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What Are The Normal Levels Of Ketones?

How To Know If You’re In Ketosis: A Guide To Testing Ketone Levels

How To Know If You’re In Ketosis: A Guide To Testing Ketone Levels

Ketosis can be a powerful way to use your metabolism for fat loss, mental output, physical performance as well as many other health benefits. But how do you know if you’re actually in ketosis? As the old adage goes “test, don’t guess” when it comes to your health. In this guide, we’ll show exactly how to test your ketone levels to know if you’re in ketosis so you can make sure you’re getting all of the benefits that ketosis has to offer. There are three primary forms of ketones in your body, acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutryate. Each of these compounds do different things in the metabolism of ketosis and can be tested individually with differing techniques. Not all measurement is created equally, however, and some can be better than others for different purposes or times. The three different ketone bodies can be measured when they spill over into three different areas of your body: your breath, urine or blood. The good news is that all of these ketone level measurements can be done at home, by yourself. You don’t have to go to any lab or use any fancy high tech equipment. Tracking diligently, at least when you’re getting used to ketosis based diets, is important so you know how much you react to different variables like exercise, type and amount of food, and amounts of exogenous ketone supplements. Also, the optimal level of ketones for specific goals can vary per person. Knowing the amount where you thrive in the goal you want to achieve (and consistently checking if you’re hitting that amount) is the fastest way to reach your goals. Testing levels of ketones with urine strips (acetoacetate) One of the ketone bodies, acetoacetate, can be measured directly in the urine if they are in excessive levels. The way metabolic substrates get into Continue reading >>

Testing Your Urine For Ketones

Testing Your Urine For Ketones

Learning to test for ketones at home is an important part of diabetes self-management. It's a simple and easy test, using special test strips available at Kaiser Permanente and other pharmacies. Diabetic Ketoacidosis High levels of ketones in the blood can lead to a serious condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA. A person can lose consciousness and go into a diabetic coma with DKA. DKA happens when blood sugar levels are high for a long time because the body doesn't have enough insulin to turn the sugar into energy. Instead, the body burns stored fat, creating a waste product called ketones. Ketones build up in the bloodstream and then spill into the urine DKA happens more often in people with type 1 diabetes because their bodies don't make insulin. Although it's less common in people with type 2 diabetes, DKA can happen when someone is under extreme stress, experiences a trauma, or gets very sick. When to test A person with type 1 diabetes should check his or her urine for ketones whenever blood sugar levels stay higher than 240, even after he or she has done everything to bring blood sugar into the normal range. It's important to test for ketones several times a day when you're sick. Being sick often causes blood sugar levels to be higher than normal. DKA can develop quickly if you're very sick with a fever, flu, or any kind of infection, especially if you're throwing up or have diarrhea. Drink plenty of water or other calorie-free drinks to help keep you from getting dehydrated. Call a member of your health care team right away if your blood sugar is over 240 at 2 different tests that are 2 to 3 hours apart and your ketone test shows moderate to heavy (severe) ketone levels at both those tests. Also call if your level is over 240 and you have a fever, are th Continue reading >>

What Are Normal Blood Glucose And Ketone Levels?

What Are Normal Blood Glucose And Ketone Levels?

Elevated insulin and blood glucose levels are associated with a wide range of health issues including obesity, mental health, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. “Normal” blood sugars are not necessarily optimal for long-term health. Most people are somewhere on the spectrum between optimal blood sugars and full-blown Type 2 Diabetes. Maintaining blood sugars closer to optimum levels is possibly the most important thing you can do to manage your health, reduce body fat and slow ageing. Blood ketones tend to rise as blood glucose levels decrease, though they can vary depending on a number of factors. People who are physically fit and/or who have been following a ketogenic lifestyle for a long period do not tend to show very high blood ketone levels. “Diabetes” refers to a group of metabolic diseases where a person has high blood sugars over an extended period of time. Diabetes is expensive. In 2012 it cost the US a quarter of a trillion dollars in hospital costs and lost productivity and the cost of “diabesity” is forecast to triple by 2050 grow and become a major burden our economy. Diabesity has even been classed as a matter of economic and national security (Pompkin, 2013). One in twelve people are considered to have Type 2 diabetes, however, forty percent of the US population is considered to be “pre-diabetic” and this number is forecast to grow by more than half over the next two decades to 592 million people by 2035. If you have prediabetes you have a one in two chance of progressing to Type 2 Diabetes within five years. The generally accepted diagnosis levels for prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes are shown in the table below. fasting after meal hbA1c % pop mg/dL mmol/L mg/dL mmol/L % “normal” < 100 < 5.6 < 140 < 7.8 < 6.0% 50% pre-diabeti Continue reading >>

Experiment: Optimal Ketosis For Weight Loss And Improved Performance

Experiment: Optimal Ketosis For Weight Loss And Improved Performance

Can measuring ketones help you lose weight and improve performance? Let’s try to find out. Today my ketone experiment reached goal #1: achieving stable optimal ketosis*. After getting my blood ketone meter I’ve eaten a stricter LCHF diet than I usually do. More fat, less carbs. No bread, no potatoes, pasta, rice or fruit. Instead I’ve eaten meat, fish, vegetables, egg and extra large amounts of high-fat sauces and butter. In the mornings coffee with plenty of butter/coconut fat in it. I’ve occasionally cheated with some nuts, root vegetables, berries, cream and a little wine. After just a few days I entered light nutritional ketosis (over 0.5 mmol/L on the meter). But it took a full three weeks to achieve stable optimal ketosis (1.5 – 3 mmol/L) in the mornings. It was also interesting that it was much quicker to get high ketone readings during daytime and in the evenings (data not shown in the chart above). I’ve also tested keto sticks for measuring urine ketones (cheaper and simpler). In my case the results so far track the blood ketones reasonably well, even if urine ketones is a more inexact and unreliable test. So what do you think I’ve noticed? Does it feel different? What do you think happened to my weight & waist measurement (I started at a normal satisfactory weight) and training/mental performance? Answers are coming up, but feel free to guess in the comments! Ketosis */ Ketosis is a natural state where the body is almost only burning fat.The secret of ketosis is to eat very low amounts of carbs and only moderate amounts of protein. Then add fat to satiety. Some less informed people still confuse natural ketosis with the pathological state ketoacidosis. The latter has completely different causes, usually extreme insulin deficiency in type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

Point-of-care Blood Test For Ketones In Patients With Diabetes: Primary Care Diagnostic Technology Update

Point-of-care Blood Test For Ketones In Patients With Diabetes: Primary Care Diagnostic Technology Update

Go to: PREVIOUS RESEARCH Accuracy compared to existing technology The POC blood ketone test meter measures the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) in the blood of patients with diabetes. In comparison to the standard laboratory enzymatic method the ketone sensor accurately measured beta-OHB concentrations in patients with DKA (limits of agreement [LOA] 0.9 to 1.0 mmol/l) or starvation-induced ketonaemia (LOA-0.5 to +0.5 mmol/l).7 In an emergency department (ED) study of 173 hyperglycaemic patients, POC blood ketone tests were compared to urine dipstick analysis.8 Several cut-off points were evaluated. At a beta-OHB value <3 mmol/l or ketonuria ≤1+, ketoacidosis could be excluded (negative predictive value 100%). At 2+ cut-off points for ketonuria and at the 3 mmol/l cut-off point for ketonaemia the two tests had the same sensitivity (100%), but the specificity of beta-OHB (94%) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of ketonuria (77%). Overall the study showed that measurement of beta-OHB in capillary blood was faster and more effective than the use of urine dipsticks to detect ketoacidosis. A follow-up study by the same group on the correlation between urine and capillary blood ketones showed a good correlation for low values, but a poor correlation for high values. The study concluded that either test could be used to exclude ketosis, but that the capillary blood ketone test is more accurate to confirm ketoacidosis.9 A prospective observational study in an ED comparing ketone dipstick testing with capillary blood ketone testing, showed that the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) for DKA was 3 using urine ketone dipstick testing, and 4 for capillary blood ketone testing. In determining hyperketonaemia (both in diabetic ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis) the L Continue reading >>

How To Test Your Blood With A Home Ketone Meter

How To Test Your Blood With A Home Ketone Meter

testing is used by people with diabetes and by people on a ketogenic diet. You can test your urine or your blood for ketones. But because urine testing is not as accurate, the American Diabetes Association recommends blood ketone testing with a ketone meter as the preferable method. If you have diabetes, you should discuss home blood ketone testing with your doctor to learn whether it is recommended in your case and when you should perform the testing. Ketone testing is particularly important during periods of illness. Blood Ketone Meters for Testing at Home You will need a blood ketone meter and a kit that include the lancet pen and ketone test strips. These meters also will read blood glucose test strips, and both will download their results to your computer. Other brands and models may be available, including: Precision Xtra: This meter from Abbott Diabetes Care can store up to 450 measurements and will display your blood glucose averages over different time periods. You need to enter a code to switch from glucose testing to ketone testing. Users seem happier with the Precision brand, and researchers find it to be the more accurate. The strips require 1.5 microliters of blood. It also features a backlit display. Nova Max Plus: This meter from Nova Biomedical is often provided free with the purchase of two boxes of test strips. You don't have to enter a code to switch it from blood glucose to ketone testing; it does that automatically when you insert a ketone test strip. If you are using it primarily for blood glucose, it will remind you to test for ketones if your blood sugar level is 250 mg/dL or higher. The test strips for the Nova Max are less expensive but also flimsier and give more error messages, requiring retesting. The strips require less blood than the Prec Continue reading >>

Everything You Need To Know About Ketones

Everything You Need To Know About Ketones

Ketone is an organic compound that the body produces when fats are broken down for energy. People with diabetes may not be able to regulate the level of ketones in their blood, so ketone testing is an essential part of managing their condition. There are three types of ketone, which are collectively known as ketone bodies, or ketones. In this article, we explain when to check for ketones, the types of tests available, and how to understand the results. Contents of this article: What are ketones? The body uses a range of nutrients for energy, including carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It will use carbohydrates first, but if none are available, the body will burn fat for energy. When this happens, ketones are produced. Ketones have gained attention in recent years due to the popularity of ketogenic diets, in which people eat a low carbohydrate diet so that their body will burn fat instead of carbohydrates. There is currently a lack of clear evidence on the benefits of this diet, and there may be some risks, such as high acidity in the blood and loss of muscle. Typically, carbohydrates are broken down into different nutrients, including blood sugar (glucose), by an enzyme called amylase that occurs naturally in the body. Insulin then transports the sugar to cells to be used for energy. A person with diabetes does not produce enough insulin to transport the blood sugar, or the cells in their body may not accept it properly, which stops the body from using the blood sugar for energy. When sugar can't be used by the cells for energy, the body will start to break down fats for energy instead. Types of ketone and DKA Three types of ketones are always present in the blood: acetoacetate (AcAc) 3-β-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) acetone The levels of each of these ketone bodies will var Continue reading >>

Urine Test Types: Ph, Ketones, Proteins, And Cells

Urine Test Types: Ph, Ketones, Proteins, And Cells

Urine as a Diagnostic Tool A long time ago, disgusting as it may be, people used to actually taste and drink urine in order to try and diagnose a patient's disease! I'm not even kidding you. Thankfully, modern-day doctors do not have to resort to such disgusting and even dangerous methods. One of the reasons the doctor barbers of yesteryear used to drink their patient's urine was to see if it had a sweet taste, often indicative of diabetes mellitus. Finding the sweet-tasting glucose in the urine was covered in detail in another lesson, so we'll focus on other important measurements here instead. Interpreting Urine pH One value that can be measured in the urine is known as urine pH. pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. If the pH is low, then it is acidic. If the pH is high, then it is basic, or alkaline. To remember which is which, I'll give you a little trick that has worked for me. If you grew up watching cartoons, you probably saw some comical ones where cartoonish robbers poured acid on the roof of a bank vault and waited while the acid ate its way downward into the vault, so the robbers could get down there to steal all the cash. If you can recall that acid likes to eat its way downward into things, then you'll remember that acidic substances go down the pH scale. That is to say, their pH numbers are lower than basic substances. Normal urine pH is roughly 4.6-8, with an average of 6. Urine pH can increase, meaning it will become more basic, or alkaline, due to: A urinary tract infection Kidney failure The administration of certain drugs such as sodium bicarbonate Vegetarian diets On the flip side, causes for a decreased, or acidic, urine pH, include: Metabolic or respiratory acidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis, a complication of diabetes mellitus Continue reading >>

Blood Ketones

Blood Ketones

On This Site Tests: Urine Ketones (see Urinalysis - The Chemical Exam); Blood Gases; Glucose Tests Elsewhere On The Web Ask a Laboratory Scientist Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS). Click on the Contact a Scientist button below to be re-directed to the ASCLS site to complete a request form. If your question relates to this web site and not to a specific lab test, please submit it via our Contact Us page instead. Thank you. Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And Ketone Testing

Hyperglycemia And Ketone Testing

Background Hyperglycemia means high blood sugar. For people with type 1 diabetes, hyperglycemia caused by insufficient insulin can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, a very serious situation that requires emergency medical treatment. Hyperglycemia can also be caused by eating too much food, which requires treatment to lower blood sugar levels but which does not lead to DKA. The only way to determine between the two situations is through ketone testing. Causes of Hyperglycemia Eating too much food relative to the amount of insulin injected Missing an insulin injection Blockage in insulin pump tubing Disconnected insulin pump infusion set Illness or stress Symptoms of Hyperglycemia Frequent urination Frequent thirst Blurry vision Dry mouth Fatigue Testing for Ketones There are two ways to test for ketones: urine testing and blood testing. Just as blood glucose testing proved to be superior to urine glucose testing, so too is blood ketone testing proving to be better than urine ketone testing. Ketones appear first in the blood, then in the urine after being filtered by the kidneys. Thus the body has been producing ketones for a while before you can detect them in the urine. Children with Diabetes Highly Recommends blood ketone testing over urine ketone testing. Since ketones in the blood can be detected well before ketones in the urine, there is the possibility to treat sooner than you would if you waited for urine testing to show a positive result. Blood ketone testing can be easier for parents who have very young children with diabetes who do not always have the ability to urinate on command. Also, being able to test with a finger stick eliminates the need to find a bathroom to test if you're away from home or when kids are at school. Two recent studies (February 2006) demon Continue reading >>

What Are Ketones And Their Tests?

What Are Ketones And Their Tests?

A ketone test can warn you of a serious diabetes complication called diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. An elevated level of this substance in your blood can mean you have very high blood sugar. Too many ketones can trigger DKA, which is a medical emergency. Regular tests you take at home can spot when your ketone levels run too high. Then you can take insulin to lower your blood sugar level or get other treatments to prevent complications. What Exactly Are Ketones? Everyone has them, whether you have diabetes or not. Ketones are chemicals made in your liver. You produce them when you don't have enough of the hormone insulin in your body to turn sugar (or “glucose”) into energy. You need another source, so your body uses fat instead. Your liver turns this fat into ketones, a type of acid, and sends them into your bloodstream. Your muscles and other tissues can then use them for fuel. For a person without diabetes, this process doesn’t become an issue. But when you have diabetes, things can run out of control and you build up too many ketones in your blood. If the level goes too high, it can become life-threatening. Who Needs a Ketone Test? You might need one if you have type 1 diabetes. In this type, your immune system attacks and destroys cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Without it, your blood sugar rises. People with type 2 diabetes can also get high ketones, but it isn't as common as it is with type 1. Tests can show you when your level gets high so you can treat it before you get sick. When Should You Test? Your doctor will probably tell you to test your ketones when: Your blood sugar is higher than 250 milligrams/deciliter (mg/dl) for two days in a row You're sick or you've been injured You want to exercise and your blood sugar level is over 250 mg/dl Continue reading >>

Ketone Testing: What You Need To Know

Ketone Testing: What You Need To Know

What are ketones? Ketones are produced when the body burns fat for energy or fuel. They are also produced when you lose weight or if there is not enough insulin to help your body use sugar for energy. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood. Since the body is unable to use glucose for energy, it breaks down fat instead. When this occurs, ketones form in the blood and spill into the urine. These ketones can make you very sick. How can I test for ketones? You can test to see if your body is making any ketones by doing a simple urine test. There are several products available for ketone testing and they can be purchased, without a prescription, at your pharmacy. The test result can be negative, or show small, moderate, or large quantities of ketones. When should I test for ketones? Anytime your blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl for two tests in a row. When you are ill. Often illness, infections, or injuries will cause sudden high blood glucose and this is an especially important time to check for ketones. When you are planning to exercise and the blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl. If you are pregnant, you should test for ketones each morning before breakfast and any time the blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl. If ketones are positive, what does this mean? There are situations when you might have ketones without the blood glucose being too high. Positive ketones are not a problem when blood glucose levels are within range and you are trying to lose weight. It is a problem if blood glucose levels are high and left untreated. Untreated high blood glucose with positive ketones can lead to a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). What should I do if the ketone test is positive? Call your diabetes educator or physician, as you may need additional Continue reading >>

Ketones — Urine

Ketones — Urine

Definition Ketones build up when the body needs to break down fats and fatty acids to use as fuel. This is most likely to occur when the body does not get enough sugar or carbohydrates. A urine test can be done to check the level of ketones in your body. Alternative Names Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones How the test is performed The test requires a clean catch urine sample. To obtain a clean catch sample, men or boys should clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. As you start to urinate, allow a small amount to fall into the toilet bowl to clear the urethra of contaminants. Then, put a clean container under your urine stream and catch 1 to 2 ounces of urine. Remove the container from the urine stream. Cap and mark the container and give it to the health care provider or assistant. For infants, thoroughly wash the area around the urethra. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and place it on the infant. For boys, the entire penis can be placed in the bag and the adhesive attached to the skin. For girls, the bag is placed over the labia. Diaper as usual over the secured bag. This procedure may take a couple of attempts -- lively infants can displace the bag. The infant should be checked frequently and the bag changed after the infant has urinated into the bag. The urine is drained into the container for transport to the laboratory. Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test" using a dipstick coated with chemicals that react with ketone bodies. The dipstick is dipped in the urine sample, and a color change indicates the presence of ketones. How to prepare for the test You may have to eat a special diet, and you should stop taking a Continue reading >>

Checking For Ketones

Checking For Ketones

There are two ways to test for ketones. Both have advantages and disadvantages. Decide which is right for you and seek immediate medical attention if you test positive. Check your urine or blood for ketones if you are sick or have symptoms of ketoacidosis. If the test is positive, you need immediate medical care. There are two ways to test your body for ketones. How to Check for Urine Ketones Urine Ketones: Examples: Ketostixs® or Chemstrips® Urine is applied to reagent strip and the color change shows the level of ketones. Disadvantages: Color changes are categorized as trace, small, medium, and large only Dehydration can affect results CAUTION: Be sure to get individually foil wrapped urine ketone test strips! Test strips rapidly loose their accuracy once they are exposed to the air. By using individually foil wrapped strips, only the strip you are using is exposed to the atmosphere. How to Check for Blood Ketones Blood Ketones: Example: Abbott Precision Xtra® Quantitative ketone (beta-hydroxybutyrate) is measured. The normal level is less than 0.6 mmol/l. Check the manufacturer’s package insert for an explanation of results and more information. CardioChek, BioScanner 2000, and other blood ketone testing devices are also available. Advantages: Results are more accurate and reflect ketone levels at the time the test is done vs. lag time found with the urine testing Disadvantages: Self-assessment Quiz Self assessment quizzes are available for topics covered in this website. To find out how much you have learned about Monitoring Your Diabetes, take our self assessment quiz when you have completed this section. The quiz is multiple choice. Please choose the single best answer to each question. At the end of the quiz, your score will display. If your score is over 70 Continue reading >>

How To Read Blood Ketone Test Results

How To Read Blood Ketone Test Results

If you are living with diabetes, chances are you've probably had your blood or urine tested for ketones. When your body doesn't have enough insulin to absorb glucose it breaks down fats for energy, creating ketones as a byproduct. Everyone produces ketones, but if you have diabetes, you have a greater risk of ketones building up in your blood, which can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. Both people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes can develop diabetic ketoacidosis. That said, it is more common in people with type 1 diabetes. Interpreting Your Blood Test Results Ketone blood testing is the preferred method for assessing the presence of ketones during times of sickness. Urine test strips can be used, but the American Diabetes Association recommends using blood ketone tests because they are more accurate and timely. Blood ketone tests use different measurements than the numbers you are familiar with on your glucose meter. When using a combination home blood glucose and ketone meter, such as the Precision Xtra Meter by Abbott Labs, or if you have your blood drawn and assessed at a lab, the results will fall into one of the following three ranges: Below 0.6 mmol/L: If your reading is below 0.6 you are in the normal range. 0.6 to 1.5 mmol/L: If your number is in this range you have the presence of ketones in your blood, which may develop into a problem if not treated. You should be in touch with your healthcare provider and follow his or her instructions. Above 1.5 mmol/L: Readings above 1.5 indicate a greater risk for developing ketoacidosis (DKA). You should immediately contact your healthcare provider for advice. Readings above 3.0 mmd/L may warrant a trip to the nearest emergency room for immediate treatment. If you are testing your blood or urine at home and are concerned ab Continue reading >>

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