What Are Ketones And Are They Healthy?
What Are Ketones and Are They Healthy? If you are up on your health news or follow anyone in the health field, you have likely heard the term ketogenic diet. The goal of the ketogenic diet is to adapt the body to utilize fat as its primary fuel source instead of sugar. The body does this by first converting fat into what are called ketones that the cells can then burn as fuel. It is at this point that I typically get asked, what are ketones? In this article, I am going to clear up any gaps, explain exactly how ketogenisis works, and why it can be so beneficial for the human body. Biological Role of Ketones For our ancestors, eating three meals a day just wasn’t a thing. Instead they would hunt and forage for the foods they could find. When there wasn’t food, they wouldn’t eat. What this means is that sometimes they would go for days at a time with no food. To sustain life during times of scarcity, the body is thought to have developed the ability to utilize fat as an alternative fuel source. In a traditional nutrition course, you would learn that sugar is the body’s primary fuel source while fat is a secondary fuel source. When sugar stores are burned up, the cells then convert to burning fat as an energy source. What we are finding out now is that fat can actually be a healthier and more sustainable source of energy. Our Society Is Full of Sugar Burners Modern day, we have an abundance of food that is available to us at all times. Most of us regularly eat three meals a day with intermittent snacking in between. This kind of frequent eating, along with an overemphasis on carb-rich and sugary foods, causes a reduced ability to burn fat. As these foods damage our bodies on a metabolic level, we actually lose the ability to produce ketones. This type of reliance on Continue reading >>
My Experience With Exogenous Ketones: Tale And Truth
97 Comments I woke up the morning of the ceremony with butterflies in my stomach. I’d done the necessary prep. I’d abstained from carbs the past week and food the past 24 hours. I’d performed four consecutive full-body circuit workouts to deplete muscle glycogen, and undergone a liver biopsy to confirm full depletion of liver glycogen. I wasn’t taking any chances. Although I had extensive experience generating endogenous ketones and subsisting on my own body fat, exogenous ketones were another matter entirely. You don’t want to mess around with a holy sacrament without doing due diligence. Holy sacrament? Yes. According to ethnographic accounts from early Arctic explorers who encountered the sacred compound, the exogenous ketone was developed by traditional peoples of the wintry north. No one’s quite sure where it arose first—Siberia, Greenland, Alaska, Lapland. What they do know is that these societies revered the type 1 diabetic, a rare find in the pre-contact Arctic. Using an admittedly grisly and cruel process, these groups would starve the tribe’s diabetic to induce ketoacidosis, harvest the ketone-rich urine, and reduce it slowly to a ketone-rich tar over a wood fire. Tribe shamans would dissolve the tar in pine needle tea and distribute it to members exclusively before hunting trips, warfare, and any other activity requiring optimal physical and mental function to boost energy and improve performance. As Mark Twain famously quipped, “The strongest coffee I ever had was a Laplander’s piss.” So when I showed up to the small building on the edge of town on a rainy evening, I was anxious. What was I in for? The solemn countenances worn by my two guides for the day—Dr. Peter Attia, wearing dark robes and swinging a thurible loaded with burning Continue reading >>
Pruvit Keto Os Review
I'm Mike and I've been a personal trainer for over 10 years and I first heard about ketosis way back before it was even a big thing. I've been more or less on the ketogenic diet full-time ever since. When Keto-OS came out, people had been talking about Keto-OS being the go-to product for quickly getting into ketosis and even allowing you to cheat. Me being a skeptic, I set out on a 3 month strict review project, to get to the bottom of whether or not Keto-OS actually works. After months of testing blood samples and body calibrations, I am about to give you the conclusion of what I found from my review down below. KETO OS is the latest product from Pruvit and stands for "Ketone Operating System." This product is an exogenous ketone drink, which means it may provide a multitude of benefits, ranging from athletic performance enhancement, more efficient weight loss, cancer prevention, cognitive improvement and anti-inflammatory properties, among other things. Its ability to essentially trick the body into burning fat instead of carbs (a state known as ketosis) can also result in more rapid weight loss than you may have thought possible. This is what Pruvit had to say: Keto-OS is your “ketone operating system”. It was one of the First Therapeutic Ketone Supplements on the market. The proprietary blend is owned by Prüvit and is Dr. Approved, Lab Tested, University backed and the technology in Keto-OS is patent pending, developed by one of the most world renown Dr.’s and experts on Ketosis. Prüvit was the first company approved by University of South Florida to acquire the sub-license rights to use this patent pending technology. It is a powder that you mix with 8=10 oz. of water. Keto-OS is Pruvit’s flagship product and is the first product the company sold when it Continue reading >>
Do Raspberry Ketones Really Work? A Detailed Review
If you need to lose weight, you are not alone. More than a third of Americans are overweight, and another third are obese (1). Only 30% of people are now at a healthy weight... being overweight has become the new "normal." The problem is, conventional weight loss methods are so difficult that 85% of people fail in the long run (2). However... there are many products out there that are claimed to make things easier. These are herbs, shakes and pills that are supposed to help you burn fat or reduce your appetite. Among the most popular ones is a supplement called Raspberry ketones. Raspberry ketones are claimed to cause the fat within cells to be broken down more effectively, helping the body burn fat faster. They are also claimed to increase levels of adiponectin, a hormone that helps to regulate metabolism. This article reviews the current scientific research behind raspberry ketone supplements and whether they are actually worth considering. Raspberry ketone is a natural substance that gives red raspberries their powerful aroma. This substance is also found in small amounts in blackberries, cranberries and kiwis. It has a long history of use in cosmetics and has been added to soft drinks, ice cream and other processed foods as a flavorant. Actually... most people are already eating small amounts of raspberry ketones, either from the fruits themselves or because of their popularity as a flavorant (3). Only recently did they became popular as a weight loss supplement. Even though the word "raspberry" may appeal to people, the supplement is actually NOT derived from raspberries. Extracting raspberry ketones from raspberries is insanely expensive, because you need 90 pounds (41 kg) of raspberries to get the amount needed for a single dose! In fact, a kilogram (2.2 pounds) Continue reading >>
Exogenous Ketones: What They Are, Benefits Of Use And How They Work
Exogenous ketones have become a popular nutritional supplement since their introduction in 2014. Like with any new supplement, though, there tends to be a lot of misinformation that you have to sift your way through to find the reliable data. So, this article does the hard work for you and gets right to what the true benefits and drawbacks of exogenous ketones are. We also cover what forms of ketones to consider, how they function in the body, and their role in future research. What Are Ketones? Our bodies use ketones via our mitochondria to generate energy. They are an alternative fuel source to glucose. Ketones are simple compounds because of their small molecular structure and weight. Specifically, they are organic (carbon-based) compounds that contain a central carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and two carbon-containing substituents, denoted by “R” (see chemical structure below). In humans, there are 3 different ketones produced by the mitochondria of the liver. These are also often referred to as ketone bodies. The three ketones are: Acetone Acetoacetic Acid Beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid (also known Beta Hydroxybuyrate or BHB). Other chemical names include 3-hydroxybutyric acid or 3-hydroxybutyrate. BHB is not technically a ketone since it contains a reactive OH-group in place of where a double-bonded oxygen normally would be as you can see in the diagram below. Yet, BHB still functions like a ketone in the body and converts into energy much like acetoacetate and acetone. This happens via the acetoacetate and acetyl-CoA pathway. Note that acetone conversion to acetyl-CoA is not efficient due to the need to convert acetone to acetoacetate via decarboxylation. However, BHB still functions like a ketone in the body and can be converted to energy (via acetoace Continue reading >>
Ketosis & Measuring Ketones
Generally, ketone concentrations are lower in the morning and higher in the evening. Whatever time you pick to measure ketone levels, make sure to keep it consistent. Also, do not measure your ketone levels right after exercise. Ketone levels tend to be lower while your glucose levels higher so you won't get representative numbers. Keep in mind there are daily fluctuations caused by changes in hormone levels. Don't get discouraged! Another aspect that affects the level of ketones is the amount of fat in your diet. Some of you may show higher concentration of ketones after a high-fat meal. Coconut oil contains MCTs that will help you boost ketones. To easily increase your fat intake on a ketogenic diet, try fat bombs - snacks with at least 80% fat content. Ketone levels tend to be higher after extensive aerobic exercise as your body depletes glycogen stores. Exercise may help you get into ketosis faster. ketogenic "fruity" breath is not pleasant for most people. To avoid this, drink a lot of water, mint tea and make sure you eat foods rich in electrolytes. Avoid too many chewing gums and mints, as it may put you out of ketosis; there may be hidden carbs affecting your blood sugar. Increase your electrolyte intake, especially potassium. You are likely going to lose some sodium and potassium when switching to the keto diet. Finally, if you find it hard to lose weight on a ketogenic diet, there may be plenty other reasons than the level of ketone bodies: Not Losing Weight on Low-Carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up and Read Further. Continue reading >>
Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids). They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting). When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>
Why Do Ketones Have Higher Boiling Points Than Their Corresponding Aldehydes?
The melting and boiling points of some short straight-chained aldehydes, in °C, are as follows: propanal or propionaldehyde: -81, 46--50 butanal or butyraldehyde: -99, 75 pentanal or valeraldehyde: -60, 102--103 And for ketones: acetone: -95 to -93, 56--67 butanone: -86, 80 2-pentanone: -78, 101--105 3-pentanone: -39, 100--102 (Yes, I got these values from Wikipedia.) These data do not support the conclusion that either aldehydes or ketones have higher melting or boiling points. Another interesting conclusion you can draw is that melting points are far more unpredictable than boiling points. Notice, for example, how butanal has a lower melting point than propanal despite its greater molecular mass; this discrepancy is not present in the boiling points. Also note that while pentanal, 2-pentanone, and 3-pentanone have very similar boiling points, their melting points are significantly different. In fact, it is symmetric compounds, and not asymmetric compounds, that tend to have higher melting points because they tend to form more tightly packed lattices and hence more stable solids. (A dramatic example is benzene, m.p. 5.5 °C, and toluene, m.p. -95 °C.) This is probably why 3-pentanone melts nearly 40 degrees higher than 2-pentanone. However, it is very difficult to predict just what effect any particular feature will have on melting point, which is why it is more often the boiling point used to illustrate differences in intermolecular forces. Continue reading >>
Are There Any Drugs That Are Ketones?
A ketone is any compound that contains a carbon-oxygen double bond, straddled by two carbon atoms on both sides. Acetone is a good example of the ketone archetype. Ketones can be reactive at times, because the C-O double bond is sensitive to both electron-loving chemicals and empty orbital-loving entities (scientists call these 'electrophiles' and 'nucleophiles' respectively). If we were to look at the structures of our pharmaceuticals, we find that quite a few synthetic drugs do have ketones in their structures. Moxifloxacin has a ketone segment just close to the carboxylic acid (COOH) group. It is a quinolone drug, and almost all drug classes that end in 'one' are ketones or contain this fragment as part of their general structures. Moxifloxacin is an antibiotic used to kill bacteria. Pranlukast has a ketone close to the blue-rich ring (we call that a tetrazole, as it has four nitrogen atoms in its pentagonal ring). The ketone part is in a larger structure we call a 'pyrone', because the ketone is part of a heterocyclic ring (a pyran) in the drug. As before, the 'one' shows up in the name for this type of functionality. Any functional group or fragment that ends in 'one' is often a group of atoms or ring modified by adding a C=O piece to its structure, replacing a carbon atom and shuffling bonds around if necessary. Pranlukast is an anti-asthma drug designed to stop specific biochemicals from being produced in our bodies and triggering allergies or asthma. Oxycodone is definitely a ketone, since its name ends in 'one'. This is a modified alkaloid related to morphine, and is a pain-killer. It is best known as a part of OxyContin and responsible for hooking people on opiates (a class of pain-killer drugs it belongs to). Unoprostone, another ketone-based drug. This molec Continue reading >>
Avoid This Ketogenic Rip-off
The Truth About Exogenous Ketones Ketones are all the rage among low carbers. And like most things in nutrition and performance, we've found a way to get them in supplement form so we don't have to do any actual work. What are ketones? They're a byproduct of ketosis caused by the process of converting fat to fuel. Your body makes them when it's in a calorie or carb restricted state. What do they do? The body and brain can use them as fuel without the presence of glucose in the blood. And now, you can take ketone supplements (salts and esters), known as exogenous ketones, without actually restricting anything. According to those promoting this nasty-tasting supplement, that means you can have a brain and body fuelled by ketones, along with all of the supposed health benefits that come with running on fat. Well, don't fall for it. Exogenous Ketones = Endogenous Fat Storage? The problem with ketone supplementation (EXOgenous) is that it's not even close to the same thing as being in ketosis (ENDOgenous ketone production). And just like the butter-blended-into-coffee trend, it's a farce. Ketones may be depressing dieters' hunger and giving them a hit of energy and cognitive enhancement, but it's INHIBITING their ability to burn fat, providing zero nourishment, and doing nothing for their metabolic health. There's an assortment of evidence suggesting that it's probably making things worse. Think of exogenous ketones kind of like alcohol. When they're consumed, everything is stored and nothing else is burned. So any lipolysis (fat burning) that would be taking place is halted; any glucose and fatty acids in your blood that were circulating are stored; and the ingested ketones are burned until there aren't any left. More importantly, this clearance of alternative fuels (glucos Continue reading >>
Excess ketones are dangerous for someone with diabetes... Low insulin, combined with relatively normal glucagon and epinephrine levels, causes fat to be released from fat cells, which then turns into ketones. Excess formation of ketones is dangerous and is a medical emergency In a person without diabetes, ketone production is the body’s normal adaptation to starvation. Blood sugar levels never get too high, because the production is regulated by just the right balance of insulin, glucagon and other hormones. However, in an individual with diabetes, dangerous and life-threatening levels of ketones can develop. What are ketones and why do I need to know about them? Ketones and ketoacids are alternative fuels for the body that are made when glucose is in short supply. They are made in the liver from the breakdown of fats. Ketones are formed when there is not enough sugar or glucose to supply the body’s fuel needs. This occurs overnight, and during dieting or fasting. During these periods, insulin levels are low, but glucagon and epinephrine levels are relatively normal. This combination of low insulin, and relatively normal glucagon and epinephrine levels causes fat to be released from the fat cells. The fats travel through the blood circulation to reach the liver where they are processed into ketone units. The ketone units then circulate back into the blood stream and are picked up by the muscle and other tissues to fuel your body’s metabolism. In a person without diabetes, ketone production is the body’s normal adaptation to starvation. Blood sugar levels never get too high, because the production is regulated by just the right balance of insulin, glucagon and other hormones. However, in an individual with diabetes, dangerous and life-threatening levels of ketone Continue reading >>
What They Don’t Want You To Know About Raspberry Ketones
Before you jump on the raspberry ketone bandwagon, there are a few things you should know about this over-priced, proclaimed weight-loss miracle in a bottle. What is it? Raspberry ketone is the natural phenolic compound found in red raspberries (Rubus idaeus). In simple terms, this chemical compound gives berries their signature scent. Until recently, raspberry ketones were used primarily by the perfume and manufactured food industries, but now the compound is being sold in supplement form. Raspberry ketones have been touted as the next weight-loss miracle drug, with manufacturers claiming that the ketones help your body break down fat more efficiently, helping you to lose more weight. Is it true? Before you run to the pharmacy to pick up a bottle, at least finish reading this blog. What I’m about to share with you might surprise (or downright shock) you! Raspberry ketones have never been tested on humans in scientific studies. That’s right. You read that correctly. To date, there have been no human studies showing that raspberry ketones burn fat or benefit your weight loss. Now, if you are a rat, there are two studies of interest. One study gave male rats raspberry ketones, which resulted in an increased secretion of adiponectin, a hormone secreted by fat cells that helps the body break down fat. The result was less fat on the rat. In another rat study, the rodents were fed a high-fat diet with differing amounts of raspberry ketones. The rats that received more raspberry ketones burned more body fat and gained less fat tissue. A third study exposed fat cells in a test tube to raspberry ketones and found that the raspberry ketones stimulated the breakdown of the fat cells. I’ll agree that this is all very interesting research, but it is also considered very prelim Continue reading >>
How To Use (and Not To Use) Exogenous Ketones For Weight Loss
“How do I use ketones to help me lose weight?” Great question. It’s worth the few minutes to understand how exogenous ketones can help people lose weight on a ketogenic diet, and not just jump to the conclusion that ketones = weight loss. Breaking Down Ketone Weight Loss Misconceptions The most common misconception (perhaps due to excessive marketing claims) is that taking ketone supplements will induce immediate weight loss. The purpose of this article is to explain how to use ketones as a piece of the puzzle in your weight loss lifestyle. Remember exogenous ketones are supplements. Very effective at what they do, but none the less, should be supplementary to a low carb/ketogenic style of eating that is geared towards weight loss (if weight loss is the goal). Ketones don’t cause weight loss, they help cause ketosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state where your body is using fatty acids for its primary source of energy. Just because you are using fat does not necessarily mean you are going to be losing weight or have a decrease in body fat percentage over an extended period of time. I have been in deep nutritional ketosis (>3.0mmol/dL) and had an increase in body fat percentage. I’ve also been in deep nutritional ketosis and had a decrease in body fat percentage. It all depends on how much fat and protein you are eating, in addition to being below a carb threshold that will induce ketosis. Please don’t take this to mean starve yourself. It just means that the average male American has over 40,000 calories in stored body fat and can, therefore, afford to eat a lower calorie ketogenic diet, and still survive (and thrive!). Take home message: Exogenous ketones are a tool to get you into ketosis or to boost your energy levels while already in ketosis. If your motive Continue reading >>
What Are Ketones?
With the gradual resurgence of low-carb diets in recent years, the word “ketones” is thrown around a lot. But many people aren’t really aware of the details. What are ketones, really? And what do they do in the body? There can be a lot of misinformation regarding the answers to these questions, so read on for a full overview of ketones and their role in a ketogenic diet. Ketones, also known as “ketone bodies,” are byproducts of the body breaking down fat for energy that occurs when carbohydrate intake is low. Here’s how it works: When there isn’t a sufficient level of available glucose — which is what the body uses for its main source of fuel — and glycogen levels are depleted, blood sugar and insulin are lowered and the body looks for an alternative source of fuel: in this case, fat. This process can happen when a person fasting, after prolonged exercise, during starvation, or when eating a low-carb, ketogenic diet. And when the body begins breaking down fats for energy like this, a process known as beta-oxidation, ketones are formed for use as fuel for the body and brain. This is known as ketosis. People following a ketogenic diet specifically reduce their carbohydrate intake for this reason: to create ketones for energy. Many people use the benefits of ketosis — less reliance on carbs and more burning of fat — to possibly help lower blood pressure, reduce cravings, improve cholesterol, increase weight loss, improve energy, and more. TYPES OF KETONE BODIES So, what else about ketones do we need to know? To start, there are technically three types of ketone bodies: Acetoacetate (AcAc) Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) Acetone Both acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate are responsible for transporting energy from the liver to other tissues in the body Continue reading >>
RASPBERRY KETONE Overview Information Raspberry ketone is a chemical from red raspberries, as well as kiwifruit, peaches, grapes, apples, other berries, vegetables such as rhubarb, and the bark of yew, maple, and pine trees. People take raspberry ketone by mouth for weight loss. It became popular for weight loss after it was mentioned on the Dr. Oz television show during the segment called "Raspberry ketone: Miracle fat-burner in a bottle" in February 2012. People apply raspberry ketone to the skin for hair loss. Raspberry ketone is also used in foods, cosmetics, and other manufacturing as a fragrance or flavoring agent. How does it work? Raspberry ketone is a chemical from red raspberries that is thought to help for weight loss. Some research in animals or in test tubes shows that raspberry ketone might increase some measures of metabolism. It might also affect a hormone in the body called adiponectin. Adiponectin can increase the rate at which the body burns fat and reduce appetite. However, it is important to keep in mind that there is no reliable scientific evidence that raspberry ketone improves weight loss when taken by people. Continue reading >>