Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones
The human body primarily runs on glucose. When your body is low on glucose, or if you have diabetes and don’t have enough insulin to help your cells absorb the glucose, your body starts breaking down fats for energy. Ketones (chemically known as ketone bodies) are byproducts of the breakdown of fatty acids. The breakdown of fat for fuel and the creation of ketones is a normal process for everyone. In a person without diabetes, insulin, glucagon, and other hormones prevent ketone levels in the blood from getting too high. However, people with diabetes are at risk for ketone buildup in their blood. If left untreated, people with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While rare, it’s possible for people with type 2 diabetes to experience DKA in certain circumstances as well. If you have diabetes, you need to be especially aware of the symptoms that having too many ketones in your body can cause. These include: If you don’t get treatment, the symptoms can progress to: a fruity breath odor stomach pain trouble breathing You should always seek immediate medical attention if your ketone levels are high. Testing your blood or urine to measure your ketone levels can all be done at home. At-home testing kits are available for both types of tests, although urine testing continues to be more common. Urine tests are available without a prescription at most drugstores, or you can buy them online. You should test your urine or blood for ketones when any of the following occurs: Your blood sugar is higher than 240 mg/dL. You feel sick or nauseated, regardless of your blood sugar reading. To perform a urine test, you urinate into a clean container and dip the test strip into the urine. For a child who isn’t potty-trained, a pa Continue reading >>
- World's first diabetes app will be able to check glucose levels without drawing a drop of blood and will be able to reveal what a can of coke REALLY does to sugar levels
- Renal Handling of Ketones in Response to Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
- Diabetes Alert: Biotin and Chromium Help Control Glucose Levels
What Are Ketones And Why Is Everybody Talking About Them?
How long can you go without eating? We all fast while we sleep (unless you get up for a midnight snack). That’s why the first meal of the day is referred to as breakfast – it breaks the fast. Although most people in modern society seem unable to go more than a few hours without food, it actually turns out that the human body is designed to fast. Fasting creates ketones. What are Ketones? Before the proliferation of grocery stores and fast food chains, food was not as plentiful. There were cycles of feast and famine. In times of feast the body stores excess calories as body fat reserves so that during times of famine the cells are able to use the stored body fat as a fuel source. Think about a bear fattening up in autumn for a long winter of hibernation and emerging in the spring lean and hungry. Most people think of carbohydrates as the primary fuel source of the body. However, in times of carbohydrate deprivation, most of the cells in the body are able to use fat for fuel, except for those in the brain. As the muscles and other organs begin to burn fat, the liver starts to produce ketone bodies. Also known as ketones, ketone bodies act as a fuel source for the brain. When the brain begins to use ketones for fuel, cognitive ability and mental focus increase, bodily functions become more efficient, and fat metabolism kicks into high gear. This is referred to as ketosis or the Keto Zone. It turns out that ketosis is actually the natural state of human metabolism. From the moment human children are born and begin consuming mother’s milk, they are in a mild state of ketosis. It is not until the introduction of a consistent supply of high sugar and starch foods that a human’s metabolism will switch out of a state of ketosis. As children we begin consuming copious amo Continue reading >>
What Are Ketone Bodies? – Ketones Explained
Ketone Bodies are the breakdown of fat via metabolism through the liver. That means when our body starts to use fat as a source of fuel, it breaks the fat down through the liver and spits out these little molecules called, ketone bodies. The most abundant of these ketones is called, beta hydroxybutyrate (bhb). Most people are never in nutritional ketosis because of the overconsumption of sugars and carbohydrates which prohibit ketone production. The only time our body is able to produce ketone bodies is when we stop the consumption of carbohydrates, and allow our body to make use of the fat to create fuel. When we need energy and the sugar is not there, our body will then reach for the fat, and that fat will be used to produce the ketones. Continue reading >>
What Are Ketones And Their Tests?
A ketone test can warn you of a serious diabetes complication called diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. An elevated level of this substance in your blood can mean you have very high blood sugar. Too many ketones can trigger DKA, which is a medical emergency. Regular tests you take at home can spot when your ketone levels run too high. Then you can take insulin to lower your blood sugar level or get other treatments to prevent complications. What Exactly Are Ketones? Everyone has them, whether you have diabetes or not. Ketones are chemicals made in your liver. You produce them when you don't have enough of the hormone insulin in your body to turn sugar (or “glucose”) into energy. You need another source, so your body uses fat instead. Your liver turns this fat into ketones, a type of acid, and sends them into your bloodstream. Your muscles and other tissues can then use them for fuel. For a person without diabetes, this process doesn’t become an issue. But when you have diabetes, things can run out of control and you build up too many ketones in your blood. If the level goes too high, it can become life-threatening. Who Needs a Ketone Test? You might need one if you have type 1 diabetes. In this type, your immune system attacks and destroys cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Without it, your blood sugar rises. People with type 2 diabetes can also get high ketones, but it isn't as common as it is with type 1. Tests can show you when your level gets high so you can treat it before you get sick. When Should You Test? Your doctor will probably tell you to test your ketones when: Your blood sugar is higher than 250 milligrams/deciliter (mg/dl) for two days in a row You're sick or you've been injured You want to exercise and your blood sugar level is over 250 mg/dl Continue reading >>
- Tiny sensor placed under the skin to replace finger prick tests for diabetes: Smartphone app will alert patients if their blood sugar level drops or is too high
- Insulin, glucagon and somatostatin stores in the pancreas of subjects with type-2 diabetes and their lean and obese non-diabetic controls
- Are ketones dangerous?
What Are Ketones, And Why Are They Important To Diabetes Self-management?
All blood tests are tools. Some are to diagnose diabetes, some are to help you manage your diabetes on a daily or long term basis and some are to keep you safe. People with diabetes are told about blood testing and how important testing is to manage their blood glucose. It is a critical part of diabetes management. Whether it is done in the physician’s office or the patient’s home it is an invaluable tool, Unfortunately a very important test, ketone testing is often not taught or taught only to people with type 1 diabetes. This test can be life saving and should be part of every person with diabetes knowledge and skills. It is simple and if you have diabetes you should know about it. What Are Ketones? When the body is unable to burn glucose it burns fat and this produces a chemical called ketones. This occurs when there is too little insulin for the amount of glucose in the body. Possible causes for this could be: Experiencing stress or illness such as fever, Having an infection. Omitting or taking too little insulin Eating more food than planned Improper storage of insulin If left untreated, ketones continue to rise and can result in a condition called Diabetic Ketoacidosis, or DKA. This condition is quite serious and requires immediate medical attention. DKA is the most common cause of hospitalization and death among children and young adults with diabetes, and the leading cause of adverse events for insulin pump users. Why Measure Blood Ketones? Studies suggest that most, if not all emergency department and hospital admissions beyond initial diabetes diagnosis could be prevented if people better managed their diabetes care and knew the warning signs when ketoacidosis was developing. Blood ketone testing provides a rapid, accurate, and early warning sign that keto Continue reading >>
What Are The Optimal Ketone Levels For A Ketogenic Diet?
If you’ve just started a ketogenic diet, then you’ll know that it can be really tough to figure out if you’re doing keto right. Am I eating too many carbs? Too much protein? Should I still be feeling tired? When is the fat burning supposed to start? It’s confusing, and one of the most confusing aspects is what your optimal ketone levels are supposed to be. Unlike most other diets, the ketogenic diet is designed to put your body into a state of ketosis in order to get your body to start burning ketones instead of the glucose that it usually burns when you eat a high carb standard American diet (SAD). But to know whether you’re in ketosis and whether your body has enough ketones circulating for you to use as energy instead of glucose, you have to measure your actual ketone levels and then determine whether they’re high enough for you to be reaping the benefits of the ketogenic diet. If you’ve tried searching for this information already, then you’ll know that there’s some controversy depending on which expert you follow. So in this article, we’ll tell you exactly what the different experts are suggesting are the optimal ketone levels as well as give you recommendations for what ketone levels you should be aiming for depending on your goals with a ketogenic diet. A Few Quick Notes Before We Start… If you’re looking for signs other than testing your actual body ketone levels as to whether you’re in ketosis or not, then please check out this article instead that provides you with signs you’re in ketosis. If you’re a type 1 diabetic, then this article is not for you and the optimal ketone levels suggested below are not applicable to you. Please check out the tons of other ketone level articles on the web to ensure your ketone levels do not reach Continue reading >>
- The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus
- World's first diabetes app will be able to check glucose levels without drawing a drop of blood and will be able to reveal what a can of coke REALLY does to sugar levels
- Does the Ketogenic Diet Work for Type 2 Diabetes?
What Are Ketones?
ANSWER Everyone has ketones, whether you have diabetes or not. Ketones are chemicals made in your liver. You produce them when you don't have enough insulin in your body to turn sugar (or glucose) into energy. You need another source, so your body uses fat instead. Your liver turns this fat into ketones, a type of acid, and sends them into your bloodstream. Your muscles and other tissues can then use them for fuel. For a person without diabetes, this process doesn’t become an issue. When you have diabetes, however, you can build up too many ketones in your blood -- and too many ketones can become life-threatening. Continue reading >>
Ketone Bodies (urine)
Does this test have other names? Ketone test, urine ketones What is this test? This test is used to check the level of ketones in your urine. Normally, your body burns sugar for energy. But if you have diabetes, you may not have enough insulin for the sugar in your bloodstream to be used for fuel. When this happens, your body burns fat instead and produces substances called ketones. The ketones end up in your blood and urine. It's normal to have a small amount of ketones in your body. But high ketone levels could result in serious illness or death. Checking for ketones keeps this from happening. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if you have a high level of blood sugar. People with high levels of blood sugar often have high ketone levels. If you have high blood sugar levels and type 1 or type 2 diabetes, it's important to check your ketone levels. People without diabetes can also have ketones in the urine if their body is using fat for fuel instead of glucose. This can happen with chronic vomiting, extreme exercise, low-carbohydrate diets, or eating disorders. Checking your ketones is especially important if you have diabetes and: Your blood sugar goes above 300 mg/dL You abuse alcohol You have diarrhea You stop eating carbohydrates like rice and bread You're pregnant You've been fasting You've been vomiting You have an infection Your healthcare provider may order this test, or have you test yourself, if you: Urinate frequently Are often quite thirsty or tired Have muscle aches Have shortness of breath or trouble breathing Have nausea or vomiting Are confused Have a fruity smell to your breath What other tests might I have along with this test? Your healthcare provider may also check for ketones in your blood if you have high levels of ketones in your urine Continue reading >>
What Are Ketones And Are They Healthy?
What Are Ketones and Are They Healthy? If you are up on your health news or follow anyone in the health field, you have likely heard the term ketogenic diet. The goal of the ketogenic diet is to adapt the body to utilize fat as its primary fuel source instead of sugar. The body does this by first converting fat into what are called ketones that the cells can then burn as fuel. It is at this point that I typically get asked, what are ketones? In this article, I am going to clear up any gaps, explain exactly how ketogenisis works, and why it can be so beneficial for the human body. Biological Role of Ketones For our ancestors, eating three meals a day just wasn’t a thing. Instead they would hunt and forage for the foods they could find. When there wasn’t food, they wouldn’t eat. What this means is that sometimes they would go for days at a time with no food. To sustain life during times of scarcity, the body is thought to have developed the ability to utilize fat as an alternative fuel source. In a traditional nutrition course, you would learn that sugar is the body’s primary fuel source while fat is a secondary fuel source. When sugar stores are burned up, the cells then convert to burning fat as an energy source. What we are finding out now is that fat can actually be a healthier and more sustainable source of energy. Our Society Is Full of Sugar Burners Modern day, we have an abundance of food that is available to us at all times. Most of us regularly eat three meals a day with intermittent snacking in between. This kind of frequent eating, along with an overemphasis on carb-rich and sugary foods, causes a reduced ability to burn fat. As these foods damage our bodies on a metabolic level, we actually lose the ability to produce ketones. This type of reliance on Continue reading >>
What Are Ketones?
Ketones are harmful chemicals which your body produces when there is too little or no insulin Ketones are harmful chemicals which your body produces when there is too little or no insulin. When you detect ketones in your body, it is a warning sign that your blood glucose level is too high and you need to bring it down immediately. How to Check for Ketones? The easiest way to check for ketones is to use a urine or blood ketone test. Your doctor or nurse can advise you on which ketone test to use. Most ketone test kits come in packages of strips or individually wrapped strips (which can be kept longer). To get accurate results from ketone tests, follow instructions carefully. If you are not sure, always ask your doctor or nurse to show you. Here’s how most urine ketone tests work: First, check that the strips are not beyond their expiry date. Collect a sample of your urine in a clean container. Place a strip in the urine sample. Alternatively, pass it through your urine stream. Shake off excess urine from the strip. Wait for the strip to change colour. Compare the strip to the colour chart on the strip bottle to get an indication of the amount of ketones in your urine. Record your results When to Check for Ketones? Check for ketones if you have any of these symptoms: your blood glucose is 14 mmol/L or higher fatigue constant thirst or a dry mouth frequent urination blurry vision (as if you’re looking through a dirty window) vomiting diarrhoea have trouble breathing When to Seek Help? If the ketone test shows small or trace amounts of ketones, it could mean that ketone is starting to build up in your Continue reading >>
On This Site Tests: Urine Ketones (see Urinalysis - The Chemical Exam); Blood Gases; Glucose Tests Elsewhere On The Web Ask a Laboratory Scientist Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS). Click on the Contact a Scientist button below to be re-directed to the ASCLS site to complete a request form. If your question relates to this web site and not to a specific lab test, please submit it via our Contact Us page instead. Thank you. Continue reading >>
What Are Ketones And Are They Dangerous?
Ketones are acids made when your body begins using fat instead of carbohydrates for energy. This happens when there is not enough insulin to get sugar from the blood into the cells, and the body turns fat into energy. When fat is broken down, ketone bodies are made and can accumulate in the body. This condition is called diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, and is often the first sign of diabetes before diagnosis. If blood glucose is within a safe range and someone is trying to lose weight, the presence of small amounts of ketones may be perfectly normal. However, with diabetes it is critical that both ketones and blood glucose are closely monitored even if someone is trying to lose weight. Moderate to large ketones may mean that diabetes is out of control. This can be a sign of a potentially dangerous situation. Ketones alter the chemical balance of the blood. DKA does not usually occur unless there are large urine ketones or high blood ketones. If left undiagnosed or untreated, they can poison the body. This requires immediate medical attention. Do not exercise when ketones are high; it may actually increase ketones. Some of the causes of DKA are: Illness Forgetting to take one or more insulin shots Not enough insulin An insulin pump that is not delivering. This is usually due to kinked, obstructed or dislodged infusion catheter. This may result in DKA in as little as three hours. Giving “spoiled” insulin. Insulin that got too hot (over 90º F) or froze. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include those for high blood glucose plus: “Fruity” smelling breath Nausea Vomiting Stomach cramps Confusion Unconsciousness Shortness of breath Unusual thirst Illness can cause blood glucose levels to rise and lead to ketoacidosis. In order to prevent this from happening, there are importan Continue reading >>
“what Are Ketones Anyways?”
When your child is on the ketogenic diet for seizures, the word “ketone” is a part of your everyday vocabulary. Not only do you talk about them, chances are that you measure them regularly as well. Despite this, you may find yourself wondering, “What are ketones anyways?” In today’s post, I’ll try to answer all of your questions about ketones. Ketones, sometimes referred to as “ketone bodies”, are water-soluble compounds (meaning that they dissolve in water) that are produced as “byproducts” when the body burns fat for energy . Normally, the body produces only small quantities of ketones but ketone production increases when the body is using fat as a primary source of fuel. This happens during starvation, when the liver burns stored body fat for energy, and on a ketogenic diet, when the liver burns large quantities of dietary fat for energy. As the liver burns fat, ketones build up in the blood and the body is said to be in “ketosis”. Ketones are transported from the liver through the blood to the brain, heart, and skeletal muscles where they can be used for energy. Types of Ketones: There are 3 different types of ketones: beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone. Beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate are the most abundant ketones. Acetone is produced in much smaller quantities, making up just a small proportion of the total ketone levels. While beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate are transported through the blood to provide energy to other parts of the body, acetone is not. Instead, it is exhaled through the lungs, which is why individuals on the ketogenic diet may have a characteristic smell to their breath. Measuring Ketones: When the body is in ketosis, ketones can be detected in the blood, urine and even in the breath. Heal Continue reading >>
Ketone Testing: What You Need To Know
What are ketones? Ketones are produced when the body burns fat for energy or fuel. They are also produced when you lose weight or if there is not enough insulin to help your body use sugar for energy. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood. Since the body is unable to use glucose for energy, it breaks down fat instead. When this occurs, ketones form in the blood and spill into the urine. These ketones can make you very sick. How can I test for ketones? You can test to see if your body is making any ketones by doing a simple urine test. There are several products available for ketone testing and they can be purchased, without a prescription, at your pharmacy. The test result can be negative, or show small, moderate, or large quantities of ketones. When should I test for ketones? Anytime your blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl for two tests in a row. When you are ill. Often illness, infections, or injuries will cause sudden high blood glucose and this is an especially important time to check for ketones. When you are planning to exercise and the blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl. If you are pregnant, you should test for ketones each morning before breakfast and any time the blood glucose is over 250 mg/dl. If ketones are positive, what does this mean? There are situations when you might have ketones without the blood glucose being too high. Positive ketones are not a problem when blood glucose levels are within range and you are trying to lose weight. It is a problem if blood glucose levels are high and left untreated. Untreated high blood glucose with positive ketones can lead to a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). What should I do if the ketone test is positive? Call your diabetes educator or physician, as you may need additional Continue reading >>
Physical Properties Of Aldehydes And Ketones
Voiceover: Before we get into the physical properties of aldehydes and ketones, I just wanted to cover where the names for those functional groups come from. So, one way to make aldehydes and ketones is to oxidize alcohol. So if we start over here on the left and we have methanol, we can oxidize that to methonal over here on the right. Also called formaldehyde. And if we analyze the atoms here, one carbon on the left and one carbon on the right, one oxygen on the left and one oxygen on the right, four hydrogens on the left and only two on the right, so a loss of two hydrogens can convert methonol to methonal, and so the name of aldehyde comes from these words here. So if I write alcohol and then dehydrogenatum, which refers to the fact that we are losing hydrogens. If you look closely you can see the name for aldehyde. If you take the name al from alcohol, and then this portion of this word, and then add an e on, you get the name aldehyde. So that's the idea. You can also make ketones. So if I oxidize this alcohol on the left to propanol, also called isopropanol or isopropyl alcohol and then finally rubbing alcohol. If you oxidize this molecule, then you get this molecule over here on the right. So there are three carbons ... So a three carbon ketone is called a propanone and of course no one usually calls this propanone. This is a famous molecule. This is acetone. And the old German word for acetone ... If you spell out the old German word for acetone, it's easy to see where the word ketone comes from, right? 'Cause if I take this right here and add an e on, I get ketone. So just a little bit of insight into those names which I think is pretty interesting. In terms of physical properties, let's use these last two molecules here to describe boiling points of aldehydes a Continue reading >>