diabetestalk.net

Untreated Ketoacidosis In Cats

Untreated Diabetes In Cats

Untreated Diabetes In Cats

If you notice your cat eating like there's no tomorrow but losing weight, don't be jealous of his ability to keep a slim figure. Odds are your skinny kitty actually has feline diabetes, a serious health condition that prevents his body from absorbing glucose properly. What is Diabetes Feline diabetes sounds like a dieter's dream, as it prevents the body from absorbing glucose, or blood sugar. No sugar means no fat gain, which is good, right? Not really, as your cat needs that glucose to give his body enough energy to stay healthy and metabolize his food properly. Diabetes occurs when your cat doesn't produce enough insulin, which helps his body's cells absorb the glucose in his blood. Not enough insulin means the glucose stays in the bloodstream until it works through his kidneys and is eliminated through his urine. Symptoms Your cat will not simply wake up one day and have full-blown diabetes. It's a slow progression with various seemingly unrelated symptoms that all stem from the excess sugar in his body. Because he can't absorb the glucose from his food, he'll feel hungry more often and eat much more than usual. Despite this increase in appetite, he may lose weight. You may notice more frequent trips to the water dish as he tries to remove the excess sugar in his bloodstream by flushing it out through his kidneys. You may also find yourself needing to clean his litter boxes more often as his trips there increase. Complications When it comes to diabetes, ignorance is not bliss and your cat will not eventually get better if you just buy him the right high-priced specialized food from the pet store. Serious complications can develop if your cat's diabetes is left untreated, causing a decrease in his quality of life and even an early death. As his condition worsens, his Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis

Ketones in the urine, as detected by urine testing stix or a blood ketone testing meter[1], may indicate the beginning of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a dangerous and often quickly fatal condition caused by low insulin levels combined with certain other systemic stresses. DKA can be fixed if caught quickly. Diabetics of all species therefore need to be checked for ketones with urine testing stix, available at any pharmacy, whenever insulin level may be too low, and any of the following signs or triggers are present: Ketone Monitoring Needed: Little or no insulin in last 12 hours High blood sugar over 16 mmol/L or 300 mg/dL (though with low insulin, lower as well...) Dehydration (skin doesn't jump back after pulling a bit gums are tacky or dry)[2] Not eating for over 12 hours due to Inappetance or Fasting Vomiting Lethargy Infection or illness High stress levels Breath smells like acetone (nail-polish remover) or fruit. Note that the triggers and signs are somewhat interchangeable because ketoacidosis is, once begun, a set of vicious circles which will make itself worse. So dehydration, hyperglycemia, fasting, and presence of ketones are not only signs, they're also sometimes triggers. In a diabetic, any urinary ketones above trace, or any increase in urinary ketone level, or trace urinary ketones plus some of the symptoms above, are cause to call an emergency vet immediately, at any hour of the day. Possible False Urine Ketone Test Results Drugs and Supplements Valproic Acid (brand names) Depakene, Depakote, Divalproex Sodium[3] Positive. Common use: Treatment of epilepsy. Cefixime/Suprax[4] Positive with nitroprusside-based urine testing. Common use: Antibiotic. Levadopa Metabolites[5] Positive with high concentrations[6]. Tricyclic Ring Compounds[7][8] Positive. Commo Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats Part 2 – Things You Should Know About Diagnosis & Treatment

Diabetes In Cats Part 2 – Things You Should Know About Diagnosis & Treatment

3 53 Remember Stephen? Stephen is having a cat nap. So I guess it’s up to me to tell you all a little bit more about diabetes in cats. In my previous article – What Does a Cat With Diabetes Look Like? I talked about what diabetes mellitus actually is, what I think about people who taste urine to check for its sweetness, and gave some pointers on signs to watch out for that might indicate your cat has this disease. Now it’s time to have a quick look at how diabetes in cats is diagnosed and most importantly, what the heck we can do about it. How Can My Veterinarian Tell if My Cat has Diabetes? There are two main test results required for a vet to be able to diagnose diabetes in a symptomatic cat: A high fasting blood glucose (i.e. loads of glucose floating around in their blood even when they haven’t eaten recently) Testing these parameters is a piece of cake! See what I did there? But here’s where it gets tricky. Cats can get enormously stressed out by a visit to the vet (kind of like I feel about sitting in the dentist’s chair), and a really important effect of this stress can be a transient elevation in their blood glucose, which can even be significant enough to see glucose spilling over into the urine. What this means is that cats who do not have diabetes may have a high blood glucose reading, and even occasionally glucose in their urine. These tests aren’t always diagnostic on their own. It is best to run a full blood profile rather than just checking the glucose alone. This assists us with detecting any other illnesses that may either be the sole cause of your cat’s problems or could just be lurking around complicating the situation. If there is any doubt about the diagnosis of diabetes, a good test to do next is a plasma fructosamine level. This te Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes

Feline Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus, or “sugar” diabetes, is a common disorder in cats, striking one in every 400. It is caused by the inability of the hormone insulin to properly balance blood sugar (glucose) levels. Symptoms Symptoms of diabetes in cats are similar to those in humans, including: increased appetite weight loss lethargy poor hair coat excessive urination weakness in the rear legs Diagnosis Your veterinarian can determine if your cat is diabetic by checking blood, urine and clinical signs. Treatment Diabetes is definitely treatable and need not shorten an animal’s lifespan or life quality. However, diabetes is life-threatening if left alone. Untreated, the condition leads to increasingly weak legs in cats, and eventually malnutrition, ketoacidosis and death. Early diagnosis and treatment by a qualified veterinarian can not only help prevent nerve damage, but in some cases even lead to remission so that the cat no longer needs injected insulin. Treatment generally entails giving insulin injections once or twice a day, though in a small number of cats, diabetes may be controlled through diet and oral medication. Diet is a critical component of treatment, and is in many cases effective on its own. It is becoming clear that lower-carbohydrate diets will significantly lower insulin requirements for diabetic cats. Carbohydrate levels are highest in dry cat foods, so diabetic cats are best off with a low-carbohydrate, healthy canned diet. Oral medications that stimulate the pancreas and promote insulin release work in some small proportion of cats, but these drugs may be completely ineffective if the pancreas is not working. A slow-acting dose of insulin injected twice daily, along with a low-carbohydrate diet, keeps the blood sugar within a recommended range for the entir Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes

Feline Diabetes

Source Feline diabetes is very similar to diabetes in humans. Cats can experience the same two types of diabetes that afflict their human owners. Where Type I diabetes is concerned, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. Type II diabetes is marked by an improper cellular response to insulin. Both types of diabetes can produce severe and dangerous symptoms. How Diabetes Works When there is not enough insulin in a cat's system, or there is an inadequate insulin response, glucose cannot enter the body's cells. This results in a high blood sugar level. The sugar stays in the blood, but the body is actually sugar starved. Some diabetic cats lose weight while eating more because their body cannibalizes its own tissues in an attempt to obtain the needed sugar. The extra sugar in the blood stream is eliminated through urine causing increased urination, thus dehydrating the body. What Causes Feline Diabetes? Cats are inherent carnivores. Their bodies do not tolerate carbohydrates well. Grains are carbohydrates. Commercial cat food is loaded with grains, and carbohydrates elevate glucose levels. In an effort to compensate for the high glucose levels, the pancreas produces more and more insulin, eventually becoming overworked and inevitably failing. Certain medications and diseases can contribute to the development of diabetes. Megestrol acetate, otherwise known as Ovoban, and corticosteroids, such as prednisolone, have been linked to diabetes, as have obesity, chronic pancreatitis, hyperthyroidism, Cushing's disease and acromegaly. Feline diabetes is more common in males than females and in cats over seven years old. Diabetic cat food then becomes necessary. Symptoms of Diabetes If your cat displays any symptoms of diabetes, seek medical attention immediately. Untreated di Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Cats

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Cats

Diabetic ketoacidosis requires urgent veterinary treatment. With ketoacidosis, the lack of insulin causes the body to burn fat and muscle creating ketones. The kidneys are unable to filter all of the ketones from the blood. As a result, these ketones build up in the bloodstream, turning the blood extremely acidic. This is a dangerous stage of diabetes that causes blood chemical and blood sugar imbalances, and also impairs brain function. Left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to diabetic coma and death. Understanding Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus is more commonly referred to as diabetes. With this disease, the feline's pancreas fails to properly regulate the flow of insulin within the body. Without the proper levels of insulin, the cat eats more, but fats and protein break down into energy, so the cat loses weight. Sugar levels within the blood skyrocket and are released in the urine. Cats often require insulin injections to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. With non-insulin dependent diabetes, diet, weight loss and exercise may be enough to keep blood sugar levels down. If a cat's blood sugar levels are properly monitored, a cat with diabetes is unlikely to face any serious health issues. If diabetic ketoacidosis does occur, call your vet immediately. Signs of Diabetic Ketoacidosis The most common signs of ketoacidosis in cats are excessive thirst and frequent urination. However, you should also watch for: Breath smells of nail polish remover/acetone Excessive appetite Vision changes/blindness Vomiting Weakness Weight loss Ketoacidosis can occur with an infection or illness. It can also happen if the insulin amounts need altering. Your vet will find a cause and create a new treatment plan you will follow at home. Diagnosis and Treatment When you bring Continue reading >>

Causes Symptoms And Treatment Of Feline Diabetes

Causes Symptoms And Treatment Of Feline Diabetes

Feline diabetes (also called diabetes mellitus) is similar in nature to human diabetes and occurs in middle age or older cats. Diabetes is a disease in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (the hormone that controls how the body absorbs and uses sugar) or the insulin produced is not effective at controlling blood sugar levels.. Your cat needs insulin to metabolize or use sugar, fat and protein for energy. Without insulin, sugar builds up in the blood and spills into the urine. Sugar in the urine causes your cat to pass large amounts of urine and to drink lots of water. The level of sugar in the brain controls appetite. Without insulin, the brain becomes sugar deprived and your cat becomes constantly hungry, even though she is experiencing weight loss due to the improper use of nutrients from the diet. Untreated diabetic cats are more likely to develop infections and commonly get bladder, kidney, or skin infections. There are two types of feline diabetes: Uncomplicated diabetes: your cat will not be extremely ill and show basic signs of the disease such as excessive drinking, frequent urination and susceptibility to kidney and bladder infections. Diabetes with ketoacidosis: your cat would be very ill and may be vomiting and depressed. Ketoacidosis happens when Ketosis and Acidosis occurs. Ketosis is the accumulation of substances called ketone bodies in the blood. Acidosis is increased acidity of the blood. Cat with feline diabetes will sometimes regain the ability to produce their own insulin in the pancreas. Cats that developed diabetes after receiving long term glucocorticoids or hormones are more likely to stop needing insulin after a while compared to cats that developed diabetes without a known cause. Your diabetic cat should be evaluated by a veterin Continue reading >>

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

There are certain signs or symptoms which are commonly seen in cats with diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately, these signs also occur in other diseases and conditions. Therefore, laboratory tests are necessary to diagnose diabetes mellitus in cats. The following article includes a discussion of how this diagnosis is made and the types of diabetes found in cats. What are the signs of diabetes mellitus in cats and why do they occur? Depending on how severely insulin production is impaired, there may be few signs of disease, or the signs may be severe. Dogs with diabetes often develop cataracts; cats do not. The most common signs of diabetes are: Increased thirst (polydipsia) and urination (polyuria) Change in appetite Weight loss Change in gait (walking) Decreased activity, weakness, depression Vomiting Increased Thirst and Urination: Because the glucose cannot enter the cells, the glucose levels in the blood become abnormally high (hyperglycemia). The glucose is filtered out by the kidneys and is found in the urine (glucosuria). When it is filtered out, it carries water with it. The animal, then, is losing more water through the urine than normal and has to make up for it by drinking more. Inappropriate Elimination: The increased urination may result in the cat not always urinating in the litter box. This inappropriate urination may be one of the first signs of diabetes in cats. In addition, cats with diabetes can often develop urinary tract infections, which may also result in inappropriate elimination. Change in Appetite: Some diabetic cats eat less, because frankly, they do not feel well. Other cats may have voracious appetites and eat a lot (polyphagia) because their hypothalamus keeps telling them they are hungry. Weight Loss: Because the cat cannot use the calories he Continue reading >>

Tilly's Diabetes Homepage

Tilly's Diabetes Homepage

Home Story Blood glucose values The future? Protocol Links Guestbook About this site Cats are carnivores. Their metabolism is optimized for a meat-based diet: they primarily require protein and fat as energy sources. Therefore, feeding cats carbohydrates (contained in dry cat food in large amounts) may potentially have a negative effect on their health. Diabetic cats in particular should eat as few carbohydrates as possible, since carbohydrates rapidly raise blood sugar levels. The typical prey of a cat - a mouse or a small bird - is composed of 3-5% carbohydrates. Most brands of dry food range from 35% to almost 50% carbohydrates. Low quality canned foods have 20% carbohydrates, while many of the better ones have under 10% (or even <5%). You can get a good overview of these figures from Janet & Binky’s tables, which illustrate the general differences between canned and dry food, even though not all of the brands mentioned are necessarily available in Europe. Diabetic cats, until they are well regulated on insulin, also require more water. When cats eat dry food, they need to compensate for the lack of moisture by drinking more. It has been observed that even healthy cats do not do this sufficiently, because they have a low thirst drive. A sufficient intake of water is even more important in diabetic cats. Canned food makes it easier to keep your cat well hydrated. Therefore, I fed Tilly canned food only. The ingredient information which manufacturers are required to provide in Germany is extremely minimal - it is next to impossible to reliably determine the carbohydrate content of cat food. Therefore, my rule of thumb is that the food may only ever contain the following ingredients: • meat • meat by-products • fish • fish by-products • minerals In particula Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes Mellitus

Feline Diabetes Mellitus

4 0 Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by a failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin. Insulin allows cells in the body to absorb glucose (sugar) from the blood. Glucose is the cells’ main energy source and is critical to cellular function. Without insulin, the cells do not get the energy they need to function, and glucose levels in the blood rise. The body can use fats as an energy source; however this can occasionally lead to a life threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis which requires emergency treatment. Symptoms of diabetes include the following: 1. Weight loss – as fats are mobilized for energy instead of glucose 2. Increased appetite – as the body tries to increase its energy supplies 3. Increased drinking and urination – the glucose in the blood overwhelms the kidneys and spills into the urine drawing excessive amounts of water with it 4. Untreated diabetics can develop diabetic ketoacidosis. If this happens, the cat will show signs of severe illness including loss of appetite, lethargy and vomiting. Diagnosing diabetes is generally straightforward. Most diabetic patients have significantly elevated glucose levels in their blood as well as in their urine. In many cats we recommend a fructosamine test to confirm the diagnosis and make sure the elevated glucose was not due to stress. Most diabetic cats do very well with treatment and can live for many years with the disease. In addition to treating the diabetes, it is important to closely monitor all aspects of your cat’s health, since diabetes can make cats more susceptible to other problems such as infections. Dental health is especially important! Treating diabetes involves several steps: 1. Diet – Recent studies have shown that decreasing the intake of carbohydrates Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis in cats at a glance Ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes in which ketones and blood sugar levels build up in the body due to insufficient levels of insulin which is required to move glucose into the cells for energy. As a result, the body uses fat as an alternate energy source which produces ketones causing the blood to become too acidic. Common causes include uncontrolled diabetes, missed or insufficient insulin, surgery, infection, stress and obesity. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include increased urination and thirst, dehydration, nausea, diarrhea, confusion, rapid breathing which may later change to laboured breathing. What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes characterised by metabolic acidosis (increased acids in the blood), hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and ketonuria (ketones in the urine). It is caused by a lack of or insufficient amounts of insulin which is required to move glucose from the bloodstream and into the cells to be used for energy. When this occurs, the body begins to search for alternate sources of energy and begins to break down fat. When fat is broken down (metabolised) into fatty acids, waste products known as ketones (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetone) are released from the liver and accumulate in the bloodstream (known as ketonemia). This causes the blood to become too acidic (metabolic acidosis). As well as metabolic acidosis, ketones also cause central nervous depression.The body will try to get rid of the ketones by excreting them out of the body via the urine, increased urine output leads to dehydration, making the problem worse. Meanwhile, the unused glucose remains in the bloodstream, resulting in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).Insulin Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes Symptoms List

Feline Diabetes Symptoms List

Feline diabetes symptoms will vary depending upon the type and stage of the disease. Excessive urination (polyuria), and excessive thirst (polydipsia) are the classic signs of diabetes in cats. In the early stages of the disease, otherwise healthy cats will often show few other symptoms, if any. The prime candidate for diabetes is an older obese male, but it can affect male or female cats of any age. Although this is one of the most serious cat health problems, this is often a very manageable disease. Most cats with diabetes can live out full, normal lives, except for the need for treatment. Some cats that receive treatment may experience only mild forms of these symptoms, and others will stop requiring treatment after a time. As in humans, weight management is a key factor, as is level of exercise. Both weight reduction and exercise help your cat to regulate blood sugar levels. You can help to prevent the onset of this disease by doing two things. Ensure that you don't overfeed your cat, and also that your cat is getting regular exercise. If your cat tends to be sedentary, stimulate her to exercise by regularly engaging her and providing plenty of toys. Feline Diabetes Symptoms Polyuria (excessive urination) Polydipsia (excessive thirst) Increased appetite Weight loss Lethargy Diabetic neuropathy (causes progressive weakness in the rear legs) Progressive Feline Diabetes Symptoms As the disease progresses, other signs and symptoms become more common. Vomiting Lose of appetite Dehydration Poor haircoat Liver disease Secondary bacterial infections Dehydration leads to electrolyte imbalance, which can cause a number of problems. Low water volume in the stool can lead to constipation. While periodic bouts of constipation are common among domestic cats, it's possible that de Continue reading >>

Managing Complications In Diabetic Cats

Managing Complications In Diabetic Cats

Serious—even life-threatening—complications are possible if felines' blood glucose concentrations are not well-controlled. Diabetes mellitus results from the dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells or from insulin resistance. Compared with diabetic people, diabetic cats seem to develop fewer long-term complications. The most common complication is simply an inability to keep good control of blood glucose concentrations. Hypoglycemia is the clinical term for blood glucose concentrations below the accepted reference range, and hyperglycemia is the term for blood glucose concentrations above the reference range. Serious complications can result from either condition if not remedied in a timely fashion. Unregulated or fluctuating blood glucose concentrations can contribute to long-term complications such as renal disease (diabetic nephropathy) or neuropathies and increase the acute risk of diabetic ketoacidosis or cataracts. Maintaining well-regulated control of blood glucose concentrations helps to prevent these complications. Here are the signs and common treatments for the chronic and acute complications that may develop so you can help catch them early in your feline patients. CHRONIC COMPLICATIONS Diabetic neuropathy The most common complication in cats that are chronically hyperglycemic is diabetic neuropathy—about 10 percent of cats are affected. The progression to this condition may take several months, and, if properly treated, it can resolve within six to 12 months. The femoral nerve is most commonly affected. An affected femoral nerve can lead to a plantigrade gait, which is walking on the whole sole of the foot (e.g., like rabbits, bears, and people). In cats, this gait takes the shape of walking on hocks (heels), and the tarsal joints and nerves of the hind Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs And Cats

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs And Cats

Ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes in pets, and is one of the most severe side effects that can accompany the condition. Finding your pet seriously ill and receiving a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis can be a big shock to the pet owner, as most presentations of the condition occur in animals that were not actually known to be diabetic in the first place. This is of course extremely worrying for the pet owner, as they will have to face not only the very serious and possibly life-threatening immediate issue of diabetic ketoacidosis itself, but have to face the reality that assuming their pet survives, they will have to deal with the serious and potentially expensive diagnosis of diabetes as well. What is ketoacidosis? Ketoacidosis occurs when the animal’s metabolism is thrown severely out of whack, as part of the development of diabetes in the pet. Usually, an additional trigger such as an inflammation, infection or condition such as pancreatitis is also required to trigger ketoacidosis, as any of these things can interfere with the way that the body regulates and processes glucose. Ketoacidosis starves the body’s cells of glucose, despite the fact that sufficient glucose is present within the blood. The diabetic element of this is that sufficient natural insulin is not being made available to the body to allow the glucose in the blood to enter the cells, as glucose requires insulin in order to metabolise. The body responds to this issue by metabolising all of the fat stores and other sources of fuel available to it, breaking down the very structure of the body itself. This process causes the production of ketones, which the body then attempts to burn as fuel, which is not a normal healthy process. In turn, the burning of ketones by the body leads to a dang Continue reading >>

Many Cats With Diabetes Can Achieve Remission

Many Cats With Diabetes Can Achieve Remission

If your cat seems to be thirstier than usual, is urinating frequently, is hungry all the time but also losing weight, you should have him checked by your veterinarian for feline diabetes. Other signs to watch for include urinating outside the litter box, sweet-smelling breath, lethargy, dehydration, poor coat condition, and urinary tract infections. Left untreated, diabetes can cause your kitty to lose his appetite and a significant amount of weight, and develop muscle weakness. Uncontrolled, the disease can ultimately result in diabetic neuropathy, a condition in which there is profound rear limb weakness and a plantigrade walk, meaning the ankles are actually on the ground as the cat walks. Feline Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in older cats, and is especially prevalent in kitties fed dry food diets. In fact, a study published in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery concluded that high-protein, low-carb diets are as or more effective than insulin at causing remission of diabetes in cats. The pancreas produces insulin based on the level of glucose in the blood. Insulin is necessary in order for glucose to enter the cells of the body. When glucose levels are high (which normally occurs after a meal), insulin is released. When there is not enough insulin being released from the pancreas, or there is an abnormal release of insulin coupled with an inadequate response of the body’s cells to the insulin, diabetes mellitus is the result. Sugar in the bloodstream cannot get into the cells of the body, so the body starts breaking down fat and protein stores to use as energy. As a result, no matter how much the cat eats, she loses weight. In addition, the glucose builds up in the bloodstream and is eliminated through urination. This leads to exce Continue reading >>

More in ketosis