Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids). They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting). When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>
Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?
Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>
Metabolic Effects Of The Very-low-carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "villains" Of Human Metabolism
Go to: The Ketone Bodies are an Important Fuel The hormonal changes associated with a low carbohydrate diet include a reduction in the circulating levels of insulin along with increased levels of glucagon. This activates phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-biphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase and also inhibits pyruvate kinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and glucokinase. These changes indeed favor gluconeogenesis. However, the body limits glucose utilization to reduce the need for gluconeogenesis. In the liver in the well-fed state, acetyl CoA formed during the β-oxidation of fatty acids is oxidized to CO2 and H2O in the citric acid cycle. However, when the rate of mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue is accelerated, as, for example, during very low carbohydrate intake, the liver converts acetyl CoA into ketone bodies: Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. The liver cannot utilize ketone bodies because it lacks the mitochondrial enzyme succinyl CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase required for activation of acetoacetate to acetoacetyl CoA . Therefore, ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain) for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. Indeed, the use of ketone bodies replaces most of the glucose required by the brain. Not all amino acid carbon will yield glucose; on average, 1.6 g of amino acids is required to synthesize 1 g of glucose . Thus, to keep the brain supplied with glucose at rate of 110 to 120 g/day, the breakdown of 160 to 200 g of protein (close to 1 kg of muscle tissue) would be required. This is clearly undesirable, and the body limits glucose utilization to reduce the need for gluconeogenesis Continue reading >>
Ketone Body Production And Disposal In Diabetic Ketosis. A Comparison With Fasting Ketosis.
Abstract This work compares the metabolism of total ketone bodies in 13 insulin-deprived, type I diabetic subjects and 26 control subjects fasted for 15 h to 23 days, with the two groups showing a similar range of ketone body levels (1-12 mM). Ketone turnover rate was measured using a primed, constant infusion of either 14C-acetoacetate or 14C-beta-hydroxybutyrate, both tracers yielding comparable results. The major conclusions of this study are the following: the kinetics of ketone bodies are comparable in the two groups within the range of concentrations tested. The hyperketonemia of fasting and diabetes is primarily caused by an increased production of ketone bodies, but the phenomenon is amplified by a progressive limitation in the ability of tissues to remove ketones from blood as the concentration rises. The inverse relationship between the metabolic clearance and the plasma levels of ketones, which underlies this process, represents a general characteristic of ketone body metabolism that applies to both types of ketosis. A maximal metabolic disposal rate of about 2.3 mmol/min/1.73 m2 is attained in both groups at concentrations of 10-12 mM, which correspond to the highest ketone body levels encountered during prolonged fasting. Thus, up to these levels, there is no evidence for the existence of a ketone body removal defect specific to diabetes. Continue reading >>
What Is Ketosis?
Most people have heard they should eat a low-carb diet for weight loss and/or better health, but the word “ketosis” might have some tilting their heads in confusion wondering what’s so special about this funny term. Don’t worry; we’ve got all the details you need to understand the process of ketosis in the body — and more importantly, how you can implement it in your own life! Before you can fully understand ketosis, let’s cover some simple facts about the body and energy. The primary source of energy in the body — which normally fuels every function of the body, from brain cognition to athletic performance — is glucose. You typically get glucose from your diet by eating carbohydrates like: sugar bread grains Beans and legumes fruit starchy vegetables These carbs either turn immediately into glucose in the body or are stored as glycogen in the body to be used as glucose later. However, sometimes the body will have a low supply of glucose, also known as blood sugar. This could be because a person is eating a low-carb diet. When there is no longer enough glucose for the body to use, it turns to an alternative source of energy: your fat stores. It takes the fat stores and the liver breaks them down to make glucose. And when this happens, elements known as ketones are formed as a byproduct of the process. There are three main types of ketone bodies that form in your body during when this happens: Acetate Acetoacetate Beta-hydroxybutryate (BHB) Once ketones are formed, your body can use them as alternative fuel. KETOSIS FOR WEIGHT LOSS Probably the most widely talked about use for ketosis right now is utilizing it for weight loss. In fact, the ketogenic diet is built around creating ketosis in the body. There are several benefits you can experience when you Continue reading >>
How Is Methylglyoxal Produced In Ketosis?
As dry as this question sounds, this is a fascinating and relevant topic. At its heart lies the issue of how diabetes (and possibly low-carb diets) can predispose you to atherosclerosis. And heart attacks (pun totally unintended). But to get there, we have to review some chemistry. That's where methylglyoxal and ketosis come in. Bear with me. Above is a useful summary diagram. Keep reading for more details on the actual processes. To clarify: ketosis is not a chemical reaction per se. It's the state where the body derives most of its energy supply by metabolizing ketone bodies. Normally, we derive most of our energy through glycolysis and the concentration of ketone bodies is less than 0.5mM . Levels above this are associated with ketosis. For example, diabetics with severe ketosis might have concentrations of 10mM . The liver produces ketones from fats to meet the body's energy needs when there is a lack of glucose and glycogen. So you can see why ketosis might arise not just in diabetics, but also in people on low-carb diets like the Atkins . Fat (triacylglycerol) is broken down into three fatty acid chains and one glycerol molecule (this process is called lipolysis). The body uses these fatty acids as an energy source in a process called beta-oxidation, which produces acetyl-CoA. When glycogen and glucose levels are low (e.g. due to starvation, fasting, or a ketogenic diet), the liver converts acetyl-CoA into ketone bodies: Here are some common ketone bodies: From top to bottom: acetone (the stuff of nail polish remover), acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid So if we go back to Figure 1 , we see that some of the ketones produced by the liver are also the precursors of methylglyoxal, which is a metabolic toxin. What's bad about methylglyoxal? For one Continue reading >>
Ketosis & Measuring Ketones
Generally, ketone concentrations are lower in the morning and higher in the evening. Whatever time you pick to measure ketone levels, make sure to keep it consistent. Also, do not measure your ketone levels right after exercise. Ketone levels tend to be lower while your glucose levels higher so you won't get representative numbers. Keep in mind there are daily fluctuations caused by changes in hormone levels. Don't get discouraged! Another aspect that affects the level of ketones is the amount of fat in your diet. Some of you may show higher concentration of ketones after a high-fat meal. Coconut oil contains MCTs that will help you boost ketones. To easily increase your fat intake on a ketogenic diet, try fat bombs - snacks with at least 80% fat content. Ketone levels tend to be higher after extensive aerobic exercise as your body depletes glycogen stores. Exercise may help you get into ketosis faster. ketogenic "fruity" breath is not pleasant for most people. To avoid this, drink a lot of water, mint tea and make sure you eat foods rich in electrolytes. Avoid too many chewing gums and mints, as it may put you out of ketosis; there may be hidden carbs affecting your blood sugar. Increase your electrolyte intake, especially potassium. You are likely going to lose some sodium and potassium when switching to the keto diet. Finally, if you find it hard to lose weight on a ketogenic diet, there may be plenty other reasons than the level of ketone bodies: Not Losing Weight on Low-Carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up and Read Further. Continue reading >>
There is a lot of confusion about the term ketosis among medical professionals as well as laypeople. It is important to understand when and why nutritional ketosis occurs, and why it should not be confused with the metabolic disorder we call ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state where the liver produces small organic molecules called ketone bodies. Most cells in the body can use ketone bodies as a source of energy. When there is a limited supply of external energy sources, such as during prolonged fasting or carbohydrate restriction, ketone bodies can provide energy for most organs. In this situation, ketosis can be regarded as a reasonable, adaptive physiologic response that is essential for life, enabling us to survive periods of famine. Nutritional ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a metabolic condition where the blood becomes acidic as a result of the accumulation of ketone bodies. Ketoacidosis can have serious consequences and may need urgent medical treatment. The most common forms are diabetic ketoacidosis and alcoholic ketoacidosis. What Is Ketosis? The human body can be regarded as a biologic machine. Machines need energy to operate. Some use gasoline, others use electricity, and some use other power resources. Glucose is the primary fuel for most cells and organs in the body. To obtain energy, cells must take up glucose from the blood. Once glucose enters the cells, a series of metabolic reactions break it down into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the process. The body has an ability to store excess glucose in the form of glycogen. In this way, energy can be stored for later use. Glycogen consists of long chains of glucose molecules and is primarily found in the liver and skeletal muscle. Liver glycogen stores are used to mai Continue reading >>
What Is Ketosis?
"Ketosis" is a word you'll probably see when you're looking for information on diabetes or weight loss. Is it a good thing or a bad thing? That depends. Ketosis is a normal metabolic process, something your body does to keep working. When it doesn't have enough carbohydrates from food for your cells to burn for energy, it burns fat instead. As part of this process, it makes ketones. If you're healthy and eating a balanced diet, your body controls how much fat it burns, and you don't normally make or use ketones. But when you cut way back on your calories or carbs, your body will switch to ketosis for energy. It can also happen after exercising for a long time and during pregnancy. For people with uncontrolled diabetes, ketosis is a sign of not using enough insulin. Ketosis can become dangerous when ketones build up. High levels lead to dehydration and change the chemical balance of your blood. Ketosis is a popular weight loss strategy. Low-carb eating plans include the first part of the Atkins diet and the Paleo diet, which stress proteins for fueling your body. In addition to helping you burn fat, ketosis can make you feel less hungry. It also helps you maintain muscle. For healthy people who don't have diabetes and aren't pregnant, ketosis usually kicks in after 3 or 4 days of eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. That's about 3 slices of bread, a cup of low-fat fruit yogurt, or two small bananas. You can start ketosis by fasting, too. Doctors may put children who have epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, a special high-fat, very low-carb and protein plan, because it might help prevent seizures. Adults with epilepsy sometimes eat modified Atkins diets. Some research suggests that ketogenic diets might help lower your risk of heart disease. Other studies show sp Continue reading >>
Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works
Ketosis is a process that the body does on an everyday basis, regardless of the number of carbs you eat. Your body adapts to what is put in it, processing different types of nutrients into the fuels that it needs. Proteins, fats, and carbs can all be processed for use. Eating a low carb, high fat diet just ramps up this process, which is a normal and safe chemical reaction. When you eat carbohydrate based foods or excess amounts of protein, your body will break this down into sugar – known as glucose. Why? Glucose is needed in the creation of ATP (an energy molecule), which is a fuel that is needed for the daily activities and maintenance inside our bodies. If you’ve ever used our keto calculator to determine your caloric needs, you will see that your body uses up quite a lot of calories. It’s true, our bodies use up much of the nutrients we intake just to maintain itself on a daily basis. If you eat enough food, there will likely be an excess of glucose that your body doesn’t need. There are two main things that happen to excess glucose if your body doesn’t need it: Glycogenesis. Excess glucose will be converted to glycogen and stored in your liver and muscles. Estimates show that only about half of your daily energy can be stored as glycogen. Lipogenesis. If there’s already enough glycogen in your muscles and liver, any extra glucose will be converted into fats and stored. So, what happens to you once your body has no more glucose or glycogen? Ketosis happens. When your body has no access to food, like when you are sleeping or when you are on a ketogenic diet, the body will burn fat and create molecules called ketones. We can thank our body’s ability to switch metabolic pathways for that. These ketones are created when the body breaks down fats, creating Continue reading >>
What Are Ketone Strips Used For?
This won't make sense unless you understand low-carb diets. Here's how a low-carb diet is supposed to work. A person eats about 30g of carbs per day for a couple days. That's not a lot of carbs. That's like two slices of bread. The body burns through all those carbs. Now that it can't burn carbs, it starts to burn fat. When you burn fat, you lose weight. When the body burns fat, ketones end up in the urine. Low-carb dieters use ketone test strips to test whether their bodies are burning fat. A positive sign of ketones can often predict future weight loss. If this sounds too good to be true, well it might be. The biggest problem with low-carb diets is that most people can't sustain them for long enough to cause permanent weight loss. Cravings for carbs can be surprisingly strong. Depending on the protein source, high cholesterol can be a problem too. Ketosis sounds bad but the symptoms are pretty mild - bad breath, nausea, fatigue. Nobody dies from ketosis. We all should be thinking about carbs to some extent. There's an awfully high sugar content in the typical modern diet. Diabetes is no fun. Even cavities aren't a picnic. Most people could cut some carbs and be healthier. Continue reading >>
What Are Some Amazing Brain Hacks?
Stressed? Just Chew a Gum- This trick is a charm. I bet you would have noticed various legends like Ronaldo, Sachin Tendulkar etc chewing gum on field. Did you ever wonder why? Perhaps it appears cool. But it has a psychological reason too. Chewing gum occupies part of brain to concentrate in chewing, hence reducing stress in certain situations. Funny huh? Irritating Song Stuck in your head? There are various situations where some irritating Minaj songs get stuck in our head. And our brain plays it again and again. There is a simple way to get rid out of it. Just try to concentrate at the end part of the song and continue to end it, all in your head! And Taa-Daaaa! It’s gone! Got hit? Are you in pain? I personally found huge success in this trick. Whenever that toe-end table-dashing pain hits me, all I do is, try to deviate my concentration to something delicious like pizza, burger or your partner(pun intended). I personally think of Black Forest Pie (works amazing for me). It won’t end your pain as such, but will incredibly reduce. Trust me guys, IT WORKS! (Slap yourself and try it now) Exercising your brain- Just like you develop those hunky bulged biceps by constant exercises, you can do the same for your precious brain. A mental exercise. Various apps like Elevate, Neuronation, Lumosity etc train your brain with simple entertaining tasks The Duchenne Smile- This tiny hack actually tricks your brain to be happy. There are various scientific reasons behind this but I am not going blabber and bore you away with that! Just try to smile with all your cheek muscles stretched wide and keep your face excited. It is a simple trick for Instant Happiness! Sudden fit of rage? Try hack no.3. Works well. As it prevents you from bashing someone’s skull at least! Trouble Slee Continue reading >>
What Is That Sweet Aftertaste After Weightlifting And Then Eating?
My gut instinct is to say it may be post-exercise-induced Ketosis breath. Some have described this smell and taste in their mouths as "sweet," others have described it akin to nail polish remover. As you exhaust the glycogen in your cells from strenuous exercise, and your blood glucose dips, your liver produces ketone bodies from fatty acids in response. Ketone bodies are basically an alternate form of energy when carbohydrates are not available. If you're eating a very Low Carb Diet (called a "ketogenic low carb diet," typically under 20g net carbs a day) you may very well have already experienced ketosis breath. If you're eating a moderate carbohydrate diet, or training while in a fasted state, the exercise may be enough to have depleted your glycogen stores. Thus, your body may enter a ketogenic state, as if you had been consistently following a low carb diet. The conversion of fatty acids to ketones (energy) is how those following a low carb diet can lose excess fat. The body essentially runs on fat as fuel in the absence of its primary preference of sugar/glucose/glycogen. Continue reading >>
Ketones are a beneficial product of fat metabolism in the body. When carbohydrate intake is restricted, it lowers blood sugar and insulin levels. As insulin levels fall and energy is needed, fatty acids flow from the fat cells into the bloodstream and are taken up by various cells and metabolized in a process called beta-oxidation. The end result of beta-oxidation is a molecule called acetyl-coA, and as more fatty acids are released and metabolized, acetyl-coA levels in the cells rise. This causes a sort of metabolic “feedback loop” which triggers liver cells to shunt excess acetyl-Coa into ketogenesis, or the making of ketone bodies. Once created, the liver dumps the ketone bodies into the blood stream and they are taken up by skeletal and heart muscle cells at rates of availability. In addition, the brain begins to use ketones as an alternate fuel when blood levels are high enough to cross the blood brain barrier. Testing Laboratory Microbiology - Air Quality - Mold Asbestos - Environmental - Lead emsl.com There are three major types of ketone bodies present in the human blood stream when the metabolic process of ketosis is dominant: Acetoacetate (AcAc) is created first β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is created from acetoacetate Acetone is a spontaneously created side product of acetoacetate In times of starvation, or a low carbohydrate intake resulting in low insulin levels, ketone bodies supply up to 50% of the energy requirements for most body tissues, and up to 70% of the energy required by the brain. Glucose is the main source of fuel for neurons when the diet is high in carbohydrates. But when carbs are restricted, ketogenesis becomes the primary fuel process for most cells. During fasting or low carbohydrate intake, levels of ketone bodies in the blood stream can Continue reading >>
Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose. It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate, and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon. Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes. In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed. For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode. Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>