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What Causes Ketoacidosis In Dogs

's Experience With Ketoacidosis.

's Experience With Ketoacidosis.

Signs Treatment Zama's experience Diabetic ketoacidosis is caused by a lack of insulin or an insufficient amount of insulin. Since the lack of insulin means that glucose in not able to be used, the body searches for a new source of energy. In this condition, the diabetic breaks down body fat (lipolysis) to use as energy. During lipolysis, waste products called ketones are produced. Ketones are eliminated in the urine and through the lungs. Under normal conditions, the body can tolerate and eliminate ketones. But in diabetic ketoacidosis, fats are being broken down at such a high rate that the body can not eliminate the ketones fast enough and they build up in the blood. In high amounts, ketones are toxic to the body. They cause the acid-base balance to change and serious electrolyte and fluid imbalances result. Some of the signs of ketoacidosis include polyuria polydipsia lethargy anorexia weakness vomiting dehydration There will probably be ketones in the urine (ketonuria) The breath may have a sweet chemical smell similar to nail polish remover. However, some owners have said that even during documented ketoacidosis, their pet's breath did NOT have any unusual odor. Treatment Mildly ketoacidotic animals can be alert and well hydrated. After your pet is stabilized, your pet can return home and be treated with proper diabetes management techniques including insulin therapy, diet, and exercise. "Sick" ketoacidotic animals require intensive medical management in the vet hospital. This is a life-threatening emergency that requires complex medical management and monitoring. It may take several days for the animal to be out of danger. Treatment involves injections of regular insulin, intravenous fluids, electrolytes, and frequent monitoring of blood glucose, blood chemistry, Continue reading >>

Clinical Signs Of Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs And Cats

Clinical Signs Of Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs And Cats

Clinical signs are useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of canine and feline diabetes. Other laboratory tests are also necessary for diagnosis of Diabetes mellitus and the monitoring of treated diabetic pets. There are three distinct clinical pictures in diabetes mellitus: Uncomplicated diabetes mellitus The classical signs are polyuria,polydipsia, polyphagia, cachexia and increased susceptibility to infections (e.g. urinary tract infections). In long term diabetes complications due to protein glycosylation can be seen: cataracts (mainly in dogs) and peripheral neuropathy (mainly in cats). Diabetic ketoacidosis DKA develops due to long standing undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, insufficient insulin dose in treated diabetics and impaired insulin action and/or resistance, caused by obesity, concurrent illness or drugs. This is the cause of more than two thirds of cases of DKA. Due to the lack of insulin, glucose cannot be used as an energy source. Fats are broken down to provide energy. During lipolysis, high levels of ketones are produced. Ketosis and acidosis develop and are accompanied by electrolyte imbalances. Ketosis causes anorexia, nausea and lethargy. Treatment DKA is an emergency and treatment must be started as soon as possible. The goals of treatment are to correct fluid deficits, acid-base balance and electrolyte balance, lower blood glucose and ketone concentrations and recognize and correct underlying and precipitating factors. Therapy includes intravenous fluid therapy with isotonic fluids, e.g. 0.9% saline, and intravenous administration of rapid-acting insulin. If possible the electrolyte concentrations and acid-base balance should be measured and corrected. Caninsulin is an intermediate-acting insulin and is not suitable for intravenous administration. W Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs And Cats

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs And Cats

Ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes in pets, and is one of the most severe side effects that can accompany the condition. Finding your pet seriously ill and receiving a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis can be a big shock to the pet owner, as most presentations of the condition occur in animals that were not actually known to be diabetic in the first place. This is of course extremely worrying for the pet owner, as they will have to face not only the very serious and possibly life-threatening immediate issue of diabetic ketoacidosis itself, but have to face the reality that assuming their pet survives, they will have to deal with the serious and potentially expensive diagnosis of diabetes as well. What is ketoacidosis? Ketoacidosis occurs when the animal’s metabolism is thrown severely out of whack, as part of the development of diabetes in the pet. Usually, an additional trigger such as an inflammation, infection or condition such as pancreatitis is also required to trigger ketoacidosis, as any of these things can interfere with the way that the body regulates and processes glucose. Ketoacidosis starves the body’s cells of glucose, despite the fact that sufficient glucose is present within the blood. The diabetic element of this is that sufficient natural insulin is not being made available to the body to allow the glucose in the blood to enter the cells, as glucose requires insulin in order to metabolise. The body responds to this issue by metabolising all of the fat stores and other sources of fuel available to it, breaking down the very structure of the body itself. This process causes the production of ketones, which the body then attempts to burn as fuel, which is not a normal healthy process. In turn, the burning of ketones by the body leads to a dang Continue reading >>

How To Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

How To Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetes is a very common medical condition that arises in human beings. Pets, including dogs and cats are also as susceptible to this disease as humans. When diabetes in dogs is left unidentified or is inappropriately treated, it leads to a much serious condition known as "Diabetic Ketoacidosis" (DKA). It is a life-threatening condition and can prove fatal if left untreated. It is characterized by raised blood glucose level, presence of ketones in urine, and reduced levels of bicarbonate in the blood. Dogs suffering from this medical condition are seriously ill and develop other complications as well. Associated Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs produces the following symptoms - Weight loss Vomiting Depression Abdominal pain Lethargy and fatigue Loss of appetite Sudden loss of vision Increased thirst Increased frequency of urination Treatment Provided If condition of the dog is relatively stable, veterinarians administer short-acting, crystalline insulin injections at regular intervals to bring back blood glucose to normal level. Regular administration of insulin gradually controls serum glucose level and level of ketones in the dog's urine. Crystalline insulin is administered intravenously or intramuscularly on an hourly basis till the glucose level in the body is reduced to normal. Dextrose is also administered along with other fluids to prevent glucose levels from falling down far below the normal levels, after the dog is subjected to a dose of insulin. Severely ill dogs are treated in a different way as compared to relatively stable dogs. Treatment includes replacement of fluid deficit in the dog's body and maintenance of body fluid balance. Bicarbonate is administered to maintain the acid-base balance in the body. Many dogs recover fairly after being treated Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

My dog is diabetic. He has been doing pretty well overall, but recently he became really ill. He stopped eating well, started drinking lots of water, and got really weak. His veterinarian said that he had a condition called “ketoacidosis,” and he had to spend several days in the hospital. I’m not sure I understand this disorder. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. The body can’t use glucose properly without insulin, so blood glucose levels get very high, and the body creates ketone bodies as an emergency fuel source. When these are broken down, it creates byproducts that cause the body’s acid/base balance to shift, and the body becomes more acidic (acidosis), and it can’t maintain appropriate fluid balance. The electrolyte (mineral) balance becomes disrupted which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal muscle function. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis is fatal. How could this disorder have happened? If a diabetic dog undergoes a stress event of some kind, the body secretes stress hormones that interfere with appropriate insulin activity. Examples of stress events that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis include infection, inflammation, and heart disease. What are the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Excessive thirst/drinking Increased urination Lethargy Weakness Vomiting Increased respiratory rate Decreased appetite Weight loss (unplanned) with muscle wasting Dehydration Unkempt haircoat These same clinical signs can occur with other medical conditions, so it is important for your veterinarian to perform appropriate diagnostic tests to determine if diabetic ketoacidosis in truly the issue at hand Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients. Insulin deficiency can be absolute (eg, during lapses in the administration of exogenous insulin) or relative (eg, when usual insulin doses do not meet metabolic needs during physiologic stress). Common physiologic stresses that can trigger DKA include Some drugs implicated in causing DKA include DKA is less common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it may occur in situations of unusual physiologic stress. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes is a variant of type 2 diabetes, which is sometimes seen in obese individuals, often of African (including African-American or Afro-Caribbean) origin. People with ketosis-prone diabetes (also referred to as Flatbush diabetes) can have significant impairment of beta cell function with hyperglycemia, and are therefore more likely to develop DKA in the setting of significant hyperglycemia. SGLT-2 inhibitors have been implicated in causing DKA in both type 1 and type 2 DM. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition that typically occurs in dogs with severe, untreated diabetes. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic condition that occurs when your dog's body fails to produce adequate amounts of the hormone insulin, responsible for regulating blood sugar levels. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life threatening condition that can occur in dogs that have recently developed diabetes, and it may also occur in dogs who have been living with diabetes for some time. Symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Dogs Many of the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis are the same as the symptoms of diabetes. Increased thirst, increased urination, sudden vision loss or blindness, and weight loss with no reduction in appetite can point to diabetic ketoacidosis. Your dog may also suffer from weakness, vomiting, dehydration and lethargy. A sure sign that your dog is suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis is a powerful aroma of acetone on the breath (acetone smells like nail polish remover). Diagnosing Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Dogs The vet will need your dog's complete medical history and a thorough physical exam to diagnose diabetic ketoacidosis. The vet will test the dog's blood and urine to check his blood sugar and insulin levels. Your vet may perform other tests to determine if the dog is suffering from a secondary infection. Ultrasounds, X-rays and endocrinology tests can may be necessary to determine if your dog is suffering from major organ disease, tumors or hyperadrenocorticism, conditions that can complicate your dog's diabetes and make its treatment more difficult. Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Dogs Treatment for canine diabetic ketoacidosis depends on the severity of the condition. In mild cases, IV therapy and insulin injections can correct the problem. In more severe Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Dogs

Overview Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in Dogs Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the most severe form of Diabetes Mellitus in dogs, results in severe changes in blood chemicals including imbalances in small, simple chemicals known as electrolytes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic condition in which a deficiency of the hormone insulin impairs the body’s ability to metabolize sugar. It is one of the most common endocrine (hormonal) diseases of dogs. For more information on the basics of diabetes, go to Diabetes mellitus in dogs DKA is a life-threatening condition caused by diabetes mellitus resulting from insulin deficiency that leads to excess production of ketoacids by the liver. Subsequent changes in the blood result that includes metabolic acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities producing severe signs of systemic illness. DKA condition can occur in pets with new diabetes or in current diabetics that decompensate. Secondary diseases and/or infections can cause diabetics to decompensate and develop DKA. What to Watch For with Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Signs associated with DKA depend on the individual pet and the length of time they have been ill. Signs may consist of the classic signs of diabetes including: Increased thirst Increased frequency of urination Weight loss despite a good appetite Sudden blindness Additional signs of DKA include: Lethargy Vomiting Weakness Dehydration Some pets will have a strong smell of acetone from their breath Diagnosis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in Dogs Diagnostic tests for DKA in dogs may include: Complete medical history and thorough physical examination. Serum biochemical profile to determine the blood glucose concentration and to exclude other potential causes of the same symptoms such as pancreatitis. Elevated blood glucose is the Continue reading >>

Ricardo Duarte1; Denise Maria Nunes Simã•es1; Khadine Kazue Kanayama1; Mã¡rcia Mery Kogika1

Ricardo Duarte1; Denise Maria Nunes Simã•es1; Khadine Kazue Kanayama1; Mã¡rcia Mery Kogika1

325 Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci., São Paulo, v. 49, n. 4, p. 325-332, 2012 Acid-base abnormalities in dogs with diabetic ketoacidosis: a prospective study of 60 cases Distúrbios ácido-base em cães com cetoacidose diabética: estudo prospectivo de 60 casos 1School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo-SP, Brazil Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is considered a typical high anion gap metabolic acidosis due to the retention of ketoanions. The objective of this study was to describe the acid-base disturbances of dogs with DKA and further characterize them, according to their frequency, adequacy of the secondary physiologic response, and occurrence of mixed disturbances. Sixty dogs with DKA were enrolled in the study. Arterial blood pH and gas tensions, plasma electrolytes, serum b-hydroxybutyrate (b-OHB), glucose, albumin and urea concentrations were determined for all dogs included in the study. All dogs were evaluated individually and systematically by the traditional approach to the diagnosis of acid- base disorders. Most of the dogs had a high anion gap acidosis, with appropriated respiratory response (n = 18; 30%) or concurrent respiratory alkalosis (n = 14; 23%). Hyperchloremic acidosis with moderated to marked increases in b-OHB was observed in 18 dogs (30%) and 7 of these patients had concurrent respiratory alkalosis. Hyperchloremic acidosis with mild increase in b-OHB was observed in 6 dogs (10%). Four dogs (7%) had a high anion gap acidosis with mild increase in b-OHB and respiratory alkalosis. Most of dogs with DKA had a high anion gap acidosis, but mixed acid-base disorders were common, chiefly high anion gap acidosis and concurrent respiratory alkalosis, and hyperchloremic acidosis with mo Continue reading >>

68..............................................................................................................................................................................navc Clinician’s Brief / April 2011 / Diagnostic Tree

68..............................................................................................................................................................................navc Clinician’s Brief / April 2011 / Diagnostic Tree

1. IV Isotonic Crystalloid Therapy • Shock fluid therapy is warranted if cardiovascular instability is present: Full shock dose of fluids is 90 mL/kg; start with ¼ to 1/3 dose and reassess until stable • Correct dehydration, provide maintenance needs, and replace ongoing losses over 6 to 24 hours: - % dehydration × body weight (kg) × 1000 plus - 20 mL/kg/day (insensible losses) plus - 20 to 40 mL/kg/day (maintenance sensible losses) plus - Account for vomiting, diarrhea, & polyuria (ongoing sensible losses) Alice Huang, VMD, & J. Catharine Scott-Moncrieff, Vet MB, MS, MA, Diplomate ACVIM & ECVIM Purdue University Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis D i a gno s t i c Tre e / ENDOCRINOLOGY Peer Reviewed Physical Examination • Polyuria • Weight loss • Polydipsia • Vomiting • Polyphagia • Lethargy Patient may have only 1 or more of these signs. Laboratory Results • Blood glucose (BG): Hyperglycemia (> 200 mg/dL) • Blood gas (venous or arterial): Metabolic acidosis • Urine dipstick: Glucosuria; ketonuria or ketonemia Serum ketones can be measured if urine is unavailable. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment 2. Electrolyte Supplementation (see Table 1, page 70) • Monitor serum potassium Q 4–6 H until within reference interval and stable; then Q 12–24 H • Monitor serum phosphorus Q 4–6 H until > 1.5; then Q 6–24 H • When supplementing potassium and phosphorus concurrently, take into account the amount of potassium contained in the potassium phosphate • Consider magnesium supplementation in instances of refractory hypokalemia 3. Regular Insulin • Continuous rate infusion (CRI) protocol:1 - Add 2.2 U/kg of regular insulin to 250 mL of 0.9% saline - Allow 50 Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Also known as: DKA Severe diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment to correct dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and acidosis. It is a complication of insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus. DKA is the result of marked insulin deficiency, and ketonaemia and ketoacidosis occur approximately 15 days after insulin concentrations are suppressed to fasting levels. Marked insulin suppression occurs on average 4 days after fasting glucose levels reach 30mmol/L. Many cats with DKA have other intercurrent conditions which may precipitate the condition including: infection, pancreatitis or renal insufficiency. Pathophysiology Insulin deficiency leads to increased breakdown of fat that releases fatty acids into the circulation. Free fatty acids are oxidised in the liver to ketones that are used by many tissues as an energy source instead of glucose. This occurs when intracellular levels of glucose are insufficient for energy metabolism as a result of severe insulin deficiency. In the liver, instead of being converted to triglycerides, free fatty acids are oxidised to acetoacetate, which is converted to hydroxybutyrate or acetone. Ketones are acids that cause central nervous system depression and act in the chemoreceptor trigger zone to cause nausea, vomiting and anorexia. They also accelerate osmotic water loss in the urine. Dehydration results from inadequate fluid intake in the face of accelerated water loss due to glucosuria and ketonuria. Dehydration and subsequent reduced tissue perfusion compounds the acidosis through lactic acid production. There is whole body loss of electrolytes including sodium, potassium, magnesium and phosphate and there is also intracellular redistribution of electrolytes following insulin therapy which may compound p Continue reading >>

Emergency Situations With Diabetic Dogs

Emergency Situations With Diabetic Dogs

In diabetic dogs, the following emergency situations may arise: 1. Hypoglycaemia - extremely low blood sugar 2. Diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome HHNK syndrome) - caused by extremely high blood sugar CONTACT YOUR VETERINARIAN IMMEDIATELY for possible adjustment of the insulin dose or treatment of additional medical problems if your diabetic dog shows any of these signs: · Excessive drinking for more than 3 days · Excessive urination or inappropriate urination in the house for more than 3 days · Reduction in or loss of appetite · Weakness, seizures or severe depression · Behavioural change, muscle twitching or anxiety · Constipation, vomiting or diarrhoea · Signs of a bladder infection (passing frequent small amounts of urine, straining to urinate, blood in the urine) Swelling of the head or neck Hypoglycaemia in treated diabetic dogs One of the most important complications seen in diabetic dogs on insulin treatment is an unduly low blood glucose level, called hypoglycaemia. Situations that may lead to hypoglycaemia are: 1. Your dog receives the normal dose of insulin but has not received its normal quantity of food - it does not eat, vomits up the meal or has diarrhoea. 2. Your dog is abnormally active, leading to abnormally high energy (glucose) use. 3. Your dog accidentally receives a dose of insulin that is too high. 4. Your dog's insulin requirement has naturally fallen. Signs of low blood glucose Low blood glucose can be fatal, so it is extremely important that you recognize these signs, which are often subtle in the early stages: · restlessness · trembling or shivering · unusual movements or behaviour - some animals become very quiet and stop eating. · muscle twitching · coma What to do If any of the above signs Continue reading >>

Care Of Diabetic And Diabetic Ketoacidotic Patients (proceedings)

Care Of Diabetic And Diabetic Ketoacidotic Patients (proceedings)

Diabetes mellitus is the condition of hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and glucosuria (glucose in the urine) caused by absence of the hormone insulin, or failure of the cells of the body to be able to respond to insulin. Diabetes mellitus is the condition of hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and glucosuria (glucose in the urine) caused by absence of the hormone insulin, or failure of the cells of the body to be able to respond to insulin. Diabetes mellitus in veterinary patients can most often be compared to human adult onset diabetes (type 2), and juvenile onset diabetes is rare in veterinary patients. Patients may present with few clinical signs, in relatively good health (uncomplicated diabetes mellitus), or may be weak and dehydrated with severe electrolyte abnormalities (ketoacidotic diabetes mellitus). The most common clinical signs include weight loss, polyuria/polydipsia, increased or decreased appetite, unkempt hair coat, dandruff, sudden onset blindness (in dogs from cataract formation secondary to diabetes), and hind limb weakness (from diabetic neuropathy in cats) . In dogs and cats that have progressed to diabetic ketoacidosis, vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy are common complaints. Physical examination findings can reveal thin body condition, cataracts (dogs), dehydration, and mental dullness. Animals with recent onset diabetes mellitus can have a relatively normal examination. Laboratory testing to diagnose diabetes mellitus is relatively straightforward, and diagnosis can be confirmed at the time of evaluation in some cases with in-house testing. Elevated blood glucose is the mainstay of diagnosis; however keep in mind that hyperglycemia may be from diabetes, or secondary to a stress response, especially in cat. Handheld glucometers that are used by h Continue reading >>

Managing Diabetes Complicated By Ketoacidosis

Managing Diabetes Complicated By Ketoacidosis

Go to site For Pet Owners Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus that has to be aggressively treated. Diagnosis The diagnosis is based on the presence of ketonuria with signs of systemic illness. Management guidelines Goals of treatment include the correction of fluid deficits, acid-base balance and electrolyte balance, reduction of blood glucose and ketonuria, and beginning insulin therapy and treatment of concurrent diseases. Many protocols for treatment exist but rapid-acting insulin (regular) must be administered first, as decreases in the hyperglycemia must be achieved quickly. When blood sugar levels are lowered and maintained at 200−250 mg/dL for 4−10 hours, then Vetsulin® (porcine insulin zinc suspension) can be used. Evaluation of treatment When evaluating the regulation of insulin therapy, it is important to consider several areas including the evaluation of glycemia, urine monitoring, routine rechecks and glycated protein evaluations. Evaluation of the glycemia Creating a blood glucose curve is the most accurate way to evaluate glycemia in order to adjust the dose of Vetsulin. Indications for creating a blood glucose curve are: First, to establish insulin dose, dosing interval, and insulin type when beginning regulation. Second, to evaluate regulation especially if problems occur. Third, when rebound hyperglycemia (Somogyi effect) is suspected. Contraindications for creating a blood glucose curve are: Concurrent administration of drugs affecting glycemia. Presence of a known infection or disease. Stressed animal. The procedure is as follows: The most accurate way to assess response to management is by generating a blood glucose curve. Ideally, the first sample should be taken just prior to feeding Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

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