What Is The Science Behind The Ketogenic Diet?
There is a lot of science behind it. This article details 23 peer reviewed studies of it. I’ll break down some of the science behind the diet: Insulin is the primary hormone driving fat burning and fat storage. When the body has high levels of insulin, the tendency is to store things as fat. So, in order to lose weight you want to lower levels of insulin in the body. Low calorie diets also lower insulin, but the ketogenic diet does it simply by the macronutrient content of the diet. The biggest driver of insulin are carbohydrates. By dramatically reducing carbohydrates the body needs to produce less insulin to move the glucose they produce into cells in the body. Fats have almost no insulin impact. By increasing fats in the diet and substituting them for carbohydrates and proteins, you eat without causing great insulin spikes. Ketones Ketones are not some dangerous substance in the body. They are a natural part of human metabolism and everybody has circulating levels of ketones. The key here is again the hormone insulin. Higher levels of insulin mean fewer ketones in the body. The reason non-diabetic people on a ketogenic diet do not get ketoacidosis is that they still have adequate levels of insulin. Type 1 diabetics can get ketoacidosis if they do not have any insulin. Ketones are an alternate fuel for the body. Certain tissues cannot fuel with fat in the body. The brain is a classic example. When you stop consuming glucose producing foods, the body ups the production of ketones. The brain can burn these ketones as a fuel. The science here is centered around the benefits of ketones in the brain. The ketogenic diet has been used for years as a treatment for epilepsy. For some reason a brain fueling with ketones is less likely to trigger seizures. However, there appea Continue reading >>
What Does Yoga Do To The Body?
Brain What seems like a slow start—breathing deeply, in and out—fires up your prefrontal cortex, the brain's center for higher thought. You just got smarter: In one study, people scored higher on cognitive tests after 20 minutes of yoga. Your intense focus helps quiet your noggin's amygdala—a.k.a. your emotional network. That means more control over feelings such as anger and fear.At the same time, happy brain chemicals like GABA may rise, making yoga a natural treatment for your gloomy moods. Nervous System The triple threat of breathing, focus, and movement ignites the parasympathetic, or "rest and digest," nervous system, the antidote to the fight-or-flight stress response. The vagus nerve, one of your body's neural highways, carries that chill-out message to all your internal organs. Lungs and Heart Memo received: Your lungs expand to keep the belly breaths (and oxygen) coming.Your heart also benefits. The effect is so strong that a regular yoga practice can lower your resting heart rate—in and after class. Hormones The adrenal glands ease back on production of the stress hormone cortisol, which has been linked to cravings for fatty foods. Post-yoga, it may be easier to resist snacking. Immune System That vagus nerve may also alert your immune system, which releases a stash of immunity-enhancing cells. You could now be better primed to fight off infections. Balance and Strength If you feel like a human teeter-totter at first, keep at it. Yoga—even just twice a week for a month—can improve your balance (key for cruising through your days uninjured). Folding yourself into positions also stretches your muscles, tendons, and connective tissues close to their maximum capacity. Repeating these movements—under the watchful eye of a certified pro—can strengt Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>
How To Spot And Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)
Even if you work hard at your diabetes management and use technology to help keep your numbers in range, you can still experience high blood glucose, which can escalate to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While DKA can be scary if left untreated, it is preventable if you know what to look for and what to do. Senior District Clinical Manager, Melinda Turenne, BSN, RN, CDE, has more than 15 years of diabetes clinical experience. Today she shares some valuable DKA risk factors and prevention tips. Living with diabetes involves a lot of duties. You are checking your blood glucose (BG), counting your carbohydrates, exercising, and keeping doctors’ appointments. I am sure you remember your doctor or diabetes educator telling you to check for ketones too, right? Checking my what? One more thing to add to my to-do list! Yes, and here is WHY. What are ketones? Ketones are acid molecules produced when we burn fat for energy or fuel. As fat is broken down, ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are toxic and can make you very sick. When combined with dehydration, it can lead to Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), a life threatening condition. Why would DKA happen? DKA occurs when there is not enough insulin present in the body. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood, causing high BG levels. Since the body is unable to use glucose without insulin for energy, it breaks down fat instead. This can occur for several reasons: Infection, injury, or serious illness A lack of insulin in the body due to missed injections, spoiled insulin, poor absorption Severe dehydration Combination of these things What are the signs of DKA? High BG levels Ketones (in blood and urine) Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain (cramps) Confusion Tired, sluggish, or weak Flushed, Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially fatal complication of diabetes that occurs when you have much less insulin than your body needs. This problem causes the blood to become acidic and the body to become dangerously dehydrated. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur when diabetes is not treated adequately, or it can occur during times of serious sickness. To understand this illness, you need to understand the way your body powers itself with sugar and other fuels. Foods we eat are broken down by the body, and much of what we eat becomes glucose (a type of sugar), which enters the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose to pass from the bloodstream into body cells, where it is used for energy. Insulin normally is made by the pancreas, but people with type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) don't produce enough insulin and must inject it daily. Your body needs a constant source of energy. When you have plenty of insulin, your body cells can get all the energy they need from glucose. If you don't have enough insulin in your blood, your liver is programmed to manufacture emergency fuels. These fuels, made from fat, are called ketones (or keto acids). In a pinch, ketones can give you energy. However, if your body stays dependent on ketones for energy for too long, you soon will become ill. Ketones are acidic chemicals that are toxic at high concentrations. In diabetic ketoacidosis, ketones build up in the blood, seriously altering the normal chemistry of the blood and interfering with the function of multiple organs. They make the blood acidic, which causes vomiting and abdominal pain. If the acid level of the blood becomes extreme, ketoacidosis can cause falling blood pressure, coma and death. Ketoacidosis is always accompanied by dehydration, which is caused by high levels of Continue reading >>
What Is The Biology Of A Hangover?
Alcohol blocks the release of vasopressin which is a hormone that makes you retain water. In terms of the science of how it does this, it directly blocks the release from the neurohypophyseal nerve terminals. In other words, if you try to electrically stimulate those nerves to get them to release vasopressin and you have alcohol around, that release will be inhibited. The reduction in vasopressin causes water loss from your body. studies have shown that drinking about 250 milliliters of alcohol causes the body to expel nearly four times as much liquid in waste. This diuretic effect decreases as the alcohol in the bloodstream decreases, but the aftereffects help create a hangover. The next morning, you have less water and electrolytes than you need to have, and that causes headaches and other problems. Headaches result from dehydration because the body's organs try to make up for their own water loss by stealing water from the brain, causing the brain to decrease in size and pull on the membranes that connect the brain to the skull, resulting in pain. The frequent urination also expels salts and potassium that are necessary for proper nerve and muscle function; when sodium and potassium levels get too low, headaches, fatigue and nausea can result. Alcohol can also cause you to feel sluggish because of its effects on your liver and glycogen levels. Alcohol also breaks down the body's store of glycogen in the liver, turning the chemical into glucose and sending it out of the body in the urine. Lack of this key energy source is partly responsible for the weakness, fatigue and lack of coordination the next morning.  There are so called congeners in alcohol. Congener as a word on its own refers to a minor chemical constituent. In the case of alcohol these mi Continue reading >>
A Preventable Crisis People who have had diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, will tell you it’s worse than any flu they’ve ever had, describing an overwhelming feeling of lethargy, unquenchable thirst, and unrelenting vomiting. “It’s sort of like having molasses for blood,” says George. “Everything moves so slow, the mouth can feel so dry, and there is a cloud over your head. Just before diagnosis, when I was in high school, I would get out of a class and go to the bathroom to pee for about 10–12 minutes. Then I would head to the water fountain and begin drinking water for minutes at a time, usually until well after the next class had begun.” George, generally an upbeat person, said that while he has experienced varying degrees of DKA in his 40 years or so of having diabetes, “…at its worst, there is one reprieve from its ill feeling: Unfortunately, that is a coma.” But DKA can be more than a feeling of extreme discomfort, and it can result in more than a coma. “It has the potential to kill,” says Richard Hellman, MD, past president of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. “DKA is a medical emergency. It’s the biggest medical emergency related to diabetes. It’s also the most likely time for a child with diabetes to die.” DKA occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body, resulting in high blood glucose; the person is dehydrated; and too many ketones are present in the bloodstream, making it acidic. The initial insulin deficit is most often caused by the onset of diabetes, by an illness or infection, or by not taking insulin when it is needed. Ketones are your brain’s “second-best fuel,” Hellman says, with glucose being number one. If you don’t have enough glucose in your cells to supply energy to your brain, yo Continue reading >>
Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis
When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin ( type 1 diabetes ) or can't respond to insulin properly ( type 2 diabetes ). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: All of these need to be b Continue reading >>
Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis triggers These include: infections and other illnesses not keeping up with recommended insulin injections Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infec Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Complications
Diabetic ketoacidosis definition and facts Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes (though rare, it can occur in people with type 2 diabetes) that occurs when the body produces high levels of ketones due to lack of insulin. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin. The signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include Risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis are type 1 diabetes, and missing insulin doses frequently, or being exposed to a stressor requiring higher insulin doses (infection, etc). Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by an elevated blood sugar (glucose) level, elevated blood ketones and acidity of the blood (acidosis). The treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis is insulin, fluids and electrolyte therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be prevented by taking insulin as prescribed and monitoring glucose and ketone levels. The prognosis for a person with diabetic ketoacidosis depends on the severity of the disease and the other underlying medical conditions. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe and life-threatening complication of diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the cells in our body do not receive the sugar (glucose) they need for energy. This happens while there is plenty of glucose in the bloodstream, but not enough insulin to help convert glucose for use in the cells. The body recognizes this and starts breaking down muscle and fat for energy. This breakdown produces ketones (also called fatty acids), which cause an imbalance in our electrolyte system leading to the ketoacidosis (a metabolic acidosis). The sugar that cannot be used because of the lack of insulin stays in the bloodstream (rather than going into the cell and provide energy). The kidneys filter some of the glucose (suga Continue reading >>
Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. Signs and symptoms The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis On examination, general findings of DKA may include the following: Characteristic acetone (ketotic) breath odor In addition, evaluate patients for signs of possible intercurrent illnesses such as MI, UTI, pneumonia, and perinephric abscess. Search for signs of infection is mandatory in all cases. Testing Initial and repeat laboratory studies for patients with DKA include the following: Serum electrolyte levels (eg, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus) Note that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>
As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>
Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?
Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>
What Are The Best New Products Or Inventions That Most People Don't Know About?
This list contains 25 of them. take few minutes and be amazed. 1. Hourglass Traffic Lights 2.Easy-to-pack Shoes 3. Toothpaste Squeezer 4. Fence Window 5. Mirror Wiper 6. Drivemotion LED Car Sign 7. Pizza Scissors 8. Onion Holder 9. Rotating Bench That Guarantees a Dry Place to Sit 10. Faucet Thermometer 11. Citrus Spritzer 12. Ironing Board Mirror 13. Scooter Stroller 14. Lego Key Holder 15. Baby Bath Visor 16. Spaghetti Fork 17. Word Search Wrapping Paper 18. Lockable Mug 19. Umbrella with a Cupholder 20. Laser Bike Lane 21. Ice Cream Lock 22. Meat Scanner 23. Zipper Sneakers 24. Leftover Vegetable/Fruit Seal 25. Nightlight with Portable Glowing Orbs Source: Here Are 25 Incredibly Brilliant Inventions You Didn’t Even Know You Needed. #1 Changes Everything! UPDATE 1 Here are few more but from India this time. These are the finest of examples of what we in India call Jugaad Technology ;) Source:: 10 Pictures That Prove Indians Are One Of The Most Innovative People In The World 1. Probably the best load carrier for manual labour ever created. Vikram Dinubhai Panchal of The National Institute of Design (NID), created this masterpiece and priced it at a miniscule cost of Rs. 300. 2. We charge our mobile phones using Peepal Leaves. Unbelievable? Yes. Does it work? Yes. Astonishingly innovative? Absolutely! 3. We made a Rickshaw Powered-Lighting System. Now this is called "Man-power." Literally. 4. And here's a people carrier that blurs the fine line between mode of transportation and circus act. Although the thing looks a little dicey, you can't help but marvel at the guy's ingenuity. 5. We came up with the "Mitti-Cool" village fridge. Here's a fridge for the common man that doesn't require electricity. Indian inventor Mansukhbhai Prajapati poses with his "Mitti-Cool (Mud Continue reading >>
Why Dka & Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same
There’s a very common misconception and general misunderstanding around ketones. Specifically, the misunderstandings lie in the areas of: ketones that are produced in low-carb diets of generally less than 50 grams of carbs per day, which is low enough to put a person in a state of “nutritional ketosis” ketones that are produced when a diabetic is in a state of “diabetic ketoacidosis” (DKA) and lastly, there are “starvation ketones” and “illness-induced ketones” The fact is they are very different. DKA is a dangerous state of ketosis that can easily land a diabetic in the hospital and is life-threatening. Meanwhile, “nutritional ketosis” is the result of a nutritional approach that both non-diabetics and diabetics can safely achieve through low-carb nutrition. Diabetic Ketoacidosis vs. Nutritional Ketosis Ryan Attar (soon to be Ryan Attar, ND) helps explain the science and actual human physiology behind these different types of ketone production. Ryan is currently studying to become a Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine in Connecticut and also pursuing a Masters Degree in Human Nutrition. He has interned under the supervision of the very well-known diabetes doc, Dr. Bernstein. Ryan explains: Diabetic Ketoacidosis: “Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), is a very dangerous state where an individual with uncontrolled diabetes is effectively starving due to lack of insulin. Insulin brings glucose into our cells and without it the body switches to ketones. Our brain can function off either glucose or fat and ketones. Ketones are a breakdown of fat and amino acids that can travel through the blood to various tissues to be utilized for fuel.” “In normal individuals, or those with well controlled diabetes, insulin acts to cancel the feedback loop and slow and sto Continue reading >>