What Are The Most Commonly Seen Blood Glucose Levels In Dka?

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Evaluation And Treatment

Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by a serum glucose level greater than 250 mg per dL, a pH less than 7.3, a serum bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq per L, an elevated serum ketone level, and dehydration. Insulin deficiency is the main precipitating factor. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur in persons of all ages, with 14 percent of cases occurring in persons older than 70 years, 23 percent in persons 51 to 70 years of age, 27 percent in persons 30 to 50 years of age, and 36 percent in persons younger than 30 years. The case fatality rate is 1 to 5 percent. About one-third of all cases are in persons without a history of diabetes mellitus. Common symptoms include polyuria with polydipsia (98 percent), weight loss (81 percent), fatigue (62 percent), dyspnea (57 percent), vomiting (46 percent), preceding febrile illness (40 percent), abdominal pain (32 percent), and polyphagia (23 percent). Measurement of A1C, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum glucose, electrolytes, pH, and serum ketones; complete blood count; urinalysis; electrocardiography; and calculation of anion gap and osmolar gap can differentiate diabetic ketoacidosis from hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, gastroente Continue reading >>

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  1. calparadise

    I am aware of some of the side effects associated with a high fat, low carb diet but am having trouble finding information on the mechanisms behind it. I understand the importance of glucose but have been told that our cells can be trained over time to run off of fat.
    Is it not sustainable because fats are too difficult to process in high amounts for a long period of time and stress the liver? I thought I'd ask here rather than the keto subreddit for a less biased opinion. Thanks

  2. oehaut

    I think the biggest problem right now with the ketogenic diet is that we don't know.
    You can read a post that I wrote here for some of my thought about this issue.
    The thing is that we have no known population that have use this diet for a long period of time, nor is there any long-time study on its health effects.
    We have some short-time studies that have shown that they improved weight loss and some biomarkers (mainly triglyceride and HDL-C and glycemia) but 1) most of these studies are confounded by weight loss, 2) the difference is slim after the 6 months mark and onward and 3) most of these studies show an increase in LDL-cholesterol, which is pretty much accepted by every serious health professional to be a risk factor for heart disease.
    Also, many propronents of the diet don't differentiate between whole, fiber-rich carbs food with processed carbs, and treat all carbs as the same. Again, read my post link at the beginning for studies on this but fiber-rich carbs food don't increase triglyceride, they improve glycemia, they improve weight loss, and they don't negatively affect LDL-C.
    So the question becomes, why do a ketogenic diet in the first place? Why not go for a more balanced diet, based on whole-food source?

  3. BlurryBigfoot74

    There's a clinic run by doctor Eric Westman at Duke University who's been prescribing the keto diet for 20 years. He's been following and testing and helping patients on the diet the entire duration.

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Testifying at your Social Security disability hearing is not the same as having a conversation with your neighbor or even talking to your doctor. When your judge asks you questions about your medical condition, he will be listening for two purposes: (1) he wants to a better understanding of how your medical issues impact your day to day life; and (2) he will use your testimony to make a decision about your credibility. Social Security judges understand that your written medical record does not tell the whole story about your capacity to function in a job. After all, most doctors are primarily focused on treating you, not evaluating your work capacity. Further, some doctors minimize symptoms in their notes to paint a picture of successful treatment, or because they do not believe in the concept of disability. Whatever his conclusions about medical records, the judge wants to hear from you. But he is not going to accept your testimony as truthful if he believes that you are prone to exaggeration or that you are more focused on collecting benefits than fighting to return to work. Often you can expect your judge to ask you questions to which he already knows the answer. In this video, I describe a recent hearing where the judge asked my client about his cigarette smoking habit. The judge asked these questions for the express purpose of evaluating my client's credibility, and by answering inaccurately, my client definitely damaged his case. Your attorney can really earn his money by helping your practice answering likely hearing questions. Take advantage of your lawyer's experience and courtroom skills so that your presentation to the judge shows you as a believable and sincere disability claimant. #socialsecuritydisabilityhearing #ssdi #socialsecuritydisability #socialsecuritydisability hearing #odar #oho =============== FREE SURVIVAL KIT ================ Don't know where to begin? Download my free Secrets of Getting Approved Survival Kit at http://bit.ly/SSD-Survival-Kit ================================================ ============== FREE CASE EVALUATION ============= If you or a loved one would like a case evaluation for your SSDI or SSI case, please contact me at http://bit.ly/Contact-Jonathan ================================================ =================== CONTACT ME ================= Jonathan Ginsberg Social Security Disability Attorney Website: http://www.ssdAnswers.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/GinsbergLaw/ Telephone: 800-890-2262 http://bit.ly/Contact-Jonathan ================================================ ***Click Below to SUBSCRIBE for More Videos*** http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c...

Questions To Prepare For Osce

1. Describe the pathophysiologic changes in DKA. a. Why do blood glucose levels increase? - Without insulin, the amount of glucose entering the cells is reduced, so then the liver increases glucose production The patient lacks insulin which is required to breakdown sugar for energy. This results in an increase in glucose levels. b. What are commonly seen blood glucose levels? - Blood glucose levels may vary from 16.6 to 44.4 mmol/L. Some may have lower, and others may have values of 55.5mmol/L c. What fluid and electrolyte disturbances commonly occur? -Water, sodium, potassium, and chloride d. What causes the fluid and electrolyte disturbances? -In an attempt to rid the body of the excess glucose, the kidneys excrete the glucose along with water and electrolytes. Patients with DKA may lose up to 6.5 litres of water and up o 400 to 500 mmol/L each of sodium, potassium, and chloride. Due to the lack of insulin, cells are not receiving an adequate fuel source to produce energy. Even though the blood is loaded with glucose, the cells go into a starvation mode. This triggers the release of glucagon and other counter-regulatory hormones that promote the breakdown of triglycerides into fr Continue reading >>

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  1. Carolyn

    These little sticks are the bane of my life! I have an obsessive nature at the best of times and I know in my heart of hearts that using them every time I go to the loo is ridiculous but I can't seem to stop! I think it's because I'm not getting what I consider an acceptable result from them lol and must be trying to bully them in submission
    Last time I did Atkins, many years ago, I simply did it as a weight loss programme rather than the way of life I intend to adopt this time. I did lose a little weight, nothing like my success last week, but when I used the ketostix I was always in the dark pink/purple region. This time, I am hovering between the first two pinks. I didn't read up properly on the Atkins the first time in the sense that I did eat as much as I wanted and I didn't bother with salad and veg whereas this time I am following it to the tee, at least I'm trying to! But my ketostix results are rubbish compared to when I didn't do it properly.
    Confused! Can anyone shed any light on this for me and then I can quit using a tub of ketostix a day

  2. Jo

    If there is any degree of colour then you are in ketosis and don't need to worry. The result may look low because you are drinking lots of water or other fluid - the sticks measure the amount of ketones in the urine so if you are diluting it a lot, it will look lower. However be assured that any degree of colour indicates that you are in ketosis, and therefore burning fat for your energy instead of carbohydrate, and that is all we need!

  3. Carolyn

    Just another interesting thing though Jo, if I have an Atkins bar, which I don't every day, and then do a stick, I go back to negative on my stick! Weird?

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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin ( type 1 diabetes ) or can't respond to insulin properly ( type 2 diabetes ). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or te Continue reading >>

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  1. ls737100

    How about some science to it. Your liver will store about 500 calories of glycogen first, then muscles will store about 2,000 calories of glycogen. Interesting thing is once glycogen is in the muscle there's no way to pull it back into the bloodstream. If you eat a ton of carbs in one sitting you'll overload your muscles and liver and it'll get converted to fat. So seems like the max stored calories is about 2,500. Your brain uses about 600 calories a day, so, in 24 hours it should burn through everything in the liver and switch to ketones. So, seems like the max would be 24 hours before your brain was on ketones, might take longer for some muscles to be depleted and switch. Oh, and btw, there are only about 5 grams of glucose in the blood stream, so negligible.

  2. Naonin

    If you eat a ton of carbs in one sitting you'll overload your muscles and liver and it'll get converted to fat.
    De Novo Lipogensis (DNL) rarely seems to happen with short term overfeeding of fat free, fructose free carbs. http://caloriesproper.com/are-carbs-stored-as-fat/
    But yes, you're correct, it's about 24-36 hours without eating that puts a human into ketosis, which I believe we enter ketosis faster than any other animal. http://caloriesproper.com/ketosis-in-an-evolutionary-context/

  3. illogic_bomb

    So, would it be your opinion that fasting for 48 or 72 hours would bring you into Ketosis instead of 2-3 weeks that has been reported by Dr. Tim Noakes?

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