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What Animals Does Ketosis Affect

Acetonaemia (ketosis) Of Dairy Cows

Acetonaemia (ketosis) Of Dairy Cows

Note Number: AG0210 A very distinct problem for dairy cows is the disease of ketosis (or acetonaemia). The occurrence of this disease in dairy cows is related to an increased demand for glucose by the animal. Ketosis also occurs in other animals and the problem is known by various names, eg, pregnancy toxaemia in ewes. Most commonly, ketosis is seen either in high producing cows or cows on a poor diet. Signs of the disease can be seen before calving, but they occur most commonly in the first month after calving and occasionally in the second month. In a herd, ketosis can either be sporadic with only individuals affected, or endemic with many cows affected over a period. Cause The disease is an extension of a normal metabolic process that occurs in most heavily producing dairy cows. The basic problem in ketosis is a deficiency of glucose (or sugar) in the blood and body tissues. Glucose is produced by the cow from carbohydrates which are a major constituent of pastures and other supplementary feeds in varying degrees. In late pregnancy, glucose is directed from normal bodily functions to the nutrition of the developing calf. As lactation starts, glucose is essential for the formation of lactose (milk sugar) and milk fat. The requirement for glucose is at such high levels that the blood becomes low in glucose (hypoglycaemia). Fifty grams of glucose is required for each litre of milk with a 4.8% lactose test and 30 grams for each litre of milk with a 4% fat test. Cows (and other ruminants) cannot be fed glucose in their diet; it has to be made in the rumen from suitable carbohydrates in the diet. If the amount of suitable carbohydrate in the diet is not enough to meet the glucose needs of the cow in full milk, the liver starts to manufacture glucose from other basic compou Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet: 25 Proven Benefits And How To Know If It’s Right For You

Ketogenic Diet: 25 Proven Benefits And How To Know If It’s Right For You

The ketogenic diet has been touted for its many health benefits such as weight loss, cognitive function, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In this post, we cover: Different ways to get into ketosis Physiology and pathways that are changed when you are in ketosis, which explains how the ketogenic diet derives its benefits Genetic factors that may affect the safety and effectiveness of ketosis 17 Health conditions that may be helped by the ketogenic diet Negative effects of ketosis and how to mitigate them Ketogenic Diets Improve Cognitive Function and Brain Health Ketogenic Diet as a Cancer Treatment Ketogenic diets are defined by a low carbohydrate (typically under 50 grams/day) and high fat intake, leading to an elevation of free fatty acids and ketone bodies in the blood (R). The first ketogenic diets in the medical literature are noted in publications in the 1920s, although wider popularity and increased research was not seen in medical literature until the 1960s (R). Variations of the diets have remained popular for the past 20-30 years, with proponents claiming that the diets boost weight loss and energy while offering protection from certain metabolic diseases (R). A ketogenic diet and fasting affect the body similarly. Both deplete the body’s glucose reserves, so the body starts turning fatty acids into ketones (R). When the body doesn’t have enough carbohydrates from food, it burns fat by producing ketones or ketone bodies (R, R). In non-diabetics, ketosis can be achieved in 3 ways, i.e. Fasting or severe caloric restriction (R) Prolonged physical exercise in fasted state, depending on intensity and duration (R, R2) Nutritional ketosis, i.e. by consuming a very low carbohydrate diet Supplementation, such as by supplementing with medium chain triglyceri Continue reading >>

Dr. Gonzalez Dismantles The Ketogenic Diet For Cancer [13 Mins.]

Dr. Gonzalez Dismantles The Ketogenic Diet For Cancer [13 Mins.]

In early 2012, I started to see some chatter online about the ketogenic diet as a potential anti-cancer diet. I’ve understood for many years that different diets work for different people, and I was intrigued by the ketogenic diet for cancer. Could this be another possible dietary strategy to heal cancer? So naturally I shared information about it on this site, thinking it might be a viable option for some. At that time there were no other sites (at least none as large as this one) talking about the ketogenic diet and how it may help cancer patients. In 2013, awareness of the keto diet exploded. This was mostly due to Dr. Mercola’s articles, interviews, and endorsement. Since then, many others have jumped on the bandwagon. And at first glance, there is a compelling hypothesis which presents the ketogenic diet as a method to starve cancer cells of their primary fuel, glucose, thus killing the cancer. Despite the zealous promoters of it, some of whom I have great respect for, my opinion of the ketogenic diet has changed. What caused my change of heart in promoting the ketogenic diet for cancer patients? It started with several long phone conversations and email exchanges I had with cancer healing expert friend who was adamant that the ketogenic diet did not work in healing cancer long term. This coincided with the recurrence of cancer in someone I knew who was promoting the ketogenic diet (as effective). It appeared to have some positive short term results for some people (shrinking or slowing down tumors), but I was beginning to have some doubts about it working long term. This uneasiness persisted for many months and I could not shake it. So I finally made the decision to take down my very popular post and youtube video about it. Then came the coup de grace from Dr. Continue reading >>

Can A High-fat Diet Beat Cancer?

Can A High-fat Diet Beat Cancer?

The women's hospital at the University of Würzburg used to be the biggest of its kind in Germany. Its former size is part of the historical burden it carries — countless women were involuntarily sterilized here when it stood in the geographical center of Nazi Germany. Today, the capacity of the historical building overlooking the college town, where the baroque and mid-20th-century concrete stand in a jarring mix, has been downsized considerably. And the experiments within its walls are of a very different nature. Since early 2007, Dr. Melanie Schmidt and biologist Ulrike Kämmerer, both at the Würzburg hospital, have been enrolling cancer patients in a Phase I clinical study of a most unexpected medication: fat. Their trial puts patients on a so-called ketogenic diet, which eliminates almost all carbohydrates, including sugar, and provides energy only from high-quality plant oils, such as hempseed and linseed oil, and protein from soy and animal products. What sounds like yet another version of the Atkins craze is actually based on scientific evidence that dates back more than 80 years. In 1924, the German Nobel laureate Otto Warburg first published his observations of a common feature he saw in fast-growing tumors: unlike healthy cells, which generate energy by metabolizing sugar in their mitochondria, cancer cells appeared to fuel themselves exclusively through glycolysis, a less-efficient means of creating energy through the fermentation of sugar in the cytoplasm. Warburg believed that this metabolic switch was the primary cause of cancer, a theory that he strove, unsuccessfully, to establish until his death in 1970. To the two researchers in Würzburg, the theoretical debate about what is now known as the Warburg effect — whether it is the primary cause of ca Continue reading >>

15 Health Conditions That May Benefit From A Ketogenic Diet

15 Health Conditions That May Benefit From A Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic diets have become incredibly popular. Early research suggests this high-fat, very low-carb diet may benefit several health conditions. Although some of the evidence is from case studies and animal research, results from human controlled studies are also promising. Here are 15 health conditions that may benefit from a ketogenic diet. Epilepsy is a disease that causes seizures due to excessive brain activity. Anti-seizure medications are effective for some people with epilepsy. However, others don't respond to the drugs or can't tolerate their side effects. Of all the conditions that may benefit from a ketogenic diet, epilepsy has by far the most evidence supporting it. In fact, there are several dozen studies on the topic. Research shows that seizures typically improve in about 50% of epilepsy patients who follow the classic ketogenic diet. This is also known as a 4:1 ketogenic diet because it provides 4 times as much fat as protein and carbs combined (1, 2, 3). The modified Atkins diet (MAD) is based on a considerably less restrictive 1:1 ratio of fat to protein and carbs. It has been shown to be equally effective for seizure control in most adults and children older than two years of age (4, 5, 6, 7, 8). The ketogenic diet may also have benefits on the brain beyond seizure control. For example, when researchers examined the brain activity of children with epilepsy, they found improvements in various brain patterns in 65% of those following a ketogenic diet — regardless of whether they had fewer seizures (9). Ketogenic diets have been shown to reduce seizure frequency and severity in many children and adults with epilepsy who don't respond well to drug therapy. Metabolic syndrome, sometimes referred to as prediabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance. Continue reading >>

What Everybody Ought To Know About Ketosis

What Everybody Ought To Know About Ketosis

Recently I wanted to explore the world of Ketosis. I thought I knew a little bit about ketosis, but after doing some research I soon realised how wrong I was. 3 months later, after reading numerous books, listening to countless podcasts and experimenting with various diets I know have a sound understanding of ketosis. This resource is built as a reference guide for those looking to explore the fascinating world of ketosis. It is a resource that I wish I had 3 months ago. As you will soon see, a lot of the content below is not mine, instead I have linked to referenced to experts who have a greater understanding of this topic than I ever will. I hope this helps and if there is something that I have missed please leave a comment below so that I can update this. Also, as this is a rather long document, I have split it into various sections. You can click the headline below to be sent straight to the section that interests you. For those that are really time poor I have created a useful ketosis cheat sheet guide. This guide covers all the essential information you should know about ketosis. It can be downloaded HERE. Alternatively, if you're looking for a natural and sustainable way to improve health and lose weight head to this page - What is Ketosis? What Are The Benefits from being in Ketosis? Isn’t Ketosis Dangerous? Ketoacidosis vs Ketosis What Is The Difference Between a Low Carb Diet and a Ketogenic Diet? Types of Ketosis: The Difference Between Nutritional, Therapeutic & MCT Ketogenic Diets Is The Ketogenic Diet Safe? Long Term Effects Thyroid and Ketosis - What You May Want To Know What is a Typical Diet/Macro Breakdown for a Ketogenic Diet? Do I Need to Eat Carbs? What do I Eat On a Ketogenic Diet? What Do I Avoid Eating on a Ketogenic Diet? Protein Consumption a Continue reading >>

The Fat-fueled Brain: Unnatural Or Advantageous?

The Fat-fueled Brain: Unnatural Or Advantageous?

Disclaimer: First things first. Please note that I am in no way endorsing nutritional ketosis as a supplement to, or a replacement for medication. As you’ll see below, data exploring the potential neuroprotective effects of ketosis are still scarce, and we don’t yet know the side effects of a long-term ketogenic diet. This post talks about the SCIENCE behind ketosis, and is not meant in any way as medical advice. The ketogenic diet is a nutritionist’s nightmare. High in saturated fat and VERY low in carbohydrates, “keto” is adopted by a growing population to paradoxically promote weight loss and mental well-being. Drinking coffee with butter? Eating a block of cream cheese? Little to no fruit? To the uninitiated, keto defies all common sense, inviting skeptics to wave it off as an unnatural “bacon-and-steak” fad diet. Yet versions of the ketogenic diet have been used to successfully treat drug-resistant epilepsy in children since the 1920s – potentially even back in the biblical ages. Emerging evidence from animal models and clinical trials suggest keto may be therapeutically used in many other neurological disorders, including head ache, neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders, bipolar disorder, autism and brain cancer. With no apparent side effects. Sound too good to be true? I feel ya! Where are these neuroprotective effects coming from? What’s going on in the brain on a ketogenic diet? Ketosis in a nutshell In essence, a ketogenic diet mimics starvation, allowing the body to go into a metabolic state called ketosis (key-tow-sis). Normally, human bodies are sugar-driven machines: ingested carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is mainly transported and used as energy or stored as glycogen in liver and muscle tissue. When deprived of d Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth Of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma In Mice

The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth Of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma In Mice

Abstract The altered metabolism of cancer cells has long been viewed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, brain tumors often display heightened glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. A subset of medulloblastoma, the most prevalent malignant brain tumor in children, arises as a consequence of activating mutations in the Hedgehog (HH) pathway, which has been shown to promote aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that a low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet would suppress tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of medulloblastoma. However, we found that the ketogenic diet did not slow the growth of spontaneous tumors or allograft flank tumors, and it did not exhibit synergy with a small molecule inhibitor of Smoothened. Serum insulin was significantly reduced in mice fed the ketogenic diet, but no alteration in PI3 kinase activity was observed. These findings indicate that while the ketogenic diet may be effective in inhibiting growth of other tumor types, it does not slow the growth of HH-medulloblastoma in mice. Citation: Dang MT, Wehrli S, Dang CV, Curran T (2015) The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma in Mice. PLoS ONE 10(7): e0133633. Editor: Jingwu Xie, Indiana University School of Medicine, UNITED STATES Received: April 6, 2015; Accepted: June 29, 2015; Published: July 20, 2015 Copyright: © 2015 Dang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper. Funding: Funded by National Institutes of Health T32NS007413 and R25NS06 Continue reading >>

The Definitive Guide To Micronutrients In The Ketogenic Diet

The Definitive Guide To Micronutrients In The Ketogenic Diet

When excluding particular foods, food categories, or macronutrient groups from the diet, the opportunity for deficiency to present itself increases. Therefore, it is no surprise that pushback against the ketogenic diet cites vitamin, mineral, or other nutrient deficiencies as a reason to think twice before restricting carbohydrate content in the diet. However, a close examination of our foods and their contents strongly supports the consumption of animal products. In fact, removing animal products from the diet poses more of a risk to the development of nutrient deficiencies than removing carbohydrate-rich products. This is particularly true when looking beyond the nutrient content of the food to how the nutrients are absorbed and metabolized. In general, meat and other animal products do not limit or may promote nutrient absorption, while plants can often contain antinutrients like phytates, oxalates, or glucosinolates which reduce nutrient absorption, nullifying any benefits associated with their contents. So... what nutrients are lacking in a ketogenic diet? Vitamins Sources: National Institute of Health, Daily Values National Institute of Health, Recommended Intake Vitamin A Cruciferous vegetables (kale, spinach, broccoli), dairy (cheese), and meat (beef liver, fish) are rich in vitamin A. Interestingly, 1 ounce of beef liver would provide nearly 100% of the DV for vitamin A (a tablespoon of butter can also provide over 5%). Vitamin A is NOT lacking in a ketogenic diet. Here we say B “complex,” as this group includes thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folate, and cobalamin. The B vitamin complex is an interesting one because we’re told to eat grains and cereal to get B vitamins. Grains and cereal don’t actually contain much B Continue reading >>

Long Term Very Low Carb And Ketogenic Diets = Bad News

Long Term Very Low Carb And Ketogenic Diets = Bad News

Via Spanish Caravan, a frequent commenter with let’s just say a “medical background.” ~~~ Physiological Insulin Resistatnce (PIR) results from glucose deficiency the same way mucin deficiency induces dry eyes, nostrils, colon and anemia like symptoms. They’re both ways of preserving glucose for your brain. When you VLC, your muscles become insulin resistant to preserve your glucose for the brain. So while your muscles are running on fatty acids, they become insulin resistant. This leaves glucose for your brain but the net result is your BG going up as you’re “physiologically” insulin resistant. There doesn’t really seem to a problem with this state, as there is with mucin deficiency; it’s not known to induce diabetes or make prediabetics diabetic. At least not according to those who advocate VLCing. I have a feeling however, that this is a disease-prone state. The effects of low carbohydrate diets on insulin sensitivity depend on what is used to replace the dietary carbohydrate, and the nature of the subjects studied. Dietary carbohydrates may affect insulin action, at least in part, via alterations in plasma free fatty acids. In normal subjects a high-carbohydrate/low-GI breakfast meal reduced free fatty acids by reducing the undershoot of plasma glucose, whereas low-carbohydrate breakfasts increased postprandial free fatty acids. Why is it disease-prone? Because high serum free fatty acids are implicated in various disease states, especially immune related (and also diabetes in some cases). High serum FFA and very low trigs that we see among those who VLC are associated with nascent autoimmunity, especially rheumatic autoimmunity. See: Low fasting serum triglyceride level as a precocious marker of autoimmune disorders. We’re talking about triglycer Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

Complete Guide To Fats & Oils On A Low-carb Ketogenic Diet

Complete Guide To Fats & Oils On A Low-carb Ketogenic Diet

The main focus of the ketogenic diet is to get the macronutrient ratio right. Ideally, you should be eating 5-10% calories from carbs (net carbs), 15-30% of calories from protein and 65-75% calories from fat (or even more) in order to benefit from ketone bodies produced by your liver. So, what is the ideal fat intake on the ketogenic diet? The amount of fat varies for all individuals and depends on your goal. In general, you won't need to precisely count fat intake or calories on a ketogenic diet, because eating food naturally low in carbs will keep you sated for longer. Based on studies, proteins and fats have been shown to be the most sating nutrients, while carbohydrates the least sating. Fat provides a steady supply of energy with no insulin spikes. That's why, you won't experience any cravings or energy and mood swings. However, in some cases counting calories and keeping track of your macros make help you break through a weight loss plateau. If you want to find out your ideal fat intake, have a look at KetoDiet Buddy, a free online keto calculator we have developed for our blog. All the recipes on my blog and in KetoDiet and KetoDiet Basic include detailed nutrition data to help you track you food intake. Furthermore, the macronutrient ratio is not the only aspect you should consider. When increasing your fat intake, it's critical to understand which fats are beneficial and which may damage your health. Simply put, the type and quality of fats matter. When deciding which oils and fats you should use, follow these rules: You can download a print-friendly version of this guide here! 1. Use Saturated Fats for Cooking Saturated fats have been cursed and deemed to be really bad for our health. We've been brainwashed for the last 50 years that saturated fat and choleste Continue reading >>

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Humans are unique in their remarkable ability to enter ketosis. They’re also situated near the top of the food chain. Coincidence? During starvation, humans rapidly enter ketosis; they do this better than king penguins, and bears don’t do it at all. Starvation ketosis Humans maintain a high level of functionality during starvation. We can still hunt & plan; some would even argue it’s a more finely tuned state, cognitively. And that’s important, because if we became progressively weaker and slower, chances of acquiring food would rapidly decline. Perhaps this is why fasting bears just sleep most of the time: no ketones = no bueno..? Animals with a low brain/carcass weight ratio (ie, small brain) don’t need it. Babies and children have a higher brain/carcass weight ratio, so they develop ketosis more rapidly than adults. Is this a harmful process? No, more likely an evolutionary adaptation which supports the brain. The brain of newborn babies consumes a huge amount of total daily energy, and nearly half comes from ketones. A week or so later, even after the carbohydrate content of breast milk increases, they still don’t get “kicked out of ketosis” (Bourneres et al., 1986). If this were a harmful state, why would Nature have done this? …and all those anecdotes, like babies learn at incredibly rapid rates… coincidence? Maybe they’re myths. Maybe not. Ketosis in the animal kingdom Imagine a hibernating bear: huge adipose tissue but small brain fuel requirement relative to body size and total energy expenditure. No ketosis, because brain accounts for less than 5% of total metabolism. In adult humans, this is around 19-23%, and babies are much higher (eg, Cahill and Veech, 2003 & Hayes et al., 2012). For the rest of this article and more, head over to Pat Continue reading >>

Cattle Diseases

Cattle Diseases

Ketosis Also known as: Acetonemia, Fat Cow Syndrome, Hypoglycemia and Pregnancy Toxemia. Primary ketosis, or acetonemia, is a metabolic disorder and is largely a disease that is influenced by management of dairy cows in early lactation. Ketosis is an important clinical and subclinical disease, as there are several metabolic disorders and diseases that commonly occur in the calving and the early lactation period that are linked to ketosis (including milk fever, retained foetal membranes and displaced abomasum). Hypoglycemia is the major factor involved in the onset and development of clinical ketosis. There is a gradual loss of body condition over several days or even weeks. There is also a moderate to marked decline in milk yield (up to 5 liters per day) over five to six days before the onset of obvious clinical signs (Edwards and Tozer, 2004). This can persist for up to two weeks after diagnosis (Rajala-Schultz et al., 1999). The disease is most commonly seen in high-yielding dairy cows in early lactation. Secondary ketosis due to lack of appetite as a result of another disease can be seen at any stage of lactation. Beef cows may also suffer from ketosis during pregnancy, although this is less commonly recognized. Primary ketosis in dairy cows To satisfy the requirements of milk production, the cow can draw on two sources of nutrients – feed intake and body reserves. During early lactation, the energy intake is insufficient to meet the energy output in milk and the animal is in a negative energy balance. In conventional farming, this is considered to be a normal metabolic situation in high-yielding dairy cows. Cows in early lactation are, therefore, in a vulnerable situation, and any stress that causes a reduction in feed intake may lead to the onset of clinical keto Continue reading >>

Increased Longevity —a Credible Benefit Of Nutritional Ketosis?

Increased Longevity —a Credible Benefit Of Nutritional Ketosis?

The topic of diet and lifestyle interventions to promote longevity — some intellectually laudable and some frankly preposterous — has long been a graveyard for dreams of a fountain of youth. The tricky thing about doing credible research on this topic is that a rigorous human study would take over 100 years, and animal research is notoriously inaccurate for predicting human outcomes. Therefore, we should look at these animal longevity studies with a critical eye. The next new thing seeking our attention on this topic should have a high bar to surpass to gain any credibility. That said, there has been a consistent line of research over the last few decades linking long-term energy-restricted (i.e., calorie-restricted) diets to increased longevity in animal models like fruit flies,1 worms,2 and mice;3 but longer term studies in monkeys have yielded mixed results.4,5 Some groups advocate that we eat either a consistent energy-restricted diet (i.e., 60-70% of “normal intake”) or to practice intermittent fasting (i.e., a partial day or even multiple days with no food intake) to live longer. The problem is that many people find that these practices leave them constantly hungry, making long-term adherence difficult. Furthermore, intermittent fasting is a dangerous roller-coaster for anyone taking medication to manage diabetes. An important supporting step in understanding how energy restriction works has been the observation that this process alters an important regulatory enzyme called mTORc1.6 Along with a few other biochemical pathways, “mTOR” is now understood to have potent effects on both aging and cancer, and thus it has become a hot topic in pharmaceutical research. Clearly a drug that is safe to take long term and extends both length and quality of life wo Continue reading >>

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