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What Does Hhs Stand For In Diabetes?

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Background Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is one of two serious metabolic derangements that occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). [1] It is a life-threatening emergency that, although less common than its counterpart, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), has a much higher mortality rate, reaching up to 5-10%. (See Epidemiology.) HHS was previously termed hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNC); however, the terminology was changed because coma is found in fewer than 20% of patients with HHS. [2] HHS is most commonly seen in patients with type 2 DM who have some concomitant illness that leads to reduced fluid intake, as seen, for example, in elderly institutionalized persons with decreased thirst perception and reduced ability to drink water. [3] Infection is the most common preceding illness, but many other conditions, such as stroke or myocardial infarction, can cause this state. [3] Once HHS has developed, it may be difficult to identify or differentiate it from the antecedent illness. (See Etiology.) HHS is characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity, and dehydration without significant ketoacidosis. Most patients present with severe dehydration and focal or global neurologic deficits. [2, 4, 5] The clinical features of HHS and DKA overlap and are observed simultaneously (overlap cases) in up to one third of cases. According to the consensus statement published by the American Diabetes Association, diagnostic features of HHS may include the following (see Workup) [4, 6] : Effective serum osmolality of 320 mOsm/kg or greater Profound dehydration, up to an average of 9L Detection and treatment of an underlying illness are critical. Standard care for dehydration and altered mental status is appropriate, including airway management, intravenous (I Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

HHS is a condition of: Extremely high blood sugar (glucose) level Decreased alertness or consciousness (in many cases) Buildup of ketones in the body (ketoacidosis) may also occur. But it is unusual and is often mild compared with diabetic ketoacidosis. HHS is more often seen in people with type 2 diabetes who don't have their diabetes under control. It may also occur in those who have not been diagnosed with diabetes. The condition may be brought on by: Infection Other illness, such as heart attack or stroke Medicines that decrease the effect of insulin in the body Medicines or conditions that increase fluid loss Normally, the kidneys try to make up for a high glucose level in the blood by allowing the extra glucose to leave the body in the urine. But this also causes the body to lose water. If you do not drink enough water, or you drink fluids that contain sugar and keep eating foods with carbohydrates, the kidneys may become overwhelmed. When this occurs, they are no longer able to get rid of the extra glucose. As a result, the glucose level in your blood can become very high. The loss of water also makes the blood more concentrated than normal. This is called hyperosmolarity. It is a condition in which the blood has a high concentration of salt (sodium), glucose, and other substances. This draws the water out of the body's other organs, including the brain. Risk factors include: Impaired thirst Limited access to water (especially in people with dementia or who are bedbound) Older age Poor kidney function Poor management of diabetes, not following the treatment plan as directed Stopping insulin or other medicines that lower glucose level Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose, hyperosmolarity, and little or no ketosis. With the dramatic increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the aging population, this condition may be encountered more frequently by family physicians in the future. Although the precipitating causes are numerous, underlying infections are the most common. Other causes include certain medications, non-compliance, undiagnosed diabetes, substance abuse, and coexisting disease. Physical findings of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state include those associated with profound dehydration and various neurologic symptoms such as coma. The first step of treatment involves careful monitoring of the patient and laboratory values. Vigorous correction of dehydration with the use of normal saline is critical, requiring an average of 9 L in 48 hours. After urine output has been established, potassium replacement should begin. Once fluid replacement has been initiated, insulin should be given as an initial bolus of 0.15 U per kg intravenously, followed by a drip of 0.1 U per kg per hour until the blood glucose level falls to between 250 and 300 mg per dL. Identification and treatment of the underlying and precipitating causes are necessary. It is important to monitor the patient for complications such as vascular occlusions (e.g., mesenteric artery occlusion, myocardial infarction, low-flow syndrome, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy) and rhabdomyolysis. Finally, physicians should focus on preventing future episodes using patient education and instruction in self-monitoring. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a relatively common, life-threatening endocrine emergency that is reported in all age groups,1 but it most Continue reading >>

Differentiating Diabetes Complications: Whats Your Call?

Differentiating Diabetes Complications: Whats Your Call?

Differentiating diabetes complications: Whats your call? Author: Cynthia Ticker, RN, BSN, CDE, CPT Carlos Suarez, age 74, arrives at the emergency department by ambulance after collapsing at home. Emergency personnel report that he is confused and cant tell them what caused his collapse. His vital signs are temperature 102.4 F, respirations 22 breaths/minute, pulse 110 beats/minute, and blood pressure 90/60 mm Hg. He has dry mucous membranes, poor skin turgor, and bilateral wheezing in both lungs. A fingerstick blood glucose level reads high on the meter, indicating a value above 600 mg/dl. Mr. Suarezs wife states that she called 911 after finding her husband lying in the bedroom unresponsive. She says he has a history of hypertension, for which hes taking chlorothiazide (a thiazide diuretic), and hyperlipidemia, which he controls with atorvastatin. Two days ago, he finished a 5-day course of antibiotics prescribed for bronchitis. She also says her husband has been drinking fluidsand urinatingmore frequently than usual. STAT laboratory tests show a plasma glucose level of 1,050 mg/dl, plasma osmolarity above 320 mOsm/kg, serum sodium level below 120 mEq/L, serum potassium level of 4.0 mEq/l, arterial pH 7.45, and a white blood cell (WBC) count of 30,000/mm3. Plasma ketones are absent. Although Mrs. Suarez says her husband has never been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, his extremely high blood glucose level certainly suggests he has diabetes. Based on his other assessment findings, youd be correct to assume hes experiencing an acute complication of diabetes. But which one? Serious acute complications of diabetes include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Untreated, both can lead to death. However, their exact causes, clinical pr Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (hhs)

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (hhs)

By Erika F. Brutsaert, MD, Assistant Professor, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Attending Physician, Montefiore Medical Center Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by severe hyperglycemia, extreme dehydration, hyperosmolar plasma, and altered consciousness. It most often occurs in type 2 DM, often in the setting of physiologic stress. HHS is diagnosed by severe hyperglycemia and plasma hyperosmolality and absence of significant ketosis. Treatment is IV saline solution and insulin. Complications include coma, seizures, and death. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHSpreviously referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma [HHNK] and nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome) is a complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus and has an estimated mortality rate of up to20%, which is significantly higher than the mortality for diabetic ketoacidosis (currently < 1%). It usually develops after a period of symptomatic hyperglycemia in which fluid intake is inadequate to prevent extreme dehydration due to the hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis. Acute infections and other medical conditions Drugs that impair glucose tolerance (glucocorticoids) or increase fluid loss (diuretics) Serum ketones are not present because the amounts of insulin present in most patients with type 2 DM are adequate to suppress ketogenesis. Because symptoms of acidosis are not present, most patients endure a significantly longer period of osmotic dehydration before presentation, and thus plasma glucose (> 600 mg/dL [> 33.3 mmol/L]) and osmolality (> 320 mOsm/L) are typically much higher than in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The primary symptom of HHS is altered consciousness varying from confusion or disorientation to coma, usually as Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

What is diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome? Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) is a potentially life-threatening condition involving extremely high blood sugar, or glucose, levels. Any illness that causes dehydration or reduced insulin activity can lead to HHS. It’s most commonly a result of uncontrolled or undiagnosed diabetes. An illness or infection can trigger HHS. Failure to monitor and control blood glucose levels can also lead to HHS. When your blood sugar gets too high, the kidneys try to compensate by removing some of the excess glucose through urination. If you don’t drink enough fluids to replace the fluid you’re losing, your blood sugar levels spike. Your blood also becomes more concentrated. This can also occur if you drink too many sugary beverages. This condition is called hyperosmolarity. Blood that’s too concentrated begins to draw water out of other organs, including the brain. Some possible symptoms are excessive thirst, increased urination, and fever. Symptoms may develop slowly and increase over a period of days or weeks. Treatment involves reversing or preventing dehydration and getting blood glucose levels under control. Prompt treatment can relieve symptoms within a few hours. Untreated HHS can lead to life-threatening complications, including dehydration, shock, or coma. Go to an emergency room or call 911 if you have symptoms of HHS. This is a medical emergency. HHS can happen to anyone. It’s more common in older people who have type 2 diabetes. Symptoms may begin gradually and worsen over a few days or weeks. A high blood sugar level is a warning sign of HHS. The symptoms include: excessive thirst high urine output dry mouth weakness sleepiness a fever warm skin that doesn’t perspire nausea vomiting weight loss leg Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia — A Brief Review

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia — A Brief Review

Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia — A Brief Review SPECIAL FEATURE By Richard J. Wall, MD, MPH, Pulmonary Critical Care & Sleep Disorders Medicine, Southlake Clinic, Valley Medical Center, Renton, WA. Dr. Wall reports no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. Financial Disclosure: Critical Care Alert's editor, David J. Pierson, MD, nurse planner Leslie A. Hoffman, PhD, RN, peer reviewer William Thompson, MD, executive editor Leslie Coplin, and managing editor Neill Kimball report no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are two of the most common and serious acute complications of diabetes mellitus. DKA is responsible for more than 500,000 hospital days annually in the United States, at an estimated annual cost of $2.4 billion. Both conditions are part of the spectrum of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, and there is sometimes overlap between them. This article will discuss and compare the two conditions, with a focus on key clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES In DKA, there is an accumulation of ketoacids along with a high anion gap metabolic acidosis (see Table below).1 The acidosis usually evolves quickly over a 24-hour period. The pH is often < 7.20 and initial bicarbonate levels are often < 20 mEq/L. DKA patients (especially children) often present with nausea, vomiting, hyperventilation, and abdominal pain. Blood sugar levels in DKA tend to be 300-800 mg/dL, but they are sometimes much higher when patients present in a comatose state. In HHS, there is no (or little) ketonemia but the plasma osmolality may reach 380 mOsm/kg, and as a result, patients often have neurologic complications such as coma. Bica Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

HHS is a condition of: Extremely high blood sugar (glucose) level Extreme lack of water (dehydration) Decreased alertness or consciousness (in many cases) Buildup of ketones in the body (ketoacidosis) may also occur. But it is unusual and is often mild compared with diabetic ketoacidosis. HHS is more often seen in people with type 2 diabetes who don't have their diabetes under control. It may also occur in those who have not been diagnosed with diabetes. The condition may be brought on by: Infection Other illness, such as heart attack or stroke Medicines that decrease the effect of insulin in the body Medicines or conditions that increase fluid loss Normally, the kidneys try to make up for a high glucose level in the blood by allowing the extra glucose to leave the body in the urine. But this also causes the body to lose water. If you do not drink enough water, or you drink fluids that contain sugar and keep eating foods with carbohydrates, the kidneys may become overwhelmed. When this occurs, they are no longer able to get rid of the extra glucose. As a result, the glucose level in your blood can become very high. The loss of water also makes the blood more concentrated than normal. This is called hyperosmolarity. It is a condition in which the blood has a high concentration of salt (sodium), glucose, and other substances. This draws the water out of the body's other organs, including the brain. Risk factors include: A stressful event such as infection, heart attack, stroke, or recent surgery Impaired thirst Limited access to water (especially in people with dementia or who are bedbound) Older age Poor kidney function Poor management of diabetes, not following the treatment plan as directed Stopping insulin or other medicines that lower glucose level Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

In Brief Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome. The two most common life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Although there are important differences in their pathogenesis, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible for more than 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States1 and accounts for 4–9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes.1 The incidence of HHS is lower than DKA and accounts for <1% of all primary diabetic admissions.1 Most patients with DKA have type 1 diabetes; however, patients with type 2 diabetes are also at risk during the catabolic stress of acute illness.2 Contrary to popular belief, DKA is more common in adults than in children.1 In community-based studies, more than 40% of African-American patients with DKA were >40 years of age and more than 2 Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

The hallmark of diabetes is a raised plasma glucose resulting from an absolute or relative lack of insulin action. Untreated, this can lead to two distinct yet overlapping life-threatening emergencies. Near-complete lack of insulin will result in diabetic ketoacidosis, which is therefore more characteristic of type 1 diabetes, whereas partial insulin deficiency will suppress hepatic ketogenesis but not hepatic glucose output, resulting in hyperglycaemia and dehydration, and culminating in the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. Hyperglycaemia is characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly in the previously undiagnosed, but it is the acidosis and the associated electrolyte disorders that make this a life-threatening condition. Hyperglycaemia is the dominant feature of the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, causing severe polyuria and fluid loss and leading to cellular dehydration. Progression from uncontrolled diabetes to a metabolic emergency may result from unrecognised diabetes, sometimes aggravated by glucose containing drinks, or metabolic stress due to infection or intercurrent illness and associated with increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Since diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state have a similar underlying pathophysiology the principles of treatment are similar (but not identical), and the conditions may be considered two extremes of a spectrum of disease, with individual patients often showing aspects of both. Pathogenesis of DKA and HHS Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone which helps nutrients to enter the cells, where these nutrients can be used either as fuel or as building blocks for cell growth and expansion. The complementary action of insulin is to antagonise the breakdown of fuel stores. Thus, the relea Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State: A Historic Review Of The Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State: A Historic Review Of The Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Go to: The hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a syndrome characterized by severe hyperglycemia, hyperosmolality, and dehydration in the absence of ketoacidosis. The exact incidence of HHS is not known, but it is estimated to account for <1% of hospital admissions in patients with diabetes (1). Most cases of HHS are seen in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes; however, it has also been reported in children and young adults (2). The overall mortality rate is estimated to be as high as 20%, which is about 10 times higher than the mortality in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (3–5). The prognosis is determined by the severity of dehydration, presence of comorbidities, and advanced age (4,6,7). Treatment of HHS is directed at replacing volume deficit and correcting hyperosmolality, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte disturbances, as well as management of the underlying illness that precipitated the metabolic decompensation. Low-dose insulin infusion protocols designed for treating DKA appear to be effective; however, no prospective randomized studies have determined best treatment strategies for the management of patients with HHS. Herein, we present an extensive review of the literature on diabetic coma and HHS to provide a historical perspective on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of this serious complication of diabetes. History of Diabetic Coma and HHS In 1828, in the textbook Versuch einer Pathologie und Therapie des Diabetes Mellitus, August W. von Stosch gave the first detailed clinical description of diabetic coma in an adult patient with severe polydipsia, polyuria, and a large amount of glucose in the urine followed by progressive decline in mental status and death (8). Several case reports followed this publication, describing p Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Print Overview Diabetic hyperosmolar (hi-pur-oz-MOE-lur) syndrome is a serious condition caused by extremely high blood sugar levels. The condition most commonly occurs in people with type 2 diabetes. It's often triggered by illness or infection. As a result of diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, your body tries to rid itself of the excess blood sugar by passing it into your urine. Left untreated, diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome can lead to life-threatening dehydration. Prompt medical care is essential. Symptoms Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome can take days or weeks to develop. Possible signs and symptoms include: Blood sugar level of 600 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or 33.3 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) or higher Excessive thirst Dry mouth Increased urination Warm, dry skin Fever Drowsiness, confusion Hallucinations Vision loss Convulsions Coma When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if your blood sugar is persistently higher than the target range your doctor recommends, or if you have signs or symptoms of diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, such as: Excessive thirst Increased urination Warm, dry skin Dry mouth Fever Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is 400 mg/dL (22.2 mmol/L) or higher and doesn't improve despite following your doctor's instructions for treatment. Don't wait until your blood sugar is high enough to cause diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. You have confusion, vision changes or other signs of dehydration. Causes Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome may be triggered by: Illness or infection Not following a diabetes treatment plan or having an inadequate treatment plan Certain medications, such as water pills (diuretics) Sometimes undiagnosed diabetes results in diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. Risk factors Your risk of developing diabetic hyperosmolar synd Continue reading >>

Acute Complications Of Diabetes - Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic State

Acute Complications Of Diabetes - Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic State

- [Voiceover] Diabetes mellitus and its associated complications are the 8th leading cause of death worldwide. Now normally we think of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes as being more chronic conditions that result in complications such as kidney disease and cardiovascular disease over years to decades. And this is true, but there are also a couple of very important acute complications of diabetes mellitus. And these are known as diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA for short, and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketotic state, or HHNS for short. And unfortunately these acute complications can be very serious, especially HHNS, which has a mortality rate of eight to 20%. In this video, let's discuss hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketotic state. Now the name hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketotic state is pretty descriptive in regards to the metabolism that underlies the disease. However, it does not really describe the clinical presentation of the condition. So let's start with that. And most commonly, someone with HHNS has already been diagnosed with diabetes, and this occurs sometime after their initial diagnosis. And since they have diabetes, they likely will have hyperglycemia, which is one of the defining characteristics of diabetes mellitus. And as we'll discuss in just a minute, it's this hyperglycemia that's driving a lot of the events that are occurring in HHNS. Now over a period of days to weeks, someone with HHNS is gonna become pretty sick, and they're gonna have symptoms of fatigue, maybe some weight loss. They're gonna have extreme thirst and frequent urination. On physical exam they'll have signs of dehydration, such as a high heart rate, known as tachycardia, a low blood pressure known as hypotension, the mucus membranes in their mouth may be dry, and their skin may Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a complication of diabetes mellitus in which high blood sugar results in high osmolarity without significant ketoacidosis.[4] Symptoms include signs of dehydration, weakness, legs cramps, trouble seeing, and an altered level of consciousness.[2] Onset is typically over days to weeks.[3] Complications may include seizures, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, mesenteric artery occlusion, or rhabdomyolysis.[2] The main risk factor is a history of diabetes mellitus type 2.[4] Occasionally it may occur in those without a prior history of diabetes or those with diabetes mellitus type 1.[3][4] Triggers include infections, stroke, trauma, certain medications, and heart attacks.[4] Diagnosis is based on blood tests finding a blood sugar greater than 30 mmol/L (600 mg/dL), osmolarity greater than 320 mOsm/kg, and a pH above 7.3.[2][3] Initial treatment generally consists of intravenous fluids to manage dehydration, intravenous insulin in those with significant ketones, low molecular weight heparin to decrease the risk of blood clotting, and antibiotics among those in whom there is concerns of infection.[3] The goal is a slow decline in blood sugar levels.[3] Potassium replacement is often required as the metabolic problems are corrected.[3] Efforts to prevent diabetic foot ulcers are also important.[3] It typically takes a few days for the person to return to baseline.[3] While the exact frequency of the condition is unknown, it is relatively common.[2][4] Older people are most commonly affected.[4] The risk of death among those affected is about 15%.[4] It was first described in the 1880s.[4] Signs and symptoms[edit] Symptoms of high blood sugar including increased thirst (polydipsia), increased volume of urination (polyurea), and i Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State

Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Type 2 Diabetes article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Synonyms: hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic nonketotic coma (HONK), diabetic nonketotic coma, hyperosmolar nonketotic state, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycaemia (HNKH) See also separate articles Coma, Diabetes and Intercurrent Illness, Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Childhood Ketoacidosis. Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) occurs in people with type 2 diabetes. Very high blood glucose levels (often over 40 mmol/L) develop as a result of a combination of illness, dehydration and an inability to take normal diabetes medication due to the effect of illness. HHS is characterised by severe hyperglycaemia with marked serum hyperosmolarity, without evidence of significant ketosis. HHS is a potentially life-threatening emergency. Hyperglycaemia causes an osmotic diuresis with hyperosmolarity leading to an osmotic shift of water into the intravascular compartment, resulting in severe intracellular dehydration. Ketosis does not occur due to the presence of basal insulin secretion sufficient to prevent ketogenesis but insufficient to reduce blood glucose. A mixed picture of HHS and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) may occur. There is no precise definition of HHS but there are characteristic features that differentiate it from other hyperglycaemic states such as DKA. These are:[1] Hypovolaemia. Marked hyperglycaemia (30 mmol/L or more) without significant hyperketonaemia (<3 mmol/L) or acidosis (pH>7.3, bicarbonate >15 mmol/L). Osmolality usually 320 mosmol/kg or more. Causative conditions Continue reading >>

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