What Converts Amino Acids To Glucose?

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We Really Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids After All! O Textbook, How Thy Biochemistry Hast Deceived Me!

Biochemistry textbooks generally tell us that we can’t turn fatty acids into glucose. For example, on page 634 of the 2006 and 2008 editions of Biochemistry by Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, we find the following: Animals Cannot Convert Fatty Acids to Glucose It is important to note that animals are unable to effect the net synthesis of glucose from fatty acids. Specficially, acetyl CoA cannot be converted into pyruvate or oxaloacetate in animals. In fact this is so important that it should be written in italics and have its own bold heading! But it’s not quite right. Making glucose from fatty acids is low-paying work. It’s not the type of alchemy that would allow us to build imperial palaces out of sugar cubes or offer hourly sweet sacrifices upon the altar of the glorious god of glucose (God forbid!). But it can be done, and it’ll help pay the bills when times are tight. All Aboard the Acetyl CoA! When we’re running primarily on fatty acids, our livers break the bulk of these fatty acids down into two-carbon units called acetate. When acetate hangs out all by its lonesome like it does in a bottle of vinegar, it’s called acetic acid and it gives vinegar its characteristic Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. user301242

    The IUPAC name for Acetophenone is : 1-Phenylethanone. An other name is : Methyl phenyl ketone. My question here why there's a space in "Methyl phenyl ketone" although there's no space in "1-Phenylethanone"?

  2. Loong

    The two mentioned systematic names correspond to different types of nomenclature. The name “1-phenylethan-1-one” is formed according to substitutive nomenclature, and the name “methyl phenyl ketone” is formed according to functional class nomeclature. Both systematic names are in accordance with current IUPAC recommendations. However, the preferred IUPAC name (PIN) for such acyclic ketones is generated using substitutive nomenclature. Note that the omission of the locant “1” for the suffix “one” in “1-phenylethanone”, while permissible in general usage, is not allowed in PINs, thus the name “1-phenylethan-1-one” is the PIN. Furthermore, the name “acetophenone” is retained, but only for general nomenclature.
    The corresponding subsection in the current version of Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book) reads as follows:
    P- Acyclic ketones
    Unsubstituted acyclic ketones are systematically named in two ways:
    (1) substitutively, using the suffix ‘one’ and the prefix ‘oxo’; the presence of several ‘one’ characteristic groups is denoted by the numerical multiplying prefixes ‘di’, ‘tri’, etc.; the final letter ‘a’ of a numerical multiplying prefix is elided before the suffix ‘-one’, for example, ‘tetrone’;
    (2) by functional class nomenclature using the class names ‘ketone’, ‘diketone’ etc.; substituent groups are placed, as separate words, in alphanumerical order before the class name.
    Method (1) generates preferred IUPAC names.
    Note that the rule for functional class nomeclature (method 2) stipulates that the groups shall be written as separate words.

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