Your Brain On Ketones
The modern prescription of high carbohydrate, low fat diets and eating snacks between meals has coincided with an increase in obesity, diabetes, and and increase in the incidence of many mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. In addition, many of these disorders are striking the population at younger ages. While most people would agree that diet has a lot to do with the development of obesity and diabetes, many would disagree that what we eat has much to do with our mental health and outlook. I believe that what we eat has a lot to do with the health of our brains, though of course mental illness (like physical illness) has multifactorial causes, and by no means should we diminish the importance of addressing all the causes in each individual. But let's examine the opposite of the modern high carbohydrate, low fat, constant snacking lifestyle and how that might affect the brain. The opposite of a low fat, snacking lifestyle would be the lifestyle our ancestors lived for tens of thousands of generations, the lifestyle for which our brains are primarily evolved. It seems reasonable that we would have had extended periods without food, either because there was none available, or we were busy doing something else. Then we would follow that period with a filling meal of gathered plant and animal products, preferentially selecting the fat. During the day we might have eaten a piece of fruit, or greens, or a grub we dug up, but anything filling or high in calories (such as a starchy tuber) would have to be killed, butchered, and/or carefully prepared before eating. Fortunately, we have a terrific system of fuel for periods of fasting or low carbohydrate eating, our body (and brain) can readily shift from burning glucose to burning what ar Continue reading >>
What They Don’t Want You To Know About Raspberry Ketones
Before you jump on the raspberry ketone bandwagon, there are a few things you should know about this over-priced, proclaimed weight-loss miracle in a bottle. What is it? Raspberry ketone is the natural phenolic compound found in red raspberries (Rubus idaeus). In simple terms, this chemical compound gives berries their signature scent. Until recently, raspberry ketones were used primarily by the perfume and manufactured food industries, but now the compound is being sold in supplement form. Raspberry ketones have been touted as the next weight-loss miracle drug, with manufacturers claiming that the ketones help your body break down fat more efficiently, helping you to lose more weight. Is it true? Before you run to the pharmacy to pick up a bottle, at least finish reading this blog. What I’m about to share with you might surprise (or downright shock) you! Raspberry ketones have never been tested on humans in scientific studies. That’s right. You read that correctly. To date, there have been no human studies showing that raspberry ketones burn fat or benefit your weight loss. Now, if you are a rat, there are two studies of interest. One study gave male rats raspberry ketones, which resulted in an increased secretion of adiponectin, a hormone secreted by fat cells that helps the body break down fat. The result was less fat on the rat. In another rat study, the rodents were fed a high-fat diet with differing amounts of raspberry ketones. The rats that received more raspberry ketones burned more body fat and gained less fat tissue. A third study exposed fat cells in a test tube to raspberry ketones and found that the raspberry ketones stimulated the breakdown of the fat cells. I’ll agree that this is all very interesting research, but it is also considered very prelim Continue reading >>
RASPBERRY KETONE Overview Information Raspberry ketone is a chemical from red raspberries, as well as kiwifruit, peaches, grapes, apples, other berries, vegetables such as rhubarb, and the bark of yew, maple, and pine trees. People take raspberry ketone by mouth for weight loss. It became popular for weight loss after it was mentioned on the Dr. Oz television show during the segment called "Raspberry ketone: Miracle fat-burner in a bottle" in February 2012. People apply raspberry ketone to the skin for hair loss. Raspberry ketone is also used in foods, cosmetics, and other manufacturing as a fragrance or flavoring agent. How does it work? Raspberry ketone is a chemical from red raspberries that is thought to help for weight loss. Some research in animals or in test tubes shows that raspberry ketone might increase some measures of metabolism. It might also affect a hormone in the body called adiponectin. Adiponectin can increase the rate at which the body burns fat and reduce appetite. However, it is important to keep in mind that there is no reliable scientific evidence that raspberry ketone improves weight loss when taken by people. Continue reading >>
Avoid This Ketogenic Rip-off
The Truth About Exogenous Ketones Ketones are all the rage among low carbers. And like most things in nutrition and performance, we've found a way to get them in supplement form so we don't have to do any actual work. What are ketones? They're a byproduct of ketosis caused by the process of converting fat to fuel. Your body makes them when it's in a calorie or carb restricted state. What do they do? The body and brain can use them as fuel without the presence of glucose in the blood. And now, you can take ketone supplements (salts and esters), known as exogenous ketones, without actually restricting anything. According to those promoting this nasty-tasting supplement, that means you can have a brain and body fuelled by ketones, along with all of the supposed health benefits that come with running on fat. Well, don't fall for it. Exogenous Ketones = Endogenous Fat Storage? The problem with ketone supplementation (EXOgenous) is that it's not even close to the same thing as being in ketosis (ENDOgenous ketone production). And just like the butter-blended-into-coffee trend, it's a farce. Ketones may be depressing dieters' hunger and giving them a hit of energy and cognitive enhancement, but it's INHIBITING their ability to burn fat, providing zero nourishment, and doing nothing for their metabolic health. There's an assortment of evidence suggesting that it's probably making things worse. Think of exogenous ketones kind of like alcohol. When they're consumed, everything is stored and nothing else is burned. So any lipolysis (fat burning) that would be taking place is halted; any glucose and fatty acids in your blood that were circulating are stored; and the ingested ketones are burned until there aren't any left. More importantly, this clearance of alternative fuels (glucos Continue reading >>
Pruvit Keto Os Review
I'm Mike and I've been a personal trainer for over 10 years and I first heard about ketosis way back before it was even a big thing. I've been more or less on the ketogenic diet full-time ever since. When Keto-OS came out, people had been talking about Keto-OS being the go-to product for quickly getting into ketosis and even allowing you to cheat. Me being a skeptic, I set out on a 3 month strict review project, to get to the bottom of whether or not Keto-OS actually works. After months of testing blood samples and body calibrations, I am about to give you the conclusion of what I found from my review down below. KETO OS is the latest product from Pruvit and stands for "Ketone Operating System." This product is an exogenous ketone drink, which means it may provide a multitude of benefits, ranging from athletic performance enhancement, more efficient weight loss, cancer prevention, cognitive improvement and anti-inflammatory properties, among other things. Its ability to essentially trick the body into burning fat instead of carbs (a state known as ketosis) can also result in more rapid weight loss than you may have thought possible. This is what Pruvit had to say: Keto-OS is your “ketone operating system”. It was one of the First Therapeutic Ketone Supplements on the market. The proprietary blend is owned by Prüvit and is Dr. Approved, Lab Tested, University backed and the technology in Keto-OS is patent pending, developed by one of the most world renown Dr.’s and experts on Ketosis. Prüvit was the first company approved by University of South Florida to acquire the sub-license rights to use this patent pending technology. It is a powder that you mix with 8=10 oz. of water. Keto-OS is Pruvit’s flagship product and is the first product the company sold when it Continue reading >>
My Experience With Exogenous Ketones: Tale And Truth
97 Comments I woke up the morning of the ceremony with butterflies in my stomach. I’d done the necessary prep. I’d abstained from carbs the past week and food the past 24 hours. I’d performed four consecutive full-body circuit workouts to deplete muscle glycogen, and undergone a liver biopsy to confirm full depletion of liver glycogen. I wasn’t taking any chances. Although I had extensive experience generating endogenous ketones and subsisting on my own body fat, exogenous ketones were another matter entirely. You don’t want to mess around with a holy sacrament without doing due diligence. Holy sacrament? Yes. According to ethnographic accounts from early Arctic explorers who encountered the sacred compound, the exogenous ketone was developed by traditional peoples of the wintry north. No one’s quite sure where it arose first—Siberia, Greenland, Alaska, Lapland. What they do know is that these societies revered the type 1 diabetic, a rare find in the pre-contact Arctic. Using an admittedly grisly and cruel process, these groups would starve the tribe’s diabetic to induce ketoacidosis, harvest the ketone-rich urine, and reduce it slowly to a ketone-rich tar over a wood fire. Tribe shamans would dissolve the tar in pine needle tea and distribute it to members exclusively before hunting trips, warfare, and any other activity requiring optimal physical and mental function to boost energy and improve performance. As Mark Twain famously quipped, “The strongest coffee I ever had was a Laplander’s piss.” So when I showed up to the small building on the edge of town on a rainy evening, I was anxious. What was I in for? The solemn countenances worn by my two guides for the day—Dr. Peter Attia, wearing dark robes and swinging a thurible loaded with burning Continue reading >>
How To Use (and Not To Use) Exogenous Ketones For Weight Loss
“How do I use ketones to help me lose weight?” Great question. It’s worth the few minutes to understand how exogenous ketones can help people lose weight on a ketogenic diet, and not just jump to the conclusion that ketones = weight loss. Breaking Down Ketone Weight Loss Misconceptions The most common misconception (perhaps due to excessive marketing claims) is that taking ketone supplements will induce immediate weight loss. The purpose of this article is to explain how to use ketones as a piece of the puzzle in your weight loss lifestyle. Remember exogenous ketones are supplements. Very effective at what they do, but none the less, should be supplementary to a low carb/ketogenic style of eating that is geared towards weight loss (if weight loss is the goal). Ketones don’t cause weight loss, they help cause ketosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state where your body is using fatty acids for its primary source of energy. Just because you are using fat does not necessarily mean you are going to be losing weight or have a decrease in body fat percentage over an extended period of time. I have been in deep nutritional ketosis (>3.0mmol/dL) and had an increase in body fat percentage. I’ve also been in deep nutritional ketosis and had a decrease in body fat percentage. It all depends on how much fat and protein you are eating, in addition to being below a carb threshold that will induce ketosis. Please don’t take this to mean starve yourself. It just means that the average male American has over 40,000 calories in stored body fat and can, therefore, afford to eat a lower calorie ketogenic diet, and still survive (and thrive!). Take home message: Exogenous ketones are a tool to get you into ketosis or to boost your energy levels while already in ketosis. If your motive Continue reading >>
Ketones And Weight Loss
When you lose weight, your body gives off substances known as ketones. These ketones can be secreted in the urine and serve as an indicator you are losing weight -- in addition to the decreasing numbers on the scale. However, ketones' presence also can indicate a more harmful condition. Knowing how to tell the difference can help you experience healthy weight-loss results. Video of the Day Ketones are a substance the body produces as a byproduct of fat metabolism, according to the Joslin Diabetes Center. When you are trying to lose weight, your body will use glucose buildup in your fat stores in order to obtain energy from your food, resulting in weight loss. In addition to being produced while weight loss occurs, ketones also are a sign of diabetes. This is because ketones also are present when the body is not able to use insulin to break down sugars in your body. This occurrence can be dangerous to your health because the ketones can spill into the urine. Ketones produced by the body are often associated with following a low-carbohydrate diet, according to the Better Health Channel. This is because the body breaks down sugars stored in the muscles when you do not eat enough carbohydrates. While dieting in general results in the release of some ketones, those following low-carbohydrate diets are likely to release a higher number of ketones. If your physician performs a urine test and finds your ketones to be high, it’s important to notify him you are losing weight, according to the Joslin Diabetes Center. He may recommend an additional blood test to ensure your blood-glucose levels are not high — which can be a sign of diabetes. However, dieters with high ketone levels should not experience high blood-glucose levels. Those inside and outside the medical profession Continue reading >>
Exogenous Ketones: What They Are, Benefits Of Use And How They Work
Exogenous ketones have become a popular nutritional supplement since their introduction in 2014. Like with any new supplement, though, there tends to be a lot of misinformation that you have to sift your way through to find the reliable data. So, this article does the hard work for you and gets right to what the true benefits and drawbacks of exogenous ketones are. We also cover what forms of ketones to consider, how they function in the body, and their role in future research. What Are Ketones? Our bodies use ketones via our mitochondria to generate energy. They are an alternative fuel source to glucose. Ketones are simple compounds because of their small molecular structure and weight. Specifically, they are organic (carbon-based) compounds that contain a central carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and two carbon-containing substituents, denoted by “R” (see chemical structure below). In humans, there are 3 different ketones produced by the mitochondria of the liver. These are also often referred to as ketone bodies. The three ketones are: Acetone Acetoacetic Acid Beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid (also known Beta Hydroxybuyrate or BHB). Other chemical names include 3-hydroxybutyric acid or 3-hydroxybutyrate. BHB is not technically a ketone since it contains a reactive OH-group in place of where a double-bonded oxygen normally would be as you can see in the diagram below. Yet, BHB still functions like a ketone in the body and converts into energy much like acetoacetate and acetone. This happens via the acetoacetate and acetyl-CoA pathway. Note that acetone conversion to acetyl-CoA is not efficient due to the need to convert acetone to acetoacetate via decarboxylation. However, BHB still functions like a ketone in the body and can be converted to energy (via acetoace Continue reading >>
Ketone Testing: What You Need To Know
What are ketones? Ketones are produced when the body burns fat for energy or fuel. They are also produced when you lose weight or if there is not enough insulin to help your body use sugar for energy. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood. Since the body is unable to use glucose for energy, it breaks down fat instead. When this occurs, ketones form in the blood and spill into the urine. These ketones can make you very sick. How can I test for ketones? You can test to see if your body is making any ketones by doing a simple urine test. There are several products available for ketone testing and they can be purchased, without a prescription, at your pharmacy. The test result can be negative, or show small, moderate, or large quantities of ketones. When should I test for ketones? Anytime your blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl for two tests in a row. When you are ill. Often illness, infections, or injuries will cause sudden high blood glucose and this is an especially important time to check for ketones. When you are planning to exercise and the blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl. If you are pregnant, you should test for ketones each morning before breakfast and any time the blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl. If ketones are positive, what does this mean? There are situations when you might have ketones without the blood glucose being too high. Positive ketones are not a problem when blood glucose levels are within range and you are trying to lose weight. It is a problem if blood glucose levels are high and left untreated. Untreated high blood glucose with positive ketones can lead to a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). What should I do if the ketone test is positive? Call your diabetes educator or physician, as you may need additional Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Ketones
Tweet The presence of high levels of ketones in the bloodstream is a common complication of diabetes, which if left untreated can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketones build up when there is insufficient insulin to help fuel the body’s cells. High levels of ketones are therefore more common in people with type 1 diabetes or people with advanced type 2 diabetes. If you are suffering from high levels of ketones and seeking medical advice, contact your GP or diabetes healthcare team as soon as possible. What are ketones? Ketones are an acid remaining when the body burns its own fat. When the body has insufficient insulin, it cannot get glucose from the blood into the body's cells to use as energy and will instead begin to burn fat. The liver converts fatty acids into ketones which are then released into the bloodstream for use as energy. It is normal to have a low level of ketones as ketones will be produced whenever body fat is burned. In people that are insulin dependent, such as people with type 1 diabetes, however, high levels of ketones in the blood can result from taking too little insulin and this can lead to a particularly dangerous condition known as ketoacidosis. How do I test for ketones? Ketone testing can be carried out at home. The most accurate way of testing for ketones is to use a blood glucose meter which can test for ketones as well as blood glucose levels. You can also test urine for ketone levels, however, the testing of urine means that the level you get is representative of your ketone levels up to a few hours ago. Read about testing for ketones and how to interpret the results Who needs to be aware of ketones? The following people with diabetes should be aware of ketones and the symptoms of ketoacidosis: Anyone dependent on insulin – such as all people Continue reading >>
Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works
Ketosis is a process that the body does on an everyday basis, regardless of the number of carbs you eat. Your body adapts to what is put in it, processing different types of nutrients into the fuels that it needs. Proteins, fats, and carbs can all be processed for use. Eating a low carb, high fat diet just ramps up this process, which is a normal and safe chemical reaction. When you eat carbohydrate based foods or excess amounts of protein, your body will break this down into sugar – known as glucose. Why? Glucose is needed in the creation of ATP (an energy molecule), which is a fuel that is needed for the daily activities and maintenance inside our bodies. If you’ve ever used our keto calculator to determine your caloric needs, you will see that your body uses up quite a lot of calories. It’s true, our bodies use up much of the nutrients we intake just to maintain itself on a daily basis. If you eat enough food, there will likely be an excess of glucose that your body doesn’t need. There are two main things that happen to excess glucose if your body doesn’t need it: Glycogenesis. Excess glucose will be converted to glycogen and stored in your liver and muscles. Estimates show that only about half of your daily energy can be stored as glycogen. Lipogenesis. If there’s already enough glycogen in your muscles and liver, any extra glucose will be converted into fats and stored. So, what happens to you once your body has no more glucose or glycogen? Ketosis happens. When your body has no access to food, like when you are sleeping or when you are on a ketogenic diet, the body will burn fat and create molecules called ketones. We can thank our body’s ability to switch metabolic pathways for that. These ketones are created when the body breaks down fats, creating Continue reading >>
What Are Ketones?
With the gradual resurgence of low-carb diets in recent years, the word “ketones” is thrown around a lot. But many people aren’t really aware of the details. What are ketones, really? And what do they do in the body? There can be a lot of misinformation regarding the answers to these questions, so read on for a full overview of ketones and their role in a ketogenic diet. Ketones, also known as “ketone bodies,” are byproducts of the body breaking down fat for energy that occurs when carbohydrate intake is low. Here’s how it works: When there isn’t a sufficient level of available glucose — which is what the body uses for its main source of fuel — and glycogen levels are depleted, blood sugar and insulin are lowered and the body looks for an alternative source of fuel: in this case, fat. This process can happen when a person fasting, after prolonged exercise, during starvation, or when eating a low-carb, ketogenic diet. And when the body begins breaking down fats for energy like this, a process known as beta-oxidation, ketones are formed for use as fuel for the body and brain. This is known as ketosis. People following a ketogenic diet specifically reduce their carbohydrate intake for this reason: to create ketones for energy. Many people use the benefits of ketosis — less reliance on carbs and more burning of fat — to possibly help lower blood pressure, reduce cravings, improve cholesterol, increase weight loss, improve energy, and more. TYPES OF KETONE BODIES So, what else about ketones do we need to know? To start, there are technically three types of ketone bodies: Acetoacetate (AcAc) Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) Acetone Both acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate are responsible for transporting energy from the liver to other tissues in the body Continue reading >>
Why Do Ketones Have Higher Boiling Points Than Their Corresponding Aldehydes?
The melting and boiling points of some short straight-chained aldehydes, in °C, are as follows: propanal or propionaldehyde: -81, 46--50 butanal or butyraldehyde: -99, 75 pentanal or valeraldehyde: -60, 102--103 And for ketones: acetone: -95 to -93, 56--67 butanone: -86, 80 2-pentanone: -78, 101--105 3-pentanone: -39, 100--102 (Yes, I got these values from Wikipedia.) These data do not support the conclusion that either aldehydes or ketones have higher melting or boiling points. Another interesting conclusion you can draw is that melting points are far more unpredictable than boiling points. Notice, for example, how butanal has a lower melting point than propanal despite its greater molecular mass; this discrepancy is not present in the boiling points. Also note that while pentanal, 2-pentanone, and 3-pentanone have very similar boiling points, their melting points are significantly different. In fact, it is symmetric compounds, and not asymmetric compounds, that tend to have higher melting points because they tend to form more tightly packed lattices and hence more stable solids. (A dramatic example is benzene, m.p. 5.5 °C, and toluene, m.p. -95 °C.) This is probably why 3-pentanone melts nearly 40 degrees higher than 2-pentanone. However, it is very difficult to predict just what effect any particular feature will have on melting point, which is why it is more often the boiling point used to illustrate differences in intermolecular forces. Continue reading >>
What Are The Optimal Ketone Levels For A Ketogenic Diet?
If you’ve just started a ketogenic diet, then you’ll know that it can be really tough to figure out if you’re doing keto right. Am I eating too many carbs? Too much protein? Should I still be feeling tired? When is the fat burning supposed to start? It’s confusing, and one of the most confusing aspects is what your optimal ketone levels are supposed to be. Unlike most other diets, the ketogenic diet is designed to put your body into a state of ketosis in order to get your body to start burning ketones instead of the glucose that it usually burns when you eat a high carb standard American diet (SAD). But to know whether you’re in ketosis and whether your body has enough ketones circulating for you to use as energy instead of glucose, you have to measure your actual ketone levels and then determine whether they’re high enough for you to be reaping the benefits of the ketogenic diet. If you’ve tried searching for this information already, then you’ll know that there’s some controversy depending on which expert you follow. So in this article, we’ll tell you exactly what the different experts are suggesting are the optimal ketone levels as well as give you recommendations for what ketone levels you should be aiming for depending on your goals with a ketogenic diet. A Few Quick Notes Before We Start… If you’re looking for signs other than testing your actual body ketone levels as to whether you’re in ketosis or not, then please check out this article instead that provides you with signs you’re in ketosis. If you’re a type 1 diabetic, then this article is not for you and the optimal ketone levels suggested below are not applicable to you. Please check out the tons of other ketone level articles on the web to ensure your ketone levels do not reach Continue reading >>
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