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What Are The Symptoms Of Ketoacidosis

What Are The Causes And Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

What Are The Causes And Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

An Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is considered to be one of the most severe metabolic imbalance associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, wherein a patient depends upon external sources of insulin as its body is unable to make it as per the body’s requirement. DKA is seen very commonly in about 35% to 40% of young diabetic patients including small children and teenagers when diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Patients who are not suffering with type 1 form of diabetes could also fall under the risk of acquiring DKA condition due to various other reasons. Every diabetic patient irrespective of the type of diabetes, can develop DKA, when facing any other form of illness. Diabetic ketoacidosis is often a serious condition that may require immediate hospitalization for the patient. Approximately, 160,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States occur in this regard. Unfortunately DKA is seen to show maximum complication in young adults including teenagers and of course the elderly patients. Complication arising out diabetic ketoacidosis also accounts for a number of deaths in the US for children and young patients suffering from diabetes. The biggest challenge in the management of this condition comes with the lack of awareness of the unmanaged diabetes in patients that is not taken very seriously event today. What is Diabetic Ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life threatening complication associated with diabetes. This condition arises when the body produces excess quantities of ketoacids. The risk of developing ketoacidosis is greater in people with Type 1 diabetes. The condition develops when the amount of insulin produced by the body is insufficient. As insulin levels dr Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis & Treatment Options

Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis & Treatment Options

Let’s set the stage first: the sugars in your food are ingested and travel to your intestines where they are released into your bloodstream. This sugar is called glucose. The sugar tries to enter your cells to provide energy but can’t because the sugar molecules are too big. At this point your pancreas produces insulin which attaches to your cells to create openings for the glucose to enter which gives you energy. Now here’s where diabetic ketoacidosis comes in: when the cells in your body are unable to get the sugar they need for energy because you aren’t producing enough insulin, your body starts to break down fat and muscle as fuel. This causes DKA which is when high levels of blood acids called ketones enter the bloodstream. DKA is a serious condition that can lead to a diabetic coma or even death. Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Symptoms DKA is a serious condition and it is important to be aware of its warning signs. Early signs of DKA may include: Thirst or a very dry mouth Frequent urination High blood glucose (sugar) levels Symptoms that follow: Feeling continually tired Dry or flushed skin Nausea or abdominal pain Vomiting that continues for more than 2 hours Difficulty breathings A hard time paying attention or feeling confused Diabetic Ketoacdosis: Treatment Options If your are diagnosed with DKA, you may be treated in the emergency room or admitted into the hospital. From there, you will be given fluids to prevent dehydration and dilute blood sugar. Next, your doctor will replace your electrolytes since those levels probably decreased when your insulin levels dropped. (Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge in your body that help your heart, muscles and nerve cells to function normally.) Finally, you’ll be given insulin to get your body wor Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

The initial symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis can develop quite suddenly and will continue to get worse if not treated. Early symptoms In the early stages, the main signs of diabetic ketoacidosis are: passing large amounts of urine severe thirst feeling sick tiredness abdominal (tummy) pain shortness of breath You may also develop other symptoms of dehydration, such as a dry mouth. If you have your own device or kit to measure your blood sugar and/or ketone levels, you may notice that the levels of both of these are higher than normal. Advanced symptoms Left untreated, more advanced symptoms can develop, such as: rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) rapid breathing, where you breathe in more oxygen than your body actually needs (hyperventilate) vomiting a smell of ketones on your breath, which can smell like pear drops or nail varnish remover confusion drowsiness or loss of consciousness (coma) In some cases, life-threatening complications of diabetic ketoacidosis can also develop. When to seek medical advice If you think you or your child are experiencing early symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis, and self-testing shows you have a high blood glucose and/or ketone level, you should immediately contact your diabetes care team or GP for advice. If this isn't possible, call NHS 24 on 111. If you or someone in your care appears to be experiencing more advanced symptoms, go immediately to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department . Back to top Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments

Diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs, sometimes shortened to DKA, is a deadly medical emergency that happens when there is not enough insulin in the body to regulate levels of blood sugar known as glucose. It is a complication of diabetes mellitus that requires immediate medical treatment before it becomes fatal. When insulin levels drop, the body can’t use glucose properly, so glucose builds up in the blood while the liver produces ketone bodies to act as an emergency fuel source. When ketone bodies are broken down, they cause the body’s pH balance to shift and become more acidic. Dogs can’t maintain their fluid and electrolyte balance, which results in deadly symptoms. If your dog shows signs of diabetic ketoacidosis, especially if they have been diagnosed with diabetes, it is important that you see an emergency veterinarian right away for treatment. Here is what you should know about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs. Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs Sometimes dogs that suffer from diabetic ketoacidosis only show mild symptoms, but the majority of affected animals get very sick within a week of the start of the illness. The symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis can resemble the warning signs of a diabetic condition, which also requires medical attention. The difference is that diabetic ketoacidosis is the body’s final effort at survival before succumbing to diabetes. Here are several symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs. Excessive thirst or urination Sweet breath Sudden weight loss Muscle loss Loss of appetite Fatigue Unhealthy, rough coat Rapid breathing Dandruff Weakness Vomiting Sudden impaired vision Causes Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs The main cause of diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs is ultimately insulin depende Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. Signs and symptoms The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis On examination, general findings of DKA may include the following: Characteristic acetone (ketotic) breath odor In addition, evaluate patients for signs of possible intercurrent illnesses such as MI, UTI, pneumonia, and perinephric abscess. Search for signs of infection is mandatory in all cases. Testing Initial and repeat laboratory studies for patients with DKA include the following: Serum electrolyte levels (eg, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus) Note that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis triggers These include: infections and other illnesses not keeping up with recommended insulin injections Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infec Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Initial Evaluation Initial evaluation of patients with DKA includes diagnosis and treatment of precipitating factors (Table 14–18). The most common precipitating factor is infection, followed by noncompliance with insulin therapy.3 While insulin pump therapy has been implicated as a risk factor for DKA in the past, most recent studies show that with proper education and practice using the pump, the frequency of DKA is the same for patients on pump and injection therapy.19 Common causes by frequency Other causes Selected drugs that may contribute to diabetic ketoacidosis Infection, particularly pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and sepsis4 Inadequate insulin treatment or noncompliance4 New-onset diabetes4 Cardiovascular disease, particularly myocardial infarction5 Acanthosis nigricans6 Acromegaly7 Arterial thrombosis, including mesenteric and iliac5 Cerebrovascular accident5 Hemochromatosis8 Hyperthyroidism9 Pancreatitis10 Pregnancy11 Atypical antipsychotic agents12 Corticosteroids13 FK50614 Glucagon15 Interferon16 Sympathomimetic agents including albuterol (Ventolin), dopamine (Intropin), dobutamine (Dobutrex), terbutaline (Bricanyl),17 and ritodrine (Yutopar)18 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Three key features of diabetic acidosis are hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acidosis. The conditions that cause these metabolic abnormalities overlap. The primary differential diagnosis for hyperglycemia is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (Table 23,20), which is discussed in the Stoner article21 on page 1723 of this issue. Common problems that produce ketosis include alcoholism and starvation. Metabolic states in which acidosis is predominant include lactic acidosis and ingestion of drugs such as salicylates and methanol. Abdominal pain may be a symptom of ketoacidosis or part of the inci Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis: What You Need To Know

Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis: What You Need To Know

Diabetes can be hard to manage, but not properly controlling the disease can have dangerous and potentially deadly consequences. Ketoacidosis is one of them. This condition happens in people who don’t have enough insulin in their body, perhaps because they have not taken some of their insulin shots. The U.S. National Library of Medicine explains that when insulin is lacking, and the body cannot use ingested sugar as a fuel source, it starts to break down fat, which releases acids called ketones into the bloodstream. In large numbers, those ketones are poisonous and can cause deep, rapid breathing, dry skin and mouth, frequent thirst, a flushed face, headache, nausea, stomach pain, muscle stiffness, muscle aches, frequent urination, difficulty concentrating and fruity-smelling breath. If left untreated, the condition can be fatal, in part because it can eventually cause fluid to build up in the brain and for the heart and kidneys to stop working. There are ways to tell whether you have the condition or are approaching it, the Mayo Clinic says. A routine blood sugar test like the kind diabetics take all the time will show high blood sugar, and there are tests to measure the ketone levels in urine. The American Diabetes Association says that experts usually recommend using a urine test strip to check for ketones when blood glucose levels reach higher than 240 milligrams per deciliter. And when sick with a cold or flu, a person should “check for ketones every four to six hours” to be safe. That’s because infections or other illnesses can increase hormones like adrenaline and cortisol in the body, which then counter the work of insulin — “pneumonia and urinary tract infections are common culprits,” the Mayo Clinic warns. In addition to missed insulin shots and Continue reading >>

What Are Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)?

What Are Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) often gives plenty of warning before it happens, but it can also occur with little warning. If you regularly check your blood glucose several times during the day, you won’t miss the most important warning signs: high blood glucose and ketones in your urine. Test your urine for ketones whenever your blood glucose is over 300 mg/dl or you feel ill. Signs of DKA include the following: High blood glucose above 240 mg/dl and not falling Classic signs of hyperglycemia: intense thirst, dry mouth, need to urinate frequently Lack of appetite or pains in your stomach Vomiting or nausea Blurry vision Fever or warm, dry, or flushed skin Difficulty breathing Feeling of weakness Sleepiness A fruity odor on your breath If you have high blood glucose, ketones, and dehydration, you can have a serious condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). With severe DKA you might have to go to the hospital or clinic for intravenous fluids and insulin. DKA can become a medical emergency. Besides high blood glucose and ketones, DKA can come with these symptoms: chills, fever deep, labored breathing -- called "Kussmaul respirations" Sweet, fruity-smelling breath Dehydration (dry mouth, dry eyes, little or no urination, dark circles under the eyes) Tenderness or pain in your stomach area Confusion, slowness, or drowsiness Call your doctor or diabetes educator if you have vomiting or the symptoms above along with blood glucose over 300 mg/dL and ketones. Your doctor can decide whether you should treat it at home -- or whether you need to go to a hospital. Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a buildup of acids in your blood. It can happen when your blood sugar is too high for too long. It could be life-threatening, but it usually takes many hours to become that serious. You can treat it and prevent it, too. It usually happens because your body doesn't have enough insulin. Your cells can't use the sugar in your blood for energy, so they use fat for fuel instead. Burning fat makes acids called ketones and, if the process goes on for a while, they could build up in your blood. That excess can change the chemical balance of your blood and throw off your entire system. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk for ketoacidosis, since their bodies don't make any insulin. Your ketones can also go up when you miss a meal, you're sick or stressed, or you have an insulin reaction. DKA can happen to people with type 2 diabetes, but it's rare. If you have type 2, especially when you're older, you're more likely to have a condition with some similar symptoms called HHNS (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome). It can lead to severe dehydration. Test your ketones when your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dL or you have symptoms of high blood sugar, such as dry mouth, feeling really thirsty, or peeing a lot. You can check your levels with a urine test strip. Some glucose meters measure ketones, too. Try to bring your blood sugar down, and check your ketones again in 30 minutes. Call your doctor or go to the emergency room right away if that doesn't work, if you have any of the symptoms below and your ketones aren't normal, or if you have more than one symptom. You've been throwing up for more than 2 hours. You feel queasy or your belly hurts. Your breath smells fruity. You're tired, confused, or woozy. You're having a hard time breathing. Continue reading >>

Clinical Features And Diagnosis Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children And Adolescents

Clinical Features And Diagnosis Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children And Adolescents

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Less commonly, it can occur in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DKA is caused by absolute or relative insulin deficiency. (See "Classification of diabetes mellitus and genetic diabetic syndromes".) The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased across all ethnic groups. This has been coupled with an increasing awareness that children with type 2 diabetes mellitus can present with ketosis or DKA, particularly in obese African American adolescents [1-7]. (See "Classification of diabetes mellitus and genetic diabetic syndromes", section on 'DKA in type 2 diabetes'.) The clinical features and diagnosis of DKA in children will be reviewed here. This discussion is primarily based upon the large collective experience of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. There is limited experience in the assessment and diagnosis of DKA in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the same principles should apply. The management of diabetes in children, treatment of DKA in children and the epidemiology and pathogenesis of DKA are discussed separately. (See "Management of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents" and "Treatment and complications of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents" and "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis".) DEFINITION Diabetic ketoacidosis – A consensus statement from the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) in 2014 defined the following biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of DKA [8]: Hyperglycemia – Blood glucose of >200 mg/dL (11 mmol/L) AND Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in Dogs Diabetes is a medical condition in which the body cannot absorb sufficient glucose, thus causing a rise the blood sugar levels. The term “ketoacidosis,” meanwhile, refers to a condition in which levels of acid abnormally increased in the blood due to presence of “ketone bodies”. In diabetes with ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis immediately follows diabetes. It should be considered a dire emergency, one in which immediate treatment is required to save the life of the animal. This condition typically affects older dogs as well as females. In addition, miniature poodles and dachshunds are predisposed to diabetes with ketoacidosis. Symptoms and Types Weakness Lethargy Depression Lack of appetite (anorexia) Muscle wasting Rough hair coat Dehydration Dandruff Sweet breath odor Causes Although the ketoacidosis is ultimately brought on by the dog's insulin dependency due to diabetes mellitus, underlying factors include stress, surgery, and infections of the skin, respiratory, and urinary tract systems. Concurrent diseases such as heart failure, kidney failure, asthma, cancer may also lead to this type of condition. Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your dog’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to your veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, as well as a biochemistry profile and complete blood count (CBC). The most consistent finding in patients with diabetes is higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. If infection is present, white blood cell count will also high. Other findings may include: high liver enzymes, high blood cholesterol levels, accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine (azo Continue reading >>

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