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What Does Ketones Do To Blood Ph

Ketosis

Ketosis

There is a lot of confusion about the term ketosis among medical professionals as well as laypeople. It is important to understand when and why nutritional ketosis occurs, and why it should not be confused with the metabolic disorder we call ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state where the liver produces small organic molecules called ketone bodies. Most cells in the body can use ketone bodies as a source of energy. When there is a limited supply of external energy sources, such as during prolonged fasting or carbohydrate restriction, ketone bodies can provide energy for most organs. In this situation, ketosis can be regarded as a reasonable, adaptive physiologic response that is essential for life, enabling us to survive periods of famine. Nutritional ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a metabolic condition where the blood becomes acidic as a result of the accumulation of ketone bodies. Ketoacidosis can have serious consequences and may need urgent medical treatment. The most common forms are diabetic ketoacidosis and alcoholic ketoacidosis. What Is Ketosis? The human body can be regarded as a biologic machine. Machines need energy to operate. Some use gasoline, others use electricity, and some use other power resources. Glucose is the primary fuel for most cells and organs in the body. To obtain energy, cells must take up glucose from the blood. Once glucose enters the cells, a series of metabolic reactions break it down into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the process. The body has an ability to store excess glucose in the form of glycogen. In this way, energy can be stored for later use. Glycogen consists of long chains of glucose molecules and is primarily found in the liver and skeletal muscle. Liver glycogen stores are used to mai Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetes mellitus is the name given to a group of conditions whose common hallmark is a raised blood glucose concentration (hyperglycemia) due to an absolute or relative deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin. In the UK there are 1.4 million registered diabetic patients, approximately 3 % of the population. In addition, an estimated 1 million remain undiagnosed. It is a growing health problem: In 1998, the World Health Organization (WHO) predicted a doubling of the worldwide prevalence of diabetes from 150 million to 300 million by 2025. For a very tiny minority, diabetes is a secondary feature of primary endocrine disease such as acromegaly (growth hormone excess) or Cushing’s syndrome (excess corticosteroid), and for these patients successful treatment of the primary disease cures diabetes. Most diabetic patients, however, are classified as suffering either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes, which accounts for around 15 % of the total diabetic population, is an autoimmune disease of the pancreas in which the insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas are selectively destroyed, resulting in an absolute insulin deficiency. The condition arises in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to undefined environmental insult(s) (possibly viral infection) early in life. It usually becomes clinically evident and therefore diagnosed during late childhood, with peak incidence between 11 and 13 years of age, although the autoimmune-mediated β-cell destruction begins many years earlier. There is currently no cure and type 1 diabetics have an absolute life-long requirement for daily insulin injections to survive. Type 2 diabetes This is the most common form of diabetes: around 85 % of the diabetic population has type 2 diabetes. The primary prob Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Workup

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Workup

Approach Considerations Diagnosis of alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) requires arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement and serum chemistry assays. Usual laboratory findings include the following [19] : Continue reading >>

Metabolic Effects Of The Very-low-carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood

Metabolic Effects Of The Very-low-carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "villains" Of Human Metabolism

Go to: The Ketone Bodies are an Important Fuel The hormonal changes associated with a low carbohydrate diet include a reduction in the circulating levels of insulin along with increased levels of glucagon. This activates phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-biphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase and also inhibits pyruvate kinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and glucokinase. These changes indeed favor gluconeogenesis. However, the body limits glucose utilization to reduce the need for gluconeogenesis. In the liver in the well-fed state, acetyl CoA formed during the β-oxidation of fatty acids is oxidized to CO2 and H2O in the citric acid cycle. However, when the rate of mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue is accelerated, as, for example, during very low carbohydrate intake, the liver converts acetyl CoA into ketone bodies: Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. The liver cannot utilize ketone bodies because it lacks the mitochondrial enzyme succinyl CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase required for activation of acetoacetate to acetoacetyl CoA [3]. Therefore, ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain) for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. Indeed, the use of ketone bodies replaces most of the glucose required by the brain. Not all amino acid carbon will yield glucose; on average, 1.6 g of amino acids is required to synthesize 1 g of glucose [4]. Thus, to keep the brain supplied with glucose at rate of 110 to 120 g/day, the breakdown of 160 to 200 g of protein (close to 1 kg of muscle tissue) would be required. This is clearly undesirable, and the body limits glucose utilization to reduce the need for gluconeogenesis Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. See also the separate Childhood Ketoacidosis article. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency with a significant morbidity and mortality. It should be diagnosed promptly and managed intensively. DKA is characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonaemia:[1] Ketonaemia (3 mmol/L and over), or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on standard urine sticks). Blood glucose over 11 mmol/L or known diabetes mellitus (the degree of hyperglycaemia is not a reliable indicator of DKA and the blood glucose may rarely be normal or only slightly elevated in DKA). Bicarbonate below 15 mmol/L and/or venous pH less than 7.3. However, hyperglycaemia may not always be present and low blood ketone levels (<3 mmol/L) do not always exclude DKA.[2] Epidemiology DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Data from the UK National Diabetes Audit show a crude one-year incidence of 3.6% among people with type 1 diabetes. In the UK nearly 4% of people with type 1 diabetes experience DKA each year. About 6% of cases of DKA occur in adults newly presenting with type 1 diabetes. About 8% of episodes occur in hospital patients who did not primarily present with DKA.[2] However, DKA may also occur in people with type 2 diabetes, although people with type 2 diabetes are much more likely to have a hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes tends to be more common in older, overweight, non-white people with type 2 diabetes, and DKA may be their Continue reading >>

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

A A A Urine Test Test Overview A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. A regular urine test may be done to help find the cause of symptoms. The test can give information about your health and problems you may have. The kidneys take out waste material, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood to be passed in the urine. Urine has hundreds of different body wastes. What you eat and drink, how much you exercise, and how well your kidneys work can affect what is in your urine. More than 100 different tests can be done on urine. A regular urinalysis often includes the following tests: Color. Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet, medicines, and diseases. How dark or light the color is tells you how much water is in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines, blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine red-brown. Clarity. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look cloudy. Odor. Urine does not smell very strong, but it has a slightly "nutty" odor. Some diseases cause a change in the odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor, while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity odor. Specific gravity. This checks the amount of substances in the urine. It also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine. When you drink a lot of fluid, your kidneys make urine with a high amount of water in it, which has a low specific gravity. When you do not drink fluids, your kidneys make urine with a small amount of water in it, which has a high specific gravity. pH. The pH is Continue reading >>

The Many Benefits Of Ketosis

The Many Benefits Of Ketosis

Along with living an alkaline lifestyle, one of the key principles of my Magic Menopause hormone reset program is eating a ketogenic-friendly diet. This diet puts your body in a fat-burning state called ketosis. My program’s Keto-Alkaline™ Diet includes ketogenic methodologies. It also incorporates the “reality of everyday life” into one’s diet. I’ll explain what I mean about this in just a moment. First, for those of you who aren’t familiar with ketosis, let me give you a short overview. A ketogenic diet is a diet which is low in (unhealthy) carbs and high in (healthy) fats and (healthy) protein. So how does a ketogenic diet work so well at supporting fat loss and other health benefits? It’s really a simple concept at the surface, a bit more complex when you look at the actual physiology. Ketosis is all about what your body uses as fuel. Eating high carbs = high blood glucose (sugar), high insulin, stored fat… and low fat burning, low metabolism and belly fat. Your body’s fuel source is glucose, not fat. Let me explain. When you eat carbs your body’s blood glucose increases and spikes your blood sugar. Your body releases more insulin as a reaction to elevated blood glucose levels. Insulin is produced to get the glucose from your body and into the cells. There it gets converted to energy. Your body burns the glucose to make its energy and then insulin tells the cells to store their energy as carbs or fat (the unhealthy and dreaded belly fat). When you eat a lot of carbs on an ongoing basis (like many Americans do, eating a lot of processed foods, sugar, alcohol, soda and such!) insulin is continually stimulated. This can lead to a health condition called insulin resistance, where the cells start to resist the insulin. When this happens, your blood Continue reading >>

Kids And Ketones: Checking And Treating High Blood Glucose

Kids And Ketones: Checking And Treating High Blood Glucose

Low blood glucose levels usually have warning signs such as shaking, sweating and rapid heartbeat, but high blood glucose levels can be silent until things start to get out of control. The staff in the Joslin Pediatic Clinic has this advice. One of the vital warning signs of an impending diabetic crisis is the appearance of ketones in the blood or urine. For children with type 1 diabetes and their parents, understanding the role of ketones in a diabetic emergency and knowing how to check for them and what to do if your child has them can mean the difference between a good night’s sleep and many tense hours in the emergency room. (Ketoacidosis almost always occurs in people with type 1 diabetes) Too little insulin for too long a time initiates a cascade of hormonal changes in the body that can lead to the dangerous condition of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If left untreated, it can lead to coma and death. In the face of inadequate circulating insulin, glucose builds up in the blood instead of moving into the tissue cells where it would be used for fuel. Without glucose to burn for energy, the body turns to fat for fuel. The special type of fat it uses is called ketones. Because ketones are an acid, the body needs to supply a base (the opposite of an acid) to neutralize their effects and maintain the blood’s natural pH. However, the body’s supply of base,such as NH3 (anydrous ammonia) (is limited and at some point the system is overwhelmed and the blood pH starts to decline. This drop in blood pH is one of reasons ketoacidosis is so serious. The body can’t accommodate changes in blood pH well. Illness can often be a precipitating cause of DKA. Infection can spike glucose levels and additional insulin is often required. If the needs for additional insulin aren’t Continue reading >>

How Do Sugars Affect A Person's Urine Ph?

How Do Sugars Affect A Person's Urine Ph?

Urine pH is a measurement of your urine’s relative acidity. Your doctor may need to check your urine acidity if you need to take certain medications or have known risks for the formation of kidney stones. Normally, sugars in your body don’t directly affect your urine pH. However, in certain circumstances, your sugar glucose can show up during the same procedure used to check urine pH levels. Video of the Day Doctors check urine pH with a procedure called a dipstick test, which places fresh urine in contact with a plastic stick coated in strips of specially formulated chemicals. These chemicals trigger detectable changes that vary according to the qualities of your urine. Human urine can fall anywhere from 4.5 to 8 on the pH scale, which extends from a highly acidic reading of zero to a highly alkaline reading of 14. However, in most cases, the pH of human urine is a moderately acidic 5.5 to 6.5. Dietary Influences There are several dietary factors that can influence your urine pH. For instance, high intake of vegetables, dairy products or citrus fruits can make your urine less acidic and raise your pH levels. On the other hand, high intake of cranberries or various forms of meat can make your urine more acidic and lower your pH levels. In advance of a urine pH test, your doctor may ask you to eat a diet that balances acidic and alkaline foods. This will minimize medically unimportant changes in your pH level and allow your doctor to detect changes that could have potential health implications. When you consume sugar or other carbohydrate foods, your body breaks them down and passes a simple sugar called glucose into your bloodstream. Normally, a hormone from your pancreas gland called insulin lets your body manage this glucose and deliver it to your cells, where it Continue reading >>

The Alkaline Diet Vs Acidic Ketones

The Alkaline Diet Vs Acidic Ketones

Whether you think eating alkaline foods is useful or woo woo junk it appears that metabolic acidosis is a thing. Metabolic acidosis seems to be interrelated with insulin resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and retention of muscle mass. To prevent metabolic acidosis, it appears prudent to ensure that your body has adequate minerals to enable your kidneys to balance pH over the long term. This can be achieved by eating plenty of veggies and/or supplementing with alkaline minerals (e.g. magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc etc). If you eat plenty of veggies you’re probably getting enough alkalising minerals, however, you can easily test your urine to see if your dietary acid load is high. If you are targeting a high fat therapeutic ketogenic diet, following a zero-carb dietary approach and/or taking exogenous ketones it seems then it may be even more important to be mindful of your acid load and consider mineral supplementation. Recently I had a fascinating, surprising and exciting experience during a fast. The chart below shows my ketones, glucose and ‘total energy’ (i.e. glucose plus ketones) over the seven days. My ketones increased to above 8.0 mmol/L. They even couldn’t be read on my ketone metre! It was the full keto brochure experience. It was like my body fat was effortlessly feeding my brain with delicious, succulent ketones! I felt great. This chart shows my glucose : ketone index (GKI) dropping to below 0.5 after a few days. The orange dots in this chart shows the relationship between glucose and ketones about 18 months ago when I first started trying this keto thing (after I read ‘Jimmy’s Moore’s Keto Clarity’). The blue dots show the relationship between my glucose and ketones during the recent fast. As you can see from the much flatter line, my blood g Continue reading >>

Everything You Need To Know About Ketones

Everything You Need To Know About Ketones

Ketone is an organic compound that the body produces when fats are broken down for energy. People with diabetes may not be able to regulate the level of ketones in their blood, so ketone testing is an essential part of managing their condition. There are three types of ketone, which are collectively known as ketone bodies, or ketones. In this article, we explain when to check for ketones, the types of tests available, and how to understand the results. Contents of this article: What are ketones? The body uses a range of nutrients for energy, including carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It will use carbohydrates first, but if none are available, the body will burn fat for energy. When this happens, ketones are produced. Ketones have gained attention in recent years due to the popularity of ketogenic diets, in which people eat a low carbohydrate diet so that their body will burn fat instead of carbohydrates. There is currently a lack of clear evidence on the benefits of this diet, and there may be some risks, such as high acidity in the blood and loss of muscle. Typically, carbohydrates are broken down into different nutrients, including blood sugar (glucose), by an enzyme called amylase that occurs naturally in the body. Insulin then transports the sugar to cells to be used for energy. A person with diabetes does not produce enough insulin to transport the blood sugar, or the cells in their body may not accept it properly, which stops the body from using the blood sugar for energy. When sugar can't be used by the cells for energy, the body will start to break down fats for energy instead. Types of ketone and DKA Three types of ketones are always present in the blood: acetoacetate (AcAc) 3-β-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) acetone The levels of each of these ketone bodies will var Continue reading >>

Ketones

Ketones

Ketones are a beneficial product of fat metabolism in the body. When carbohydrate intake is restricted, it lowers blood sugar and insulin levels. As insulin levels fall and energy is needed, fatty acids flow from the fat cells into the bloodstream and are taken up by various cells and metabolized in a process called beta-oxidation. The end result of beta-oxidation is a molecule called acetyl-coA, and as more fatty acids are released and metabolized, acetyl-coA levels in the cells rise. This causes a sort of metabolic “feedback loop” which triggers liver cells to shunt excess acetyl-Coa into ketogenesis, or the making of ketone bodies. Once created, the liver dumps the ketone bodies into the blood stream and they are taken up by skeletal and heart muscle cells at rates of availability. In addition, the brain begins to use ketones as an alternate fuel when blood levels are high enough to cross the blood brain barrier. Testing Laboratory Microbiology - Air Quality - Mold Asbestos - Environmental - Lead emsl.com There are three major types of ketone bodies present in the human blood stream when the metabolic process of ketosis is dominant: Acetoacetate (AcAc) is created first β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is created from acetoacetate Acetone is a spontaneously created side product of acetoacetate In times of starvation, or a low carbohydrate intake resulting in low insulin levels, ketone bodies supply up to 50% of the energy requirements for most body tissues, and up to 70% of the energy required by the brain. Glucose is the main source of fuel for neurons when the diet is high in carbohydrates. But when carbs are restricted, ketogenesis becomes the primary fuel process for most cells. During fasting or low carbohydrate intake, levels of ketone bodies in the blood stream can Continue reading >>

Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: Understanding The Differences

Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: Understanding The Differences

Introduction to Ketosis vs Ketoacidosis Historically, ketosis has been one of the most vaguely defined and poorly understood concepts of the last century. There are different scenarios in which are body can be in a state of ketosis (including ketoacidosis). The most basic definition of ketosis is a general increase in blood levels of ketone bodies to 0.5 mmol or above. However, the reasons for the development of ketosis, the resultant levels of blood ketones, and the associated outcomes (health versus possible death) differ drastically between different situations of ketosis. Failure to understand the differences between various incidents of ketosis has led to the common misconceptions we have today that ultimately has made educating the masses on the ketogenic diet difficult. The single most important take home from this article should be that diabetic ketoacidosis is not the same as the ketosis experienced from a ketogenic diet. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Whenever I speak about ketogenic dieting, almost inevitably I am asked the question: “But shouldn’t you be worried about going into a state of ketoacidosis?” Ketoacidosis occurs when the formation ketone bodies are uncontrolled (15-25 mmol) and acidity in the blood increases (1). It is important to understand that our body regulates blood acid concentrations tightly. We typically measure blood acidity vs. alkalinity using the pH scale. If your blood’s pH is less than 7 it is acidic, and if greater it is basic, or alkaline. Our blood is usually slightly alkaline with a pH ranging from 7.35 to 7.45. Any deviation up or down from the norm by even the smallest amount can prove fatal! The most common form of ketoacidosis to occur is known as diabetic ketoacidosis. This usually occurs in type I diabetics but can also oc Continue reading >>

25+ Ph Balancing Foods For The Keto Diet

25+ Ph Balancing Foods For The Keto Diet

There are lots of pH balancing foods on the keto diet, despite it being full of meat which can naturally lower your pH – not a good thing! A keto diet is full of meat and can naturally lower your pH, which can do a whole host of bad things to your body. When your body is acidic, you can actually breed cancer rather than scaring it away, (and one of my main reasons for going keto is to scare cancer away!). Thankfully, there are lots of pH balancing foods on the keto diet. Three years ago I went to a natural health clinic where they tested my pH. This was about a month after being in ketosis for the first time. One major red flag that came up was that my pH was around 6 when it’s supposed to be between 6.4 and 7.4, ideally closer to the 7.4. In fact, they say Cancer dies at a pH of 8. A pH of 6 might not look far off, but it is. A reading of 5.5 is acidosis. Anything below 7 is acidic. To confirm whether you have low pH, all you have to do is buy some pH strips at your local medical supplies store (or online, or perhaps at your local pharmacist, but CVS doesn’t have them.) I keep them in my bathroom. I also run a business, so my stress levels are high all day, every day, which can contribute to a low pH (aka being highly acidic). What also contributes is a diet full o’ meat, amongst other things. When your pH is low, you also absorb 20% less oxygen too; It’s not healthy. Adding pH balancing foods to your diet can help, and is pretty much necessary for a balanced keto diet. It can’t be bacon and eggs all the time! Adding pH balancing foods to your day Something I was told when I got this diagnosis was that when you follow a ketogenic diet, it’s really important to drink lemon water every day. You might think lemons would make a person more acidic, but one web Continue reading >>

Ketones: Clearing Up The Confusion

Ketones: Clearing Up The Confusion

Ketones, ketosis, ketoacidosis, DKA…these are words that you’ve probably heard at one point or another, and you might be wondering what they mean and if you need to worry about them at all, especially if you have diabetes. This week, we’ll explore the mysterious world of ketones, including if and how they may affect you. Ketones — what are they? Ketones are a type of acid that the body can form if there’s not enough carbohydrate to be burned for energy (yes, you do need carbs for fuel). Without enough carb, the body turns to another energy source: fat. Ketones are made in the liver from fat breakdown. This is called ketogenesis. People who don’t have diabetes can form ketones. This might occur if a person does extreme exercise, has an eating disorder, is fasting (not eating), or is following a low-carbohydrate diet. This is called ketosis and it’s a normal response to starvation. In a person who has diabetes, ketones form for the same reason (not enough carb for energy), but this often occurs because there isn’t enough insulin available to help move carb (in the form of glucose) from the bloodstream to the cells to be used for energy. Again, the body scrambles to find an alternate fuel source in the form of fat. You might be thinking that it’s a good thing to burn fat for fuel. However, for someone who has diabetes, ketosis can quickly become dangerous if it occurs due to a continued lack of insulin (the presence of ketones along with “normal” blood sugar levels is not necessarily a cause for concern). In the absence of insulin (which can occur if someone doesn’t take their insulin or perhaps uses an insulin pump and the pump has a malfunction, for example), fat cells continue to release fat into the circulation; the liver then continues to churn Continue reading >>

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