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What Body Systems Are Affected By Ketoacidosis?

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half Continue reading >>

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  1. music_rox84120

    Expired Blood Ketone Test Strips

    Hi @music_rox84120 , I don't have experience with expired blood ketone strips. But we have used expired glucose test strips that were about 6-9 months past expiration, given by friends who had changed meters. When we tested them they were right on the money, within the regular noise parameter of the measurement.

    From what our CDE told us, the environmental conditions they are subject to counts for a lot. If they were exposed to extreme conditions they may not age as well.

  2. XDrip+

    582

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Most People With Type 2 Diabetes Have Short Term Effects Of Type 2 Diabetes they face which i share on this videos if you like comment please follow us social network https://www.facebook.com/naturalhealt... https://twitter.com/star_fun4u https://www.instagram.com/naturalheal... for more videos subscribe my channel

Body Areas Affected By Diabetes

XIAFLEX® is a prescription medicine used to treat adults with Dupuytren's contracture when a "cord" can be felt. It is not known if XIAFLEX® is safe and effective in children under the age of 18. Do not receive XIAFLEX® if you have had an allergic reaction to collagenase clostridium histolyticum or any of the ingredients in XIAFLEX®, or to any other collagenase product. See the end of the Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in XIAFLEX®. XIAFLEX® can cause serious side effects, including: Tendon rupture or ligament damage. Receiving an injection of XIAFLEX® may cause damage to a tendon or ligament in your hand and cause it to break or weaken. This could require surgery to fix the damaged tendon or ligament. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have trouble bending your injected finger (towards the wrist) after the swelling goes down or you have problems using your treated hand after your follow-up visit Nerve injury or other serious injury of the hand. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get numbness, tingling, increased pain, or tears in the skin (laceration) in your treated finger or hand after your injection or after your follow-up vi Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. datgirl1

    Sorry for the lengthy post but I have some concept questions that I'm not too sure about. Any explanations would be greatly appreciated!
    1) Why does diabetic ketoacidosis (high serum glucose levels) increase respiratory rate, decrease blood pressure and increase heart rate? I thought that high glucose levels would increase blood pressure but that's not the case.
    2) Notochord (mesoderm derived) forms the vertebral column and skull (or spine), whereas the neural tube develops into the spinal cord. Is this correct?
    3) Is there a difference between blood and plasma osmolarity? For example does aldosterone increase or decrease plasma osmolarity? I read somewhere that ADH is triggered if there is HIGH blood osmolarity, meaning that ADH would lower blood osmolarity. I thought that ADH would increase osmolarity.
    I'm also confused about filtrate osmolarity cause I read that increasing filtrate osmolarity decreases filtration and decreases blood pressure. This doesn't make any sense to me.
    4) Is it true that a ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhage) causes an increase in arterial pressure?
    5) If partial pressure of water vapor increases in the atmosphere, why does partial pressure of oxygen and nitrogen decrease?
    Thanks in advance!!

  2. Dentalco2020

    Question 1.
    DKA is a condition where your insulin cannot take up glucose into the cells from the blood. If your cells cannot utilize the glucose present in the body, then body tries to use fat as a back up source. In the process, it produces acids and it causes a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis.
    Acidosis simply means your serum CO2 level is high, so your body will try to get rid of it by breathing faster, so high respiratory rate.
    Tachycardia and hypotension are listed as common symptoms of DKA, but I don't know the exact mechanism.
    Question 2. I have no clue!
    Question 3
    ADH increases the amount of water reabsorbed in the kindey, consequently, the blood volume goes up. This means that the osmolarity will decrease, not increase. Maybe you were confused between osmolarity vs blood volume? Blood volume goes up, but osmolarity goes down.
    Answering your question about blood/plasma osmolarity causing ADH release, I believe when your blood osmolarity is high, ADH is released. High blood osmolarity means you have lots of solute, but not enough volume, so ADH is released to counteract that. ADH will make the kidney to reabsorb more water back into the blood, so the blood volume goes up, and osmolarity goes down (decreased osmolarity means it's being watered down / diluted)
    Questoin 4
    I think it's the opposite, but I could be wrong.
    Question 5
    Seems like this is a mole fraction concept.
    O2 and N2 are substances in question. When water vapor is mixed into these gases, mole fraction of O2 and N2 decreases.

  3. 68PGunner

    datgirl1 said: ↑
    Sorry for the lengthy post but I have some concept questions that I'm not too sure about. Any explanations would be greatly appreciated!
    1) Why does diabetic ketoacidosis (high serum glucose levels) increase respiratory rate, decrease blood pressure and increase heart rate? I thought that high glucose levels would increase blood pressure but that's not the case.
    2) Notochord (mesoderm derived) forms the vertebral column and skull (or spine), whereas the neural tube develops into the spinal cord. Is this correct?
    3) Is there a difference between blood and plasma osmolarity? For example does aldosterone increase or decrease plasma osmolarity? I read somewhere that ADH is triggered if there is HIGH blood osmolarity, meaning that ADH would lower blood osmolarity. I thought that ADH would increase osmolarity.
    I'm also confused about filtrate osmolarity cause I read that increasing filtrate osmolarity decreases filtration and decreases blood pressure. This doesn't make any sense to me.
    4) Is it true that a ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhage) causes an increase in arterial pressure?
    5) If partial pressure of water vapor increases in the atmosphere, why does partial pressure of oxygen and nitrogen decrease?
    Thanks in advance!!
    Click to expand... 1) DKA increases respiratory rate bc your body is hyperventilating in order to get rid of excess CO2. DKA is basically lipolysis from Type I Diabetes --> hyperglycemia. Therefore, excess glucose is lost through the urine, carrying a lot of water along with it. Water loss --> hypovolemia --> decreased blood pressure. Your body tries to compensate by constricting the vessels and increasing the heart rate
    2) Notochord is the nucleus pulpous of your intervertebral discs
    3) There is a set point in term of serum osmolarity. Higher serum osmolarity above this set point --> increased ADH --> higher water retention at the PCT in your renal system --> serum osmolarity goes back to the normal set point. This regulation system is controlled by your hypothalamus.
    As for aldosterone, that's another regulation controlled by your renal system. Basically, hypovolemia --> low blood flow through the juxtaglomerular cells --> increased renin + Angiotension I + Angiotension II --> increased aldosterone --> up regulate Enac --> increased Na + H20 retention while losing H+ and K+
    4) Depends on the diff stages
    5) Mole fraction concept

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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. See also the separate Childhood Ketoacidosis article. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency with a significant morbidity and mortality. It should be diagnosed promptly and managed intensively. DKA is characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonaemia:[1] Ketonaemia (3 mmol/L and over), or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on standard urine sticks). Blood glucose over 11 mmol/L or known diabetes mellitus (the degree of hyperglycaemia is not a reliable indicator of DKA and the blood glucose may rarely be normal or only slightly elevated in DKA). Bicarbonate below 15 mmol/L and/or venous pH less than 7.3. However, hyperglycaemia may not always be present and low blood ketone levels (<3 mmol/L) do not always exclude DKA.[2] Epidemiology DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Data from the UK National Diabetes Audit show a crude one-year Continue reading >>

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  1. DMS721

    **Pregnancy Mention**
    I'm 10w1d pregnant and have PCOS. I've been on metformin twice a day for several months now. Today my RE told me I could stop taking the metformin. She said to start just taking 1 pill for a week, and then none at all. I'm worried as I've heard that stopping it during the first trimester can lead to miscarriage (I previously had a m/c at 6 weeks, but that was before being diagnosed with PCOS). As much as I hate taking the metformin, I'm tempted to just continue taking it until I get to the 12 week mark, just for my own piece of mind. Will it cause any harm if I continue for 2 more weeks?
    Has anyone else stopped metformin while pregnant and what were the results?
    Thanks!
    Dawn

  2. brown_eyed_girl

    Hi Dawn,
    I have PCOS and have been on Metformin for a number of years. Right around the 6 week mark of this pregnancy, I ran out of my prescription. I called my family doctor to request a refill and he didn't feel comfortable filling it since I was pregnant. He referred me to my RE who said I didn't need to refill it since he didn't like his patients to stay on it past 6 weeks anyway. He didn't say that I needed to wean off of it or anything like that ~ but I did anyway. I'd say I was completely off of the Metformin by 8 weeks. I was a nervous wreck, especially since I ended up needing abdominal surgery to remove my right tube, ovary and cyst at 10 weeks. I'm now in my 26th week and have had no issues at all. That being said, I don't think there's anything wrong with waiting until 12 weeks. Apparently different doctors have differing views on how long PCOS'ers need to stay on Metformin and if it really helps prevent a miscarriage. I don't believe it casues any harm to the baby so it if it gives you some peace of mind, I wouldn't hesitate to stay on it for a few more weeks. I know some women have been on it their entire pregnancies.
    Good luck and congrats on your pregnancy!

  3. mmi

    I m/c twice before on met... so I do believe met does prevent miscarriages. I took it the third pregnancy till I was 13 weeks(1000mg a day) and then with my fourth, I had had mild gestational diabetes in my third(first successful) pregnancy, so I took it till DELIVERY. No problems with either baby. If you have enough, stay on it for the first trimester, then wean. Just my opinion but for me who m/c twice before taking it...... met was the key to me finally having a successful pregnancy. congrats.

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