall the body is slightly alkaline, but each organ and fluid has its optimal pH range. Blood is the most closely controlled with respect to pH. The following are the optimal pH ranges for specific organs and fluids of the body: Acid excretion limit of the kidneys is 4.0 4.4 The body's acidbase balance is tightly regulated and is dependent on mineral or alkaline reserves, cellular energy reserves and the body's ability to excrete acids primarily through the kidneys or skin. The organ systems responsible for acid-base regulation include: [2] , [1] Blood calcium and other minerals and electrolytes are leached from bone and other tissues such as hair and nails if too acidic. Kidneys are the primary organ responsible for excreting acid and regulating electrolyte balance . Lungs regulate acidity by increasing the rate of respiration which results in excreting higher levels of CO2. This is the most efficient way of maintaining acid/base balance, especially in the short-term. Ideally the waste products of glucose are broken down to carbonic acid by the use of enzy Continue reading >>

Too Much Acid In The Body In Dogs

Too Much Acid In The Body In Dogs

Metabolic Acidosis in Dogs The lungs and kidneys help to maintain a delicate balance of acid and alkali in the blood, both normal components of a healthy blood supply. A condition of metabolic acidosis occurs when there is an increase in the levels of acid in the blood, which ultimately accumulates to abnormal levels in the body, causing various problems. This can occur due to loss of bicarbonate (alkali); acid production by increased metabolism; excess acid introduction into the body through an external source like ethylene glycol (resulting in ethylene toxicity); or by the kidney’s inability to excrete acid, which it normally does to maintain its level. Metabolic acidosis can occur in dogs of any age, size, gender, or breed. Symptoms and Types Symptoms can vary considerably, especially if your dog is concurrently suffering from other health problems like diabetes or kidney disease. The most common symptoms that you may notice in a dog that is suffering from metabolic acidosis include: Depression (especially if acidosis is severe) Confusion Causes Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your dog's health, including a background history of symptoms, and possible incidents that might have precipitated this condition (such as suspected antifreeze ingestion, or use of aspirin to treat your dog). The history you provide may give your veterinarian clues as to which organs are causing secondary symptoms. Your veterinarian will then perform a thorough physical examination on your dog. For the diagnosis of metabolic acidosis, a compete blood chemical profile will be performed to check the levels of acid and alkali in the body. The next step is to find the underlying cause of the metabolic acidosis in order to treat that problem along with correcting the acid lev Continue reading >>

Congenital Lactic Acidosis

Congenital Lactic Acidosis

Causes Most cases of congenital lactic acidosis are caused by one or more inherited mutations of genes within the DNA located within the nucleus (nDNA) or within the mitochondria (mtDNA) of cells. Genes carry the genetic instructions for cells. A mutation is a change in a gene located in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA that may cause disease. Mutations of nDNA, which occur in cellular chromosomes, can be inherited through different forms of transmission of the mutation, including autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive inheritance. Mutations affecting the genes for mitochondria (mtDNA) are inherited from the mother. MtDNA that is found in sperm cells is typically lost during fertilization. As a result, all human mtDNA comes from the mother. An affected mother will pass on the mutation to all her children, but only her daughters will pass on the mutation to their children. Mitochondria, which are found by the hundreds or thousands in the cells of the body, particularly in muscle and nerve tissue, carry the blueprints for regulating energy production. As cells divide, the number of normal mtDNA and mutated mtDNA are distributed in an unpredictable fashion among different tissues. Consequently, mutated mtDNA accumulates at different rates among different tissues in the same individual. Thus, family members who have the identical mutation in mtDNA may exhibit a variety of different symptoms and signs at different times and to varying degrees of severity. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency is a genetic mitochondrial disease of carbohydrate metabolism that is due to a mutation in nDNA. It is generally considered to be the most common cause of biochemically proven cases of congenital lactic acidosis. PDC deficiency can be inherited as an autosom Continue reading >>

8.1 Lactic Acidosis

8.1 Lactic Acidosis

Lactic acidosis is a common cause of metabolic acidosis. 1,2,3 Each day the body has an excess production of about 1500 mmols of lactate (about 20 mmols/kg/day) which enters the blood stream and is subsequently metabolised mostly in the liver. This internal cycling with production by the tissues and transport to and metabolism by the liver and kidney is known as the Cori cycle. This normal process does not represent any net fixed acid production which requires excretion from the body. All tissues can produce lactate under anaerobic conditions but tissues with active glycolysis produce excess lactate from glucose under normal conditions and this lactate tends to spill over into the blood. Lactate is produced from pyruvate in a reaction catalysed by lactate dehydrogenase: This reaction is so rapid that pyruvate and lactate can be considered to be always in an equilibrium situation. Normally the ratio of lactate to pyruvate in the cell is 10 to 1. The ratio [NADH]/[NAD+] by the Law of Mass Action determines the balance between lactate and pyruvate. This ratio is also used to denote the redox state within the cytoplasm. Lactic acid has a pK value of about 4 so it is fully dissociated into lactate and H+ at body pH. In the extracellular fluid, the H+ titrates bicarbonate on a one for one basis. Lactate is released from cells into the ISF and blood. At rest, the tissues which normally produce excess lactate are: During heavy exercise, the skeletal muscles contribute most of the much increased circulating lactate.( 4,5 ) During pregnancy, the placenta is an important producer of lactate which passes into both the maternal and the foetal circulations. Lactate is metabolised predominantly in the liver (60%) and kidney (30%) 6 . Half is converted to glucose (gluconeogenesis) and Continue reading >>

Bicarbonate Therapy In Severe Metabolic Acidosis

Bicarbonate Therapy In Severe Metabolic Acidosis

Abstract The utility of bicarbonate administration to patients with severe metabolic acidosis remains controversial. Chronic bicarbonate replacement is obviously indicated for patients who continue to lose bicarbonate in the ambulatory setting, particularly patients with renal tubular acidosis syndromes or diarrhea. In patients with acute lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis, lactate and ketone bodies can be converted back to bicarbonate if the clinical situation improves. For these patients, therapy must be individualized. In general, bicarbonate should be given at an arterial blood pH of ≤7.0. The amount given should be what is calculated to bring the pH up to 7.2. The urge to give bicarbonate to a patient with severe acidemia is apt to be all but irresistible. Intervention should be restrained, however, unless the clinical situation clearly suggests benefit. Here we discuss the pros and cons of bicarbonate therapy for patients with severe metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis is an acid-base disorder characterized by a primary consumption of body buffers including a fall in blood bicarbonate concentration. There are many causes (Table 1), and there are multiple mechanisms that minimize the fall in arterial pH. A patient with metabolic acidosis may have a normal or even high pH if there is another primary, contravening event that raises the bicarbonate concentration (vomiting) or lowers the arterial Pco2 (respiratory alkalosis). Metabolic acidosis differs from “acidemia” in that the latter refers solely to a fall in blood pH and not the process. A recent online survey by Kraut and Kurtz1 highlighted the uncertainty over when to give bicarbonate to patients with metabolic acidosis. They reported that nephrologists will prescribe therapy at a higher pH compared with Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis

Acidosis - metabolic Metabolic acidosis is a condition in which there is too much acid in the body fluids. Causes Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known as ketone bodies, build up in the body. This most often occurs with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. It is also called diabetic ketoacidosis and DKA. Hyperchloremic acidosis results from excessive loss of sodium bicarbonate from the body. This can occur with severe diarrhea. Lactic acidosis results from a buildup of lactic acid. It can be caused by: Other causes of metabolic acidosis include: Kidney disease (distal renal tubular acidosis and proximal renal tubular acidosis) Poisoning by aspirin, ethylene glycol (found in antifreeze), or methanol Symptoms Most symptoms are caused by the underlying disease or condition that is causing the metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis itself most often causes rapid breathing. Acting confused or very tired may also occur. Severe metabolic acidosis can lead to shock or death. In some situations, metabolic acidosis can be a mild, ongoing (chronic) condition. Exams and Tests These tests can help diagnose acidosis. They can also determine whether the cause is a breathing problem or a metabolic problem. Tests may include: Arterial blood gas Basic metabolic panel, (a group of blood tests that measure your sodium and potassium levels, kidney function, and other chemicals and functions) Urine pH Lactic acid test Arterial blood gas analysis Other tests may be needed to determine the cause of the acidosis. Treatment Treatment is aimed at the health problem causing the acidosis. In some cas Continue reading >>

Lactic Acidosis

Lactic Acidosis

Fast facts Lactic acidosis is a build-up of lactic acid in your blood. It can be the result of intense exercise, severe dehydration, an underlying medical condition, or as a reaction to some substances and medications. Symptoms of lactic acidosis can initially include weakness and nausea. More severe symptoms, such as chest pain, a fast heartbeat or breathing difficulties, require immediate medical attention. You can reduce your risk of lactic acidosis by not abusing alcohol and by properly managing diabetes if you have it. What is lactic acidosis? Lactic acidosis is a build-up of lactic acid in your blood. It makes the blood too acidic. Inside the cells of your body, there are structures called mitochondria. Their role is to supply energy to the cells. Mitochondria break down glucose for energy using oxygen, a process known as aerobic respiration. In situations when your body is starved for oxygen, or needs a lot of energy very quickly (such as during intense exercise), your mitochondria can switch to an alternative process known as anaerobic respiration. It is much less efficient, but it does not require oxygen and can, for a brief period, produce energy more quickly. Anaerobic respiration produces lactic acid (also known as lactate), making the blood more acidic. In most cases this is not a problem, because your liver and kidneys handle the excess lactic acid once your body starts to recover from oxygen starvation and returns to normal. However, when your body produces lactic acid faster than it can be removed, lactic acid builds up in your blood. Causes and risk factors Causes and risk factors of lactic acidosis include: Intense exercise; Low blood sugar, and; Some substances and medications - such as alcohol, cocaine, epinephrine, isoniazid, salicylates, and the di Continue reading >>

What Is Metabolic Acidosis?

What Is Metabolic Acidosis?

Metabolic acidosis happens when the chemical balance of acids and bases in your blood gets thrown off. Your body: Is making too much acid Isn't getting rid of enough acid Doesn't have enough base to offset a normal amount of acid When any of these happen, chemical reactions and processes in your body don't work right. Although severe episodes can be life-threatening, sometimes metabolic acidosis is a mild condition. You can treat it, but how depends on what's causing it. Causes of Metabolic Acidosis Different things can set up an acid-base imbalance in your blood. Ketoacidosis. When you have diabetes and don't get enough insulin and get dehydrated, your body burns fat instead of carbs as fuel, and that makes ketones. Lots of ketones in your blood turn it acidic. People who drink a lot of alcohol for a long time and don't eat enough also build up ketones. It can happen when you aren't eating at all, too. Lactic acidosis. The cells in your body make lactic acid when they don't have a lot of oxygen to use. This acid can build up, too. It might happen when you're exercising intensely. Big drops in blood pressure, heart failure, cardiac arrest, and an overwhelming infection can also cause it. Renal tubular acidosis. Healthy kidneys take acids out of your blood and get rid of them in your pee. Kidney diseases as well as some immune system and genetic disorders can damage kidneys so they leave too much acid in your blood. Hyperchloremic acidosis. Severe diarrhea, laxative abuse, and kidney problems can cause lower levels of bicarbonate, the base that helps neutralize acids in blood. Respiratory acidosis also results in blood that's too acidic. But it starts in a different way, when your body has too much carbon dioxide because of a problem with your lungs. Continue reading >>

Acidosis - Causes And Effects

Acidosis - Causes And Effects

Acidosis - A medical condition in which the acid-base balance in the blood plasma is disturbed in the direction of excess acidity, the pH falling below 7.35. Over acidity, which can become a dangerous condition that weakens all body systems, is very common today. It gives rise to an internal environment conducive to disease, as opposed to a pH-balanced environment which allows normal body function necessary for the body to resist disease. A healthy body maintains adequate alkaline reserves to meet emergency demands. When excess acids (acidosis) must be neutralized, our alkaline reserves are depleted, leaving the body in a weakened condition. Every day we wage our own private war against molds, yeasts, bacteria, viruses and fungi. By using antibiotics as the first line of defense we have encouraged the development of more powerful deadly bugs and bacteria. Our immune systems are becoming weaker and over-taxed in this war. Louis Pasteur declared the germ theory of disease that states germs are the cause of disease. But note Dr. Pasteur's dying words: "The germ is nothing, the inner terrain is everything". The concept of acid alkaline imbalance as the cause of disease is not new. In 1933 a New York doctor named William Howard Hay published a ground-breaking book, A New Health Era in which he maintains that all disease is caused by autotoxication (or "self-poisoning") due to acidosis in the body. Now we depart from health in just the proportion to which we have allowed our alkalis to be dissipated by introduction of acid-forming food in too great amount... It may seem strange to say that all disease is the same thing, no matter what its myriad modes of expression, but it is verily so. More recently, in his remarkable book Alkalize or Die , Dr. Theodore A. Baroody says esse Continue reading >>

Disorders Of Acid-base Balance

Disorders Of Acid-base Balance

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Identify the three blood variables considered when making a diagnosis of acidosis or alkalosis Identify the source of compensation for blood pH problems of a respiratory origin Identify the source of compensation for blood pH problems of a metabolic/renal origin Normal arterial blood pH is restricted to a very narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45. A person who has a blood pH below 7.35 is considered to be in acidosis (actually, “physiological acidosis,” because blood is not truly acidic until its pH drops below 7), and a continuous blood pH below 7.0 can be fatal. Acidosis has several symptoms, including headache and confusion, and the individual can become lethargic and easily fatigued. A person who has a blood pH above 7.45 is considered to be in alkalosis, and a pH above 7.8 is fatal. Some symptoms of alkalosis include cognitive impairment (which can progress to unconsciousness), tingling or numbness in the extremities, muscle twitching and spasm, and nausea and vomiting. Both acidosis and alkalosis can be caused by either metabolic or respiratory disorders. As discussed earlier in this chapter, the concentration of carbonic acid in the blood is dependent on the level of CO2 in the body and the amount of CO2 gas exhaled through the lungs. Thus, the respiratory contribution to acid-base balance is usually discussed in terms of CO2 (rather than of carbonic acid). Remember that a molecule of carbonic acid is lost for every molecule of CO2 exhaled, and a molecule of carbonic acid is formed for every molecule of CO2 retained. Metabolic Acidosis: Primary Bicarbonate Deficiency Metabolic acidosis occurs when the blood is too acidic (pH below 7.35) due to too little bicarbonate, a condition called primary bicar Continue reading >>

Natural Cures And Home Remedies For Acidosis

Natural Cures And Home Remedies For Acidosis

Acidosis is a biochemical condition, caused by acid-alkaline imbalance in the body's pH levels, where the acidity of the body fluid is very high. The kidneys and lungs maintain the balance of chemicals (acids and bases) in the body. All foods are digested in the body leaving ash as the result of the digestion. This food ash can be neutral, acid or alkaline, depending largely on the mineral composition of the foods. Some foods leave an acid residue, some alkaline. The acid ash results when there is a depletion of the alkali reserve in the blood and the tissues of the body. When the alkalinity of the blood is reduced, the ability to transport carbon dioxide is reduced. As a result, acid accumalates in the tissues. Acidosis can be classified into respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis. When the body is unable to remove carbon dioxide through breathing, it results in respiratory acidosis. Metabolic acidosis occurs when the kidney is not able to remove enough acid from the body. Metabolic acidosis has several types. Diabetic acidosis (Diabetic ketoacidosis) develops when ketone bodies which are acidic build up in the body. Hyperchloremic acidosis is caused when too much sodium bicarbonate is lost from the body. Lactic acidosis occurs when there is a build up of lactic acid. Symptoms of Acidosis The general symptoms of acidosis are constant hunger, pain in the pharynx, nausea and vomitting, headaches, various nervous disorders and drowsiness. Chronic acidosis can lead to inflammation of the kidneys, rheumatism, artericlerosis, high BP, skin disorders and other degenerative diseases. It lowers immunity and vitality and makes us prone to the danger of other infections. Causes of Acodosis The main cause of acidosis is wrong diet choices. It mainly occurs because of too many Continue reading >>

Lactate: Not Gilty As Charged

Lactate: Not Gilty As Charged

Publication Citation: Kravitz, L. (2005). Lactate: Not guilty as charged. IDEA Fitness Journal, 2(6), 23-25. Robergs, R.A., Ghiasvand, F., & Parker, D. (2004). Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 287: R502-R516. During intense exercise the development of the burn in muscle, referred to as acidosis, has been traditionally explained as an increase in the bodys production of lactic acid. This lactic acid cause of acidosis, referred to as lactic acidosis is taught in many physiology, biochemistry and exercise physiology courses throughout the world. The cause of the acidosis during intense exercise has been a weighty topic of discussion and debate with fitness professionals and personal trainers for years. Many fitness specialists believe that lactic acid or lactate (See Acidosis Question Box #1 for explanation of difference) production is the cause of muscle fatigue during vigorous exercise. Most recently, Robergs and colleagues (2004) have completed an extensive review of the biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. This expansive reexamination details a much more inclusive and enlightening understanding of lactate production and acidosis. From this recent publication, brief highlights of the history of lactic acid understanding will be presented as well as a more contemporary scientific understanding of acidosis. Some meaningful practical training applications for the applied fitness professional will be offered. Robergs et al. (2004) identify the discovery of lactic acid in 1789 to Carl Whilhelm Sheele, a Swedish chemist. Sheele isolated an acid in sour milk samples. This milk origin led to the naming of this acid to lactic, which means relating to milk. Con Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find one of our health articles more useful. See also separate Lactic Acidosis and Arterial Blood Gases - Indications and Interpretations articles. Description Metabolic acidosis is defined as an arterial blood pH <7.35 with plasma bicarbonate <22 mmol/L. Respiratory compensation occurs normally immediately, unless there is respiratory pathology. Pure metabolic acidosis is a term used to describe when there is not another primary acid-base derangement - ie there is not a mixed acid-base disorder. Compensation may be partial (very early in time course, limited by other acid-base derangements, or the acidosis exceeds the maximum compensation possible) or full. The Winter formula can be helpful here - the formula allows calculation of the expected compensating pCO2: If the measured pCO2 is >expected pCO2 then additional respiratory acidosis may also be present. It is important to remember that metabolic acidosis is not a diagnosis; rather, it is a metabolic derangement that indicates underlying disease(s) as a cause. Determination of the underlying cause is the key to correcting the acidosis and administering appropriate therapy[1]. Epidemiology It is relatively common, particularly among acutely unwell/critical care patients. There are no reliable figures for its overall incidence or prevalence in the population at large. Causes of metabolic acidosis There are many causes. They can be classified according to their pathophysiological origin, as below. The table is not exhaustive but lists those that are most common or clinically important to detect. Increased acid Continue reading >>

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