diabetestalk.net

What Causes Hypokalemia In Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

In diabetes, blood glucose is not able to reach the body cells where it can be utilized to produce energy. In such cases, the cells start to break down fat to produce energy. This process produces a chemical called ketone.[1] The buildup of ketones makes the blood more acidic. When the blood ketone level gets too high, a condition develops called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). It is a serious condition that can lead to coma or even death. DKA can happen to anyone with diabetes though it is more common in people with type 1 diabetes.[2] In this article, well explore the causes, symptoms treatment options, and complications of this life-threatening condition. DKA results from inadequate insulin levels that cause the cells to burn fat for energy. Ketones are released into the blood when fats are broken down. In people with diabetes, an underlying problem often triggers the onset of DKA. The following problems or conditions may contribute to DKA: An illness where the body produces higher levels of stress hormones like cortisol or adrenalin; these illnesses have a countereffect on the action of insulin (conditions like pneumonia or a urinary tract infection are common culprits) Inadequate insulin due to missed doses or more requirements Less food intake (this could be caused by sickness, fasting, or an eating disorder; bulimia, for example, produces excess ketones) Medications like corticosteroids and diuretics Symptoms of DKA typically evolve over a period of 24 hours. Some symptoms to be aware of include the following: Long, deep labored breathing (affected person may be gasping for breath) Check your blood glucose levels if you develop these symptoms. If your blood glucose levels are above 240mg/dl (13.3mmol/L), check for ketone levels using a blood or urine ketone testing Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abbas E. Kitabchi, PhD., MD., FACP, FACE Professor of Medicine & Molecular Sciences and Maston K. Callison Professor in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism UT Health Science Center, 920 Madison Ave., 300A, Memphis, TN 38163 Aidar R. Gosmanov, M.D., Ph.D., D.M.Sc. Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 920 Madison Avenue, Suite 300A, Memphis, TN 38163 Clinical Recognition Omission of insulin and infection are the two most common precipitants of DKA. Non-compliance may account for up to 44% of DKA presentations; while infection is less frequently observed in DKA patients. Acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke, acute thrombosis) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing`s syndrome, hyperthyroidism) and impaired thermo-regulation or recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hormones, and worsening of peripheral insulin resistance. Medications such as diuretics, beta-blockers, corticosteroids, second-generation anti-psychotics, and/or anti-convulsants may affect carbohydrate metabolism and volume status and, therefore, could precipitateDKA. Other factors: psychological problems, eating disorders, insulin pump malfunction, and drug abuse. It is now recognized that new onset T2DM can manifest with DKA. These patients are obese, mostly African Americans or Hispanics and have undiagnosed hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin action. A recent report suggests that cocaine abuse is an independent risk factor associated with DKA recurrence. Pathophysiology In Continue reading >>

Respiratory Failure In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Respiratory Failure In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis Number of Hits and Downloads for This Article Jul 25, 2015 (publication date) through Mar 31, 2018 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc, 7901 Stoneridge Drive, Suite 501, Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Copyright The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. World J Diabetes.Jul 25, 2015;6(8): 1009-1023 Published online Jul 25, 2015.doi: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i8.1009 Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis Nikifor K Konstantinov, Mark Rohrscheib, Emmanuel I Agaba, Richard I Dorin, Glen H Murata, Antonios H Tzamaloukas Nikifor K Konstantinov, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87122, United States Mark Rohrscheib, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87122, United States Emmanuel I Agaba, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Jos Medical School, Jos, Plateau State 930001, Nigeria Richard I Dorin, Section of Endocrinology, Medicine Service, Raymond G. Murphy Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Albuq-uerque, NM 78108, United States Glen H Murata, Section of Informatics, Medicine Service, Raymond G. Murphy Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Albuq-uerque, NM 78108, United States Antonios H Tzamaloukas, Section of Nephrology, Medicine Service, Raymond G. Murphy Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Albuq-uerque, NM 78108, United States Richard I Dorin, Glen H Murata, Antonios H Tzamaloukas, Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87108, United States Author contributions: Konstantinov NK reviewed the literature, contributed to the writing of the report and constructed its figure; Rohrscheib M, Agaba EI, Dorin RI and Murata GH made critical changes i Continue reading >>

Why Is There Hyperkalemia In Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

Why Is There Hyperkalemia In Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

Lack of insulin, thus no proper metabolism of glucose, ketones form, pH goes down, H+ concentration rises, our body tries to compensate by exchanging K+ from inside the cells for H+ outside the cells, hoping to lower H+ concentration, but at the same time elevating serum potassium. Most people are seriously dehydrated, so are in acute kidney failure, thus the kidneys aren’t able to excrete the excess of potassium from the blood, compounding the problem. On the other hand, many in reality are severely potassium depleted, so once lots of fluid so rehydration and a little insulin is administered serum potassium will plummet, so needs to be monitored 2 hourly - along with glucose, sodium and kidney function - to prevent severe hypokalemia causing fatal arrhythmias, like we experienced decades ago when this wasn’t so well understood yet. In practice, once the patient started peeing again, we started adding potassium chloride to our infusion fluids, the surplus potassium would be peed out by our kidneys so no risk for hyperkalemia. Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Author: Osama Hamdy, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP more... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Malaise, generalized weakness, and fatigability Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia Rapid weight loss in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: Glaser NS, Marcin JP, Wootton-Gorges SL, et al. Correlation of clinical and biochemical findings with diabetic ketoacidosis-related cerebral edema in children using magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging. J Pediatr. 2008 Jun 25. [Medline] . Umpierrez GE, Jones S, Smiley D, et al. Insulin analogs versus human insulin in the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jul. 32(7):1164-9. [Medline] . [Full Text] . Herrington WG, Nye HJ, Hammersley MS, Watkinson PJ. Are arterial and venous samples clinically equivalent for the estimation Continue reading >>

Profound Hypokalemia Associated With Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Profound Hypokalemia Associated With Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: Abstract Hypokalemia is common during the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); however, severe hypokalemia at presentation prior to insulin treatment is exceedingly uncommon. A previously healthy 8-yr-old female presented with new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus, severe DKA (pH = 6.98), and profound hypokalemia (serum K = 1.3 mmol/L) accompanied by cardiac dysrhythmia. Insulin therapy was delayed for 9 h to allow replenishment of potassium to safe serum levels. Meticulous intensive care management resulted in complete recovery. This case highlights the importance of measuring serum potassium levels prior to initiating insulin therapy in DKA, judicious fluid and electrolyte management, as well as delaying and/or reducing insulin infusion rates in the setting of severe hypokalemia. Keywords: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypokalemia, insulin, low-dose insulin drip, pediatric Nearly one third of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes present in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Higher proportions of young children and those from disadvantaged socioeconomic groups present with DKA (1). DKA is the leading cause of mortality among children with diabetes, and electrolyte abnormalities are a recognized complication of DKA contributing to morbidity and mortality (2, 3). Total body potassium deficiency of 3-6 mEq/kg is expected at presentation of DKA due to osmotic diuresis, emesis, and secondary hyperaldosteronism; however, pretreatment serum potassium levels are usually not low due to the extracellular shift of potassium that occurs with acidosis and insulin deficiency (3, 4). After insulin treatment is initiated, potassium shifts intracellularly and serum levels decline. Replacement of potassium in intravenous fluids is the standard of care in treatment of DKA to prevent Continue reading >>

Hypokalemic Respiratory Arrest In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Hypokalemic Respiratory Arrest In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

THE OCCURRENCE of life-threatening hypokalemic hypoventilatory respiratory failure requiring intubation and respiratory support in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is exceedingly rare. In none of the reported cases have serum phosphate levels been assessed within 12 hours of respiratory failure and in only one case have serial arterial blood gas measurements been performed to document hypoventilation.1 The recent documentation of severe hypophosphatemia as a cause of hypoventilation and the fact that decrements in serum phosphate and serum potassium levels frequently parallel one another in DKA call into question the importance of hypokalemia to the respiratory response in DKA. We report a case of DKA in a young, otherwise healthy man whose treatment was complicated by severe hypokalemia and a hypoventilatory respiratory arrest without severe hypophosphatemia. We further discuss issues relating to the assessment and treatment of the hypokalemic patient with DKA at risk for ventilatory failure. Report of a Case Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Hypothermia And Hypokalemia In A Patient With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Hypothermia And Hypokalemia In A Patient With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

We present the case of a 36-year-old man with type-1 diabetes who was hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). On admission, he had hypothermia, hypokalemia and combined metabolic and respiratory alkalosis, in addition to hyperglycemia. Hypothermia, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis, with a concurrent respiratory alkalosis, are not commonly seen in DKA. After admission, intravenous infusion of 0.45% saline was administered, which resulted in the development of pure metabolic acidosis. After starting insulin infusion, hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia became evident and finally resulted in massive rhabdomyolysis. Hyperkalemia accompanying oliguric acute kidney injury (AKI) warranted initiation of hemodialysis (HD) on Day-five. On the 45th hospital day, his urine output started to increase and a total of 22 HD sessions were required. We believe that in this case severe dehydration, hypothermia and hypokalemia might have contributed to the initial symptoms of DKA as well as the prolongation of AKI. How to cite this article: Saito O, Saito T, Sugase T, Kusano E, Nagata D. Hypothermia and hypokalemia in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2015;26:580-3 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a combination of the biochemical triad of hyperglycemia, ketonemia and metabolic acidosis. [1] Initial hypokalemia in DKA is a rare finding, with an incidence of 4-10%. [2] Hypothermia is rarely seen in patients with DKA, and the prognosis of this association is poor, with a mortality of 60% in the Western countries. [3] Also, combined metabolic and respiratory alkalosis is rarely seen in DKA, with an incidence of 7.5%. [4] We herewith report the case of a 36-year-old man with type-1 diabetes who was admitted to the hospital with DKA in association with hypothe Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment & Management

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment & Management

Approach Considerations Managing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in an intensive care unit during the first 24-48 hours always is advisable. When treating patients with DKA, the following points must be considered and closely monitored: It is essential to maintain extreme vigilance for any concomitant process, such as infection, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, sepsis, or deep venous thrombosis. It is important to pay close attention to the correction of fluid and electrolyte loss during the first hour of treatment. This always should be followed by gradual correction of hyperglycemia and acidosis. Correction of fluid loss makes the clinical picture clearer and may be sufficient to correct acidosis. The presence of even mild signs of dehydration indicates that at least 3 L of fluid has already been lost. Patients usually are not discharged from the hospital unless they have been able to switch back to their daily insulin regimen without a recurrence of ketosis. When the condition is stable, pH exceeds 7.3, and bicarbonate is greater than 18 mEq/L, the patient is allowed to eat a meal preceded by a subcutaneous (SC) dose of regular insulin. Insulin infusion can be discontinued 30 minutes later. If the patient is still nauseated and cannot eat, dextrose infusion should be continued and regular or ultra–short-acting insulin should be administered SC every 4 hours, according to blood glucose level, while trying to maintain blood glucose values at 100-180 mg/dL. The 2011 JBDS guideline recommends the intravenous infusion of insulin at a weight-based fixed rate until ketosis has subsided. Should blood glucose fall below 14 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), 10% glucose should be added to allow for the continuation of fixed-rate insulin infusion. [19, 20] In established patient Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients. Insulin deficiency can be absolute (eg, during lapses in the administration of exogenous insulin) or relative (eg, when usual insulin doses do not meet metabolic needs during physiologic stress). Common physiologic stresses that can trigger DKA include Some drugs implicated in causing DKA include DKA is less common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it may occur in situations of unusual physiologic stress. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes is a variant of type 2 diabetes, which is sometimes seen in obese individuals, often of African (including African-American or Afro-Caribbean) origin. People with ketosis-prone diabetes (also referred to as Flatbush diabetes) can have significant impairment of beta cell function with hyperglycemia, and are therefore more likely to develop DKA in the setting of significant hyperglycemia. SGLT-2 inhibitors have been implicated in causing DKA in both type 1 and type 2 DM. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Producing Extreme Hyperkalemia In A Patient With Type 1 Diabetes On Hemodialysis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Producing Extreme Hyperkalemia In A Patient With Type 1 Diabetes On Hemodialysis

Hodaka Yamada1, Shunsuke Funazaki1, Masafumi Kakei1, Kazuo Hara1 and San-e Ishikawa2[1] Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan [2] Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Nasushiobara, Japan Summary Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a critical complication of type 1 diabetes associated with water and electrolyte disorders. Here, we report a case of DKA with extreme hyperkalemia (9.0 mEq/L) in a patient with type 1 diabetes on hemodialysis. He had a left frontal cerebral infarction resulting in inability to manage his continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump. Electrocardiography showed typical changes of hyperkalemia, including absent P waves, prolonged QRS interval and tented T waves. There was no evidence of total body water deficit. After starting insulin and rapid hemodialysis, the serum potassium level was normalized. Although DKA may present with hypokalemia, rapid hemodialysis may be necessary to resolve severe hyperkalemia in a patient with renal failure. Patients with type 1 diabetes on hemodialysis may develop ketoacidosis because of discontinuation of insulin treatment. Patients on hemodialysis who develop ketoacidosis may have hyperkalemia because of anuria. Absolute insulin deficit alters potassium distribution between the intracellular and extracellular space, and anuria abolishes urinary excretion of potassium. Rapid hemodialysis along with intensive insulin therapy can improve hyperkalemia, while fluid infusions may worsen heart failure in patients with ketoacidosis who routinely require hemodialysis. Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very common endocrinology emergency. It is usually associated with severe circulatory Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. Signs and symptoms The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis On examination, general findings of DKA may include the following: Characteristic acetone (ketotic) breath odor In addition, evaluate patients for signs of possible intercurrent illnesses such as MI, UTI, pneumonia, and perinephric abscess. Search for signs of infection is mandatory in all cases. Testing Initial and repeat laboratory studies for patients with DKA include the following: Serum electrolyte levels (eg, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus) Note that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis triggers These include: infections and other illnesses not keeping up with recommended insulin injections Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infec Continue reading >>

More in ketosis