What Are The Causes Of Metabolic Acidosis?

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Metabolic acidosis signs and symptoms easy Menomonic for you by RINKU CHAUDHARY NSG OFFICER AMU PLZ SUBSCRIBE INTELLECT MEDIPULSE N GIVE UR FEEDBACK Respiratory alkalosis https://youtu.be/JKsLoar7JLo Terminology : Acidosis refers to a process that causes a low pH in blood and tissues. Acidemia refers specifically to a low pH in the blood. In most cases, acidosis occurs first for reasons explained below. Free hydrogen ions then diffuse into the blood, lowering the pH. Arterial blood gas analysis detects acidemia (pH lower than 7.35). When acidemia is present, acidosis is presumed. Signs and symptoms Respiratory acidosis https://youtu.be/8U2XnvRtIhs Symptoms are not specific, and diagnosis can be difficult unless the patient presents with clear indications for arterial blood gas sampling. Symptoms may include chest pain, palpitations, headache, altered mental status such as severe anxiety due to hypoxia, decreased visual acuity, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, altered appetite and weight gain, muscle weakness, bone pain, and joint pain. Those in metabolic acidosis may exhibit deep, rapid breathing called Kussmaul respirations which is classically associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. Rapid deep breaths increase the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled, thus lowering the serum carbon dioxide levels, resulting in some degree of compensation. Overcompensation via respiratory alkalosis to form an alkalemia does not occur. Extreme acidemia leads to neurological and cardiac complications: Neurological: lethargy, stupor, coma, seizures Cardiac: arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia) and decreased response to epinephrine, both leading to hypotension Physical examination occasionally reveals signs of disease, but is otherwise normal. Cranial nerve abnormalities are reported in ethylene glycol poisoning, and retinal edema can be a sign of methanol intoxication. Longstanding chronic metabolic acidosis leads to osteoporosis and can cause fractures.

What Is Metabolic Acidosis?: Signs, Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

What is metabolic acidosis (MA)? It is a condition where your body is making too much acid than it is getting rid of. As a result, there is too much acid in the body. Metabolic acidosis usually occurs when your lungs and kidneys are unable to maintain your body’s normal pH balance. Your blood acidity is measured using pH level. If your pH level is low, you have more acid in the blood. The blood pH level in people who are healthy is between 7.35 and 7.45. MA occurs when the blood pH level falls below 7.35. In case your pH level is more than 7.45, then it means you have too many bases in the blood, a condition known as alkalosis. If not diagnosed, MA could result in a condition known as acidemia, where the pH level in the blood is low because the body is producing more hydrogen ions. Acidemia could also arise when the kidney fails to form bicarbonate. It is advisable to consider MA as a sign of underlying medical condition. For MA to be successfully treated, identification of the underlying medical condition is important. There are instances when MA could become serious and lead to coma or even death. However, some patients have mild MA that is not life threatening. There are certa Continue reading >>

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  1. Rajath Krishna R

    Both aldehydes and ketones have a carbonyl group, but since the carbonyl group of ketone is between alkyl groups, wouldn't it be more difficult for it to form hydrogen bonds than aldehydes? Why then, do aldehydes have a higher boiling points than ketones?

  2. matt_black

    It isn't that good a generalization: always look at the data first.
    Here is a table of most of the aldehydes and ketones with 6 or fewer carbons (the labels are used in the chart later):
    Now plot this on a chart:
    Branches is the number of branches in the carbon chain.
    Note that while for 3 and 4 carbons the ketones do have higher boiling points, it is not clear this is true for 5 carbon compounds and certainly not true for 6-carbon ones.
    So, I'd argue the pattern of boiling points is complicated and there is no simple pattern that needs to be explained.

  3. Devgeet Patel

    Amongst aldehydes and ketones, ketones have higher boiling point. This is due to the presence of two electron donating alkyl groups around the

    C=O group which makes them more polar.
    For example: the boiling point of


    CHX3−CHO is 322 K and dipole moment is 2.52 D.
    Boiling point of



    CHX3−CO−CHX3 is 329 K and dipole moment is 2.88D
    Dipole moment of



    CHX3−CO−CHX3 is greater than of


    CHX3−CHO. This because there are two electron donating


    CHX3 groups around

    C=O bond whereas there is only one


    CHX3 group around

    C=O in


    As dipole moment is greater so it is more polar and hence has higher boiling point.

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Metabolic Acidosis.

Abstract Acute metabolic acidosis is frequently encountered in critically ill patients. Metabolic acidosis can occur as a result of either the accumulation of endogenous acids that consumes bicarbonate (high anion gap metabolic acidosis) or loss of bicarbonate from the gastrointestinal tract or the kidney (hyperchloremic or normal anion gap metabolic acidosis). The cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis includes lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, renal failure and intoxication with ethylene glycol, methanol, salicylate and less commonly with pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline), propylene glycole or djenkol bean (gjenkolism). The most common causes of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis are gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss, renal tubular acidosis, drugs-induced hyperkalemia, early renal failure and administration of acids. The appropriate treatment of acute metabolic acidosis, in particular organic form of acidosis such as lactic acidosis, has been very controversial. The only effective treatment for organic acidosis is cessation of acid production via improvement of tissue oxygenation. Treatment of acute organic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate failed to reduce the morbidity and mortal Continue reading >>

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  1. hugmebaby_72

    dear fellow nurses,
    please support the following members taking nclex on october :
    nebin - oct 2 - rn (congrats!!)
    it's alisa - oct 2 - done
    cmille10 - oct 3 - rn (congrats!!)
    christav - oct 3 - rn (congrats!!)
    tay245 - oct 6 - rn (congrats!!)
    nurse_aholic - oct 6
    cna1998 - lpn (congrats!!)
    zolveria - oct 7
    khine2mn80 - oct 9 - rn (congrats!!)
    mr.j - oct 9 - rn (congrats!!)
    cloudstrife1ph - oct 10
    iloveclay - oct 10 - rn (congrats!!)
    supadrea - oct 14 - rn (congrats!!)
    ellanocum - oct 14
    getmore - 2nd wk of oct
    coffeelover73 - oct 15
    bubbly30 - oct 15
    serena211 - oct 16
    mikhy - oct 17
    mardibc - oct 17
    avomejet - oct 17
    soonmomtobe - oct 20
    shinyblackcar - oct 21
    hugmebaby_72 - oct 21
    j_swift808 - oct 21
    babygirl1470 - oct 21
    brantaf - oct 27
    bettyboo706 - oct 27
    richo_006 - oct 28
    lovendove - oct 28
    zoobyli - oct 29
    ejones7901 - oct 29
    texaschic888 - oct 30
    jazzysmika - late oct
    chacha17 - end of oct
    mslusara - end of oct
    missea39 - end of oct
    tlk84 - end of oct
    zaylee's friend
    i wish everybody here in october support group - all the best!...:typing
    good luck to soonmomtobe, shinyblackcar, babygirl1470 & j_swift808 for our nclex on oct 21. (i'll be offline for a few days to give myself time to focus on the exam. i'll be back on the 23rd.)
    i will pray for all of you. :heartbeat
    may god bless us all!
    congratulations supadrea!!!
    good luck mardibc!

  2. hugmebaby_72

    just hang in there babygirl1470, you can surely do it. believe in yourself. you can get additional helpful tips in the sticky random facts thread, for your review. good luck! here's a thought for you...
    [font=papyrus, cursive]detoxing your mind
    [font=papyrus, cursive]today's scripture
    [font=papyrus, cursive]"keep and guard your heart with all vigilance and above all that you guard, for out of it flow the springs of life" (proverbs 4:23).
    [font=papyrus, cursive]today's word
    [font=papyrus, cursive]when something is toxic, it's poisonous; it can destroy you. when we go around dwelling on the wrong thoughts, thinking about what we can't do or how we'll never get ahead, those thoughts are toxic thoughts. toxic thoughts left alone become like toxic waste that sinks into your heart. it will eventually contaminate your whole life. it affects your self-image. it affects your attitude, your level of confidence, and ultimately, your success. that's why the scripture says to guard your heart because the condition of your heart and mind determine the condition of your whole life.
    [font=papyrus, cursive]make the decision today to detox any negative, self-defeating thoughts by meditating on god's promises instead. make the decision to detox bitterness, detox low self-esteem, detox negative words that may have been spoken over you, detox condemnation. make the decision to dwell on what god says about you. god says, "you are forgiven." god says, "your best days are in front of you." god says, "i'll restore the years that the enemy has stolen." as you detox your mind and fill your thoughts with his promises, you'll see his hand of blessing on your life. you'll rise up higher, and you'll live the abundant life he has for you!
    [font=papyrus, cursive]a prayer for today
    [font=papyrus, cursive]father in heaven, i invite you to purify my heart and mind by your spirit today. wash me with the word as i meditate on your wonderful promises. help me keep my mind focused on you. in jesus' holy name. amen.
    [font=papyrus, cursive]

  3. yveza

    high risk for cholelitiasis: 5f's>female, fertile,forty,fat,fair
    high risk for pancreatitis: 5m's>male,middle age,mephenol,meal heavy,midnight or early mornin attack
    aspirin-for tia.purpose:to inhibit platelet aggregation
    aricept-donepezil>newer drug for alzheimers
    decadron(dexamethasone)-s/e occult blood in the stool
    note:for tb patient taking anti tb drug,question the order decadron-
    reactivates old tb lesions and precipitates hemoptysis

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The Pharmacotherapy Preparatory Review Recertification Course Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders PDF at https://www.mediafire.com/view/8kucuu...

Metabolic Acidosis - Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition

(Video) Overview of Acid-Base Maps and Compensatory Mechanisms By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincent’s Ascension Health, Birmingham Metabolic acidosis is primary reduction in bicarbonate (HCO3−), typically with compensatory reduction in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2); pH may be markedly low or slightly subnormal. Metabolic acidoses are categorized as high or normal anion gap based on the presence or absence of unmeasured anions in serum. Causes include accumulation of ketones and lactic acid, renal failure, and drug or toxin ingestion (high anion gap) and GI or renal HCO3− loss (normal anion gap). Symptoms and signs in severe cases include nausea and vomiting, lethargy, and hyperpnea. Diagnosis is clinical and with ABG and serum electrolyte measurement. The cause is treated; IV sodium bicarbonate may be indicated when pH is very low. Metabolic acidosis is acid accumulation due to Increased acid production or acid ingestion Acidemia (arterial pH < 7.35) results when acid load overwhelms respiratory compensation. Causes are classified by their effect on the anion gap (see The Anion Gap and see Table: Causes of Metab Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. TeamKeto

    I started keto almost 2 months ago. In the first few weeks, yo-yoed a lot, but basically lost about 8lbs. Saw the scale dip another 3lbs at one point, but it didn't stick.
    In the first month, I was really intense about tracking. I learned how to stay under on carbs, and it seemed pretty intuitive to stay under on calories. But my body dysmorphia started getting out of control, and I began to get obsessive about numbers. This was really bad for my emotional health, so I stopped.
    I stopped counting altogether, but I would use ketostix to make sure I was still in ketosis. I've been consistently turning sticks pinkish/purple since, so it seems like I've figured out how to keep under on carbs. But I haven't lost any more. In fact, after I started weight lifting again 2 weeks ago, I gained a pound back (prolly water in my muscles). So now I'm at 253, having started almost 2 months ago at 260. My clothes seem to fit a bit better, but I dont want to start taking measurements on the regular for the same body-obsession reasons.
    So basically: I have learned that I need to keep tracking to an absolute minimum so I don't fall back into disordered eating. It appears as though I am consistently in ketosis. I am okay with losing more slowly this way, but I can't tell if it's working. Does lazy keto work in the long run, or am I kidding myself?

  2. slothcough

    Lazy keto basically works until it doesn't- people tend to eat less on keto because they feel more satiated but for women we need to still watch calories more than men because our TDEEs are lower on average. If you're concerned about getting obsessive with numbers, can I suggest something? Make a list of go-to meals and calculate their macros/calories. Figure out which ones can go together in a day to meet your macros/adhere to your caloric deficit. From there, use these meals and their portions as a way to monitor your intake without obsessing about numbers.

  3. TeamKeto

    i've definitely been thinking about this. Can I ask if you have any go-to meals? I know that the more I get into routine, the better it will be. Lately Ive had to do a lot of traveling, so its been a weird mix of nuts and canned fish, etc. But I'd love to have some more default meals where I could just know the macros!

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