What Are The Two Main Areas In The Human Body Where Excess Glucose Is Stored As Glycogen?

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In this video I discuss the major functions of carbohydrates in the body. Transcript (partial and notes) In this video I am going to discuss the functions of carbs in the body. Carbs are one of the macronutrients, along with fat and protein. Carb rich foods include fruits, vegetables, grains. The function of carbs The 1st function of carbs is energy production. Carbs are broken down and transported through the bloodstream to supply energy to muscles and other tissues. Carbs are the preferred fuel for the body, and they provide 4 calories per gram. 2nd, They spare protein from being used as energy. While protein can provide energy, it has many other life-sustaining functions. Having enough energy from carbs allows protein to be used for its other jobs. 3th, energy storage. Carbs can be stored as glycogen, which is an excellent storage form because it can be easily converted back to glucose and used for energy. The body does have limited storage space for glycogen, about 2000 calories worth. 4th, Aide in digestion. Fiber is a type of carbohydrate that acts like a trash bag, and allows you to remove large amounts of waste from your body. Bottom lineAs with any nutrient it comes down t

4.4: The Functions Of Carbohydrates In The Body

4.4: The Functions of Carbohydrates in the Body List four primary functions of carbohydrates in the human body There are five primary functions of carbohydrates in the human body. They are energy production, energy storage, building macromolecules, sparing protein, and assisting in lipid metabolism. The primary role of carbohydrates is to supply energy to all cells in the body. Many cells prefer glucose as a source of energy versus other compounds like fatty acids. Some cells, such as red blood cells, are only able to produce cellular energy from glucose. The brain is also highly sensitive to low blood-glucose levels because it uses only glucose to produce energy and function (unless under extreme starvation conditions). About 70 percent of the glucose entering the body from digestion is redistributed (by the liver) back into the blood for use by other tissues. Cells that require energy remove the glucose from the blood with a transport protein in their membranes. The energy from glucose comes from the chemical bonds between the carbon atoms. Sunlight energy was required to produce these high-energy bonds in the process of photosynthesis. Cells in our bodies break these bonds and Continue reading >>

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    HEY ALL!!
    I AM SOOOOO CONFUSED! I know some people don't think that the strips are accurate (their are many things that can effect the out come, how much water are you drinking, yadda, yadda, yadda) I had to try them !. I bought some last night and according to the color I am in Moderate ketosis. This morning I used one and it is the same. The strips go from Zero, Trace, Low, Moderate, to Large. So does the moderate mean that I AM buring fat as fuel or that I am ALMOST buring fat for fuel? The box and directions don't give and explanation for some odd reason.
    HEEEEELP!! Thanks!

  2. Cherimee

    On the side of the bottle, you should see a like a chart to compare it to.... if you are in moderate ketosis then that's good! The more purple the stick, the more fat you are burning for fuel, which is what you want to do on Atkins. You'll notice that with Atkins, the keto strips are like the scale, you wanna see PURPLE when you test becasue the more ketones in your urine, of course the more fat you burn! Sounds like you are doing good...good luck
    P.S. I'm told that with Atkins even a 'trace' of ketones is good... trying going to www dot lowcarbnexus dot com, that site gives you good info... here's what they say about ketosis:
    Ketosis? - As long as we are on the topic, what about ketosis? Ketosis is the state that your body enters into when you are eating mainly protein and fats, and drastically curtailing your consumption of carbohydrates. As Dr. Atkins says, "There is no lipolysis without ketosis, no ketosis without lipolysis." Lipolysis is, essentially, "fat burning." In other words, this is just what we want! We want to force our bodies to consume stored fat for fuel rather than burn primarily our food. This occurs because protein and fat do not "give up" their stored energy as easily as do carbohydrates. As long as you are eating mainly carbs, especially refined sugars, you will find that your body will burn that as opposed to your fat stores. Testing with LTS, as we have mentioned above, scientifically tests for the process of your body burning it's own fat as fuel. When the sticks turn purple (or a shade thereof), you are burning fat! It is a good feeling! It is especially comforting to see that purple when your scales don't agree that you are losing! Keep in mind that fat loss doesn't always equal weight loss on the scales... immediately. Body weight can be related to water retention, and many other temporary conditions. However, FAT loss is what we want, and you will see measurements change even if your scale does not show it immediately! That WILL follow, of course... just stick with it!
    Some have asked, "Do I have to be in ketosis?" Well, it is perfectly safe to be in what Dr. Atkins calls "Benign Dietary Ketosis" for extended periods. In fact, if you are burning fat, you will be in some amount of ketosis...sometimes just not a measurable amount (with LTS). If you are out of ketosis for extended periods, you won't be burning fat, and therefore, you won't be losing weight! And that's what we are doing the diet to do! Don't confuse ketosis, a safe metabolic state that you enter when you loss weight, with ketoacidosis, a dangerous state that diabetics, in particular, can enter if they get out of proper balance in their insulin / glycogen balance. Many health care professionals and nutritionists are apparently confused by the distinction between these two different states... ketone test strips are used to test both states, but they are quite different!


    Cherimee, BIG THANKS!!!! The info you gave me is sooooo relieving!!! I was so worried! I know that must have takin a while for you to find and type, thank you so much for helping me!

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Invited Session "Role of Glycogen in Skeletal Muscle Regulation and Function" at ECSS Malm 2015 Role of Glycogen in Skeletal Muscle SR Ca2+ Regulation rtenblad, N. University of Southern Denmark Introduction Muscle glycogen is the preferential fuel during muscle work and the depletion of glycogen is thought to be a main contributor to muscle fatigue. Already in the beginning of the last century it was revealed that carbohydrate is an important fuel during exercise and pioneering muscle biopsy studies in the late 1960s, demonstrated that muscle glycogen contents is associated with exhaustion and that glycogen changes with exercise, recovery and training (1). Thus, the importance of skeletal muscle glycogen as a fuel during exercise, and fundamental aspects of glycogen regulation is well documented. However, little is known about the precise mechanism that relates skeletal muscle glycogen to impaired muscle function and cell signaling. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not homogeneously distributed in skeletal muscle fibres, but rather localized in 3 distinct pools: i) intermyofibrillar glycogen located between the myofibrils; ii) intramyofibrillar glycogen

The Role Of Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Breakdown For Regulation Of Insulin Sensitivity By Exercise

The Role of Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Breakdown for Regulation of Insulin Sensitivity by Exercise 1Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway 2Third Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic 3Protein Phosphorylation Research Group, de Duve Institute, Universit Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium Edited by: Heikki Veli Huikuri, Univeristy of Oulu, Finland Reviewed by: Francesco Giorgino, Universit degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Italy; Niels Jessen, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark *Correspondence: Jrgen Jensen, Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, P.O. Box 4014, Ullevl Stadion, 0806 Oslo, Norway. e-mail: [email protected] Received 2011 Jul 26; Accepted 2011 Dec 9. Copyright 2011 Jensen, Rustad, Kolnes and Lai. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License , which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Glycogen is the storage form of carb Continue reading >>

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  1. klkateri

    My SO loves Reddit.com and has become enamored with the idea of Keto. I think it's just Atkins in a new package but he also really liked Atkins but only half-a$$ed it so he never really lost the weight. Needless to say, I've done some reading and some research but now I'd like to turn to you all here for some help.
    1. This doesn't seem to me like a "Life Change". It seems to me like something you do to lose weight but then what? Can this really be kept up in the long term?
    2. I do like that in Keto they advocate (At least from the readings I've done) that not all fat is equal and that you just can't eat a pound of bacon but I'm still concerned that high fat leads to high weight, cholesterol, heart disease, etc.
    3. Is this safe for woman... especially those who may want to conceive in the next year or so?
    4. Any success stories out there and would you please share any issues you may have had that you didn't think of/prepare for/even know of before starting this diet?
    Thanks all!!

  2. rinjin86

    I've been on keto for a 1.5 months now, and have also been on reddit a lot for info/advice/support. To answer your questions:
    1. It depends on what you define as a "Life Change". A lot of people on keto who have been on it long term (and I'm talking 10-15 years) see it as a way of life, and it could be a challenge at first, in my opinion, as you need to change how you view food and how you interact with it. Label checking is a habit for me now, for example. From what I have read, a lot of people see the benefits of a keto diet as more than just weight loss - there are whole communities dedicated to body building on keto, people who are on it to control their blood sugar and cholesterol, etc. So can it be a lifestyle? Sure, if you want it to be.
    2. You still need to be careful about the fats you eat, but saturated fat is not the enemy everyone thinks it is. Transfat, however, is. Along that line, Bacon is not an enemy, too.
    3. There has been threads on reddit asking about this, and while I'm not in a position to provide expert advice, there have been women who are on keto and pregnant, and also breastfeeding mothers in keto. I am not sure if there is enough data on keto to say if it is 100% okay for women looking to conceive/pregnant mothers to be on it, but I don't see how it would be bad.
    4. I've lost 8lbs (3kg) on keto so far, the first time I've actually lost weight on a diet. I'm still doing yoga, same as before, although before I started keto, my weight change had always been +/-1kg. I'm also not hungry all the time like I was before, and my mind is clearer. In the past, I've always had problems staying alert and concentrating after lunch, but not anymore. I live in an environment where everyone around has a carb-laden lunch (rice, noodles..), and they'd all get hungry again in 2 hours, but I have found that I stay full till dinner time.
    As for issues - the first 3-4 days were hard, with the cravings and temptations all around me, but I was okay after that. Some people talk about the "keto flu" where your body tries to adjust to the change of the fuel you're giving it, but I've not experienced that. There are also some who complain about smelly urine/BO.
    Hope that helps! I'm sure there are others who will be able to share their experience with you

  3. aeb09

    Hey Op!
    1. This doesn't seem to me like a "Life Change". It seems to me like something you do to lose weight but then what? Can this really be kept up in the long term? **Yes it can be sustained longterm. It is a lifestyle change for pretty much everyone serious about keto, including myself. I have researched people that have done it for 10-15 years with no plans to stop.
    2. I do like that in Keto they advocate (At least from the readings I've done) that not all fat is equal and that you just can't eat a pound of bacon but I'm still concerned that high fat leads to high weight, cholesterol, heart disease, etc. **This is because there is a huge myth that dietary fat = fat body. The government supports a low fat diet and has for years, but for many that is not the best option to losing weight and getting healthy. The NYT just posted this article including a lot of info about saturated fat: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/02/health/low-carb-vs-low-fat-diet.html?ref=health&_r=0 Also my personal favorites "It's Not the Fat": http://authoritynutrition.com/it-aint-the-fat-people/ and "Top 10 Benefits to Low Carb": http://authoritynutrition.com/10-benefits-of-low-carb-ketogenic-diets/
    3. Is this safe for woman... especially those who may want to conceive in the next year or so? **100% yes. This can really help balance hormones in women.
    4. Any success stories out there and would you please share any issues you may have had that you didn't think of/prepare for/even know of before starting this diet? **I've been living a ketogenic lifestyle for 6 months and I've lost 60 pounds. I know someone else who has been doing it a bit over a year and is down 100. There are countless success stories all over MFP and the internet. You need to make sure you drink plenty of water every day. If you detox from glucose (aka carbs and sugar) very quickly (like, 200g of carbs a day down to 20g) you'll probably go through "keto flu" for a few days - low energy, headache, perhaps nausea. It does not last long and once you push through it, you'll feel your energy levels increase tenfold, you'll sleep better and you will begin to be on your way to being fat-adapted.
    Seriously if you have any questions you can message me. I have a lot of resources bookmarked. The FAQs on Reddit is also really helpful: http://www.reddit.com/r/keto/wiki/faq There is also a sub-Reddit for women on keto, too: http://www.reddit.com/r/xxketo

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What is GLYCOGEN? What does GLYCOGEN mean? GLYCOGEN meaning, definition & explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles hydrated with three or four parts of water. Glycogen functions as the secondary long-term energy storage, with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue. Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by muscle cells, and liver glycogen converts to glucose for use throughout the body including the central nervous system. Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer that functions as energy storage in plants. It has a structure similar to amylopectin (a component of starch), but is more extensively branched and compact than starch. Both are white powders in their dry state. Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol/cytoplasm in many cell types, and plays an important role in the g

Glycogen: Definition, Storage & Breakdown

Glycogen: Definition, Storage & Breakdown Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today An error occurred trying to load this video. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. You must create an account to continue watching Start Your Free Trial To Continue Watching As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 70,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Coming up next: Lipid Bilayer: Definition, Structure & Function Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Custom Courses are courses that you create from Study.com lessons. Use them just like other courses to track progress, access quizzes and exams, and share content. Organize and share selected lessons with your class. Make planning easier by creating your own custom course. Create a new course from any lesson page or your dashboard. Click "Add to" located below the video player and follow the prompts to name your course and save your lesson. Click on the "Custom Courses" tab, then click "Create course". Next, go to any lesson page and begin adding lessons. Edit your Custom Course directly f Continue reading >>

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  1. iwiggy58

    How quickly can you kick yourself OUT of ketosis?

    I am just starting week 3 . I have been OP totally. One thing that keeps me from cheating is the fear that I will kick myself out of ketosis. What amount of non program food would it take to throw you out of ketosis? And does a person start all over and have to go thru the headaches and trauma that happen that first week? I have heard several people go off program while on vacation and start back up again later. Is it like having to start all over again???

  2. mompattie

    It would take prob more than 40-50 carbs to kick you out of ketosis. Some can handle more carbs. But it's a slippery slope. Yes, you have to go through all the symptoms to get back in. And 3-5 days worth of food and time and money. It's like a weeks worth of money and time gone. Not worth it.

  3. IP43


    Originally Posted by mompattie
    It would take prob more than 40-50 carbs to kick you out of ketosis. Some can handle more carbs. But it's a slippery slope. Yes, you have to go through all the symptoms to get back in. And 3-5 days worth of food and time and money. It's like a weeks worth of money and time gone. Not worth it. I know a few times that I've had things I shouldn't, the next day or two I was starving, had cravings etc. so I think I kicked myself out of ketosis. They weren't big cheats but I think we're so close to the limit if you have a restricted item a day. I was "perusing" the Atkins site for some of their carb counts etc. and they start with 12-15g net carbs (carb-fibre) on their phase one and then add 5g netcarbs per week or something.

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