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Untreated Ketoacidosis In Cats

Beta Cell And Insulin Antibodies In Treated And Untreated Diabetic Cats

Beta Cell And Insulin Antibodies In Treated And Untreated Diabetic Cats

Abstract Beta cell and insulin antibodies are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes in human patients. Beta cell antibodies have also been found in about 50% of newly diagnosed diabetic dogs. This study’s objective was to examine these antibodies’ role in feline diabetes. The serum of 26 newly diagnosed untreated diabetic cats, 29 cats on insulin therapy, 30 cats with diseases other than diabetes, and 30 healthy cats was examined for beta cell and insulin antibodies. For beta cell antibody testing, purified beta cells from a radiation-induced transplantable rat insulinoma were used. Serum from cats in which anti-beta cell antibodies were induced by injecting a purified beta cell suspension subcutaneously was used as a positive control. Following incubation with test sera, fluorescein-labeled anti-cat immunoglobulins were used to visualize binding between the beta cells and cat gamma globulins. Each serum was tested on two different tumor preparations. For the detection of insulin antibodies, a charcoal separation method was used. It was found that none of the healthy cats, none of the newly diagnosed, untreated diabetic cats and none of the cats with diseases other than diabetes had antibodies against beta cells or against endogenous insulin. Four diabetic cats (14%) that had been treated with different insulin preparations had insulin antibodies. It is concluded that immune-mediated processes are not causing diabetes in the cat. Further studies are needed to evaluate if antibodies directed against exogenous insulin alter the response of diabetic cats to insulin. Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats Part 2 – Things You Should Know About Diagnosis & Treatment

Diabetes In Cats Part 2 – Things You Should Know About Diagnosis & Treatment

3 53 Remember Stephen? Stephen is having a cat nap. So I guess it’s up to me to tell you all a little bit more about diabetes in cats. In my previous article – What Does a Cat With Diabetes Look Like? I talked about what diabetes mellitus actually is, what I think about people who taste urine to check for its sweetness, and gave some pointers on signs to watch out for that might indicate your cat has this disease. Now it’s time to have a quick look at how diabetes in cats is diagnosed and most importantly, what the heck we can do about it. How Can My Veterinarian Tell if My Cat has Diabetes? There are two main test results required for a vet to be able to diagnose diabetes in a symptomatic cat: A high fasting blood glucose (i.e. loads of glucose floating around in their blood even when they haven’t eaten recently) Testing these parameters is a piece of cake! See what I did there? But here’s where it gets tricky. Cats can get enormously stressed out by a visit to the vet (kind of like I feel about sitting in the dentist’s chair), and a really important effect of this stress can be a transient elevation in their blood glucose, which can even be significant enough to see glucose spilling over into the urine. What this means is that cats who do not have diabetes may have a high blood glucose reading, and even occasionally glucose in their urine. These tests aren’t always diagnostic on their own. It is best to run a full blood profile rather than just checking the glucose alone. This assists us with detecting any other illnesses that may either be the sole cause of your cat’s problems or could just be lurking around complicating the situation. If there is any doubt about the diagnosis of diabetes, a good test to do next is a plasma fructosamine level. This te Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes Mellitus

Feline Diabetes Mellitus

4 0 Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by a failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin. Insulin allows cells in the body to absorb glucose (sugar) from the blood. Glucose is the cells’ main energy source and is critical to cellular function. Without insulin, the cells do not get the energy they need to function, and glucose levels in the blood rise. The body can use fats as an energy source; however this can occasionally lead to a life threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis which requires emergency treatment. Symptoms of diabetes include the following: 1. Weight loss – as fats are mobilized for energy instead of glucose 2. Increased appetite – as the body tries to increase its energy supplies 3. Increased drinking and urination – the glucose in the blood overwhelms the kidneys and spills into the urine drawing excessive amounts of water with it 4. Untreated diabetics can develop diabetic ketoacidosis. If this happens, the cat will show signs of severe illness including loss of appetite, lethargy and vomiting. Diagnosing diabetes is generally straightforward. Most diabetic patients have significantly elevated glucose levels in their blood as well as in their urine. In many cats we recommend a fructosamine test to confirm the diagnosis and make sure the elevated glucose was not due to stress. Most diabetic cats do very well with treatment and can live for many years with the disease. In addition to treating the diabetes, it is important to closely monitor all aspects of your cat’s health, since diabetes can make cats more susceptible to other problems such as infections. Dental health is especially important! Treating diabetes involves several steps: 1. Diet – Recent studies have shown that decreasing the intake of carbohydrates Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

My dog is diabetic. He has been doing pretty well overall, but recently he became really ill. He stopped eating well, started drinking lots of water, and got really weak. His veterinarian said that he had a condition called “ketoacidosis,” and he had to spend several days in the hospital. I’m not sure I understand this disorder. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. The body can’t use glucose properly without insulin, so blood glucose levels get very high, and the body creates ketone bodies as an emergency fuel source. When these are broken down, it creates byproducts that cause the body’s acid/base balance to shift, and the body becomes more acidic (acidosis), and it can’t maintain appropriate fluid balance. The electrolyte (mineral) balance becomes disrupted which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal muscle function. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis is fatal. How could this disorder have happened? If a diabetic dog undergoes a stress event of some kind, the body secretes stress hormones that interfere with appropriate insulin activity. Examples of stress events that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis include infection, inflammation, and heart disease. What are the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Excessive thirst/drinking Increased urination Lethargy Weakness Vomiting Increased respiratory rate Decreased appetite Weight loss (unplanned) with muscle wasting Dehydration Unkempt haircoat These same clinical signs can occur with other medical conditions, so it is important for your veterinarian to perform appropriate diagnostic tests to determine if diabetic ketoacidosis in truly the issue at hand Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes) In Cats

Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes) In Cats

Animals Affected Cats of any breed, usually middle-aged. Overview Diabetes mellitus (known simply as diabetes) is a common and serious disease of cats. The main characteristic of diabetes is an inability to control the level of sugar in the blood. This leads to chronically high blood sugar levels, which in turn lead to the symptoms of the disease. Management of diabetes in cats is challenging but, in most cases, it is successful. With proper treatment, many diabetic cats lead essentially normal lives. However, without treatment the disease inevitably leads to serious complications. Diabetes in cats is similar to type 2 (adult onset) diabetes in humans. Symptoms Symptoms of diabetes include: Weight loss Normal or increased appetite in the early stages of the disease; appetite may decline in the later stages. Lethargy In the end stages of the disease, coma and death An individual genetic or hereditary predisposition to diabetes very likely is involved in most cases. Dental disease leads to chronic inflammation which may predispose cats to diabetes. Some authorities contend that high levels of sugar and carbohydrates in dry commercial cat foods play a role in the development of diabetes. However, this belief is not universally accepted. Recent studies have not found a link between dry food consumption and diabetes in cats. Some medications, especially prednisone or depo-medrol (a long-acting, injected form of prednisone) can trigger diabetes. Complications Untreated diabetes leads to emaciation, chronic lethargy and weakness. Diabetic cats are prone to urinary tract infections. House soiling may occur as well, due to increased frequency of urination. Insulin administration is the main method of treating diabetes in cats. However, some cats may be subject to accidental over Continue reading >>

Recognizing Signs Of Diabetes In Cats

Recognizing Signs Of Diabetes In Cats

Cats can develop diabetes just as humans can, and the treatment and management of the condition are very similar. Treatment may include dietary changes, adequate exercise and insulin. Feline diabetes mellitus is more common that most people realize. It is thought that the condition is becoming more prevalent in cats due to factors such as diet and low activity levels. Male, neutered cats are at increased risk, as are cats who are overweight or obese. Age and underlying health issues may also be components in the development of diabetes. Because cats often mask illness quite well, being aware of the signs of this disease is important. What is diabetes? Diabetes can be classified into two categories. Type 1, which is the less common of the two, results when there is a lack of insulin being generated by the pancreas. Type 2 occurs when the feline body develops a resistance to insulin. Both types lead to abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood and the urine. Symptoms of diabetes Early symptoms such as lethargy may be inconclusive and possibly indicators of other diseases, which is why a veterinary exam is an important part of getting a correct diagnosis and treatment. The following symptoms may be strong indicators of diabetes: Weight changes Weight gain in the early stages of diabetes will eventually change to weight loss as the disease progresses. Insulin, normally released by the pancreas, aids in the transfer of glucose to the cells. A lack of insulin, or an abnormal response to the insulin, affects the regular production of energy. When this energy is missing, the body will start to use fat and protein stores, which culminates in weight loss no matter how much a cat eats. The majority of cats with undiagnosed diabetes will have voracious appetites, although some Continue reading >>

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

Renee Rucinsky, DVM, ABVP (Feline) (Chair) | Audrey Cook, BVM&:S, MRCVS, Diplomate ACVIM-SAIM, Diplomate ECVIM-CA | Steve Haley, DVM | Richard Nelson, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM | Debra L. Zoran, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM | Melanie Poundstone, DVM, ABVP - Download PDF - Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a treatable condition that requires a committed effort by veterinarian and client. This document provides current recommendations for the treatment of diabetes in dogs and cats. Treatment of DM is a combination of art and science, due in part to the many factors that affect the diabetic state and the animal's response. Each animal needs individualized, frequent reassessment, and treatment may be modified based on response. In both dogs and cats, DM is caused by loss or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells. In the dog, beta cell loss tends to be rapid and progressive, and it is usually due to immune-mediated destruction, vacuolar degeneration, or pancreatitis.1 Intact females may be transiently diabetic due to the insulin-resistant effects of the diestrus phase. In the cat, loss or dysfunction of beta cells is the result of insulin resistance, islet amyloidosis, or chronic lymphoplasmacytic pancreatitis.2 Risk factors for both dogs and cats include insulin resistance caused by obesity, other diseases (e.g., acromegaly in cats, hyperadrenocorticism in dogs), or medications (e.g., steroids, progestins). Genetics is a suspected risk factor, and certain breeds of dogs (Australian terriers, beagles, Samoyeds, keeshonden3) and cats (Burmese4) are more susceptible. Regardless of the underlying etiology, diabetic dogs and cats are hyperglycemic and glycosuric, which leads to the classic clinical signs of polyuria, polydipsia (PU/PD), polyphagia, and weight loss. Increased fat mobi Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats – Symptoms And Treatment Of Feline Diabetes

Diabetes In Cats – Symptoms And Treatment Of Feline Diabetes

Diabetes in cats occurs less frequently than in dogs however, recent veterinary studies show that feline diabetes is on the rise. Symptoms can develop gradually over time making them difficult to detect and often by the time diabetes is diagnosed insulin is required for treatment. Diabetes in cats is usually treatable once it has been identified and when insulin and diet are regulated properly there is a good prognosis for a normal life span. "Untreated, the condition leads to increasingly weak legs in cats, and eventually malnutrition, ketoacidosis and/or dehydration, and death" (1). Symptoms of diabetes in cats Feline diabetes is less common in cats under seven years of age and symptoms typically come on gradually over a period of weeks. Because of the slow onset symptoms can often be overlooked; it is important that pet owners pay close attention to their pet’s normal behaviors and routines so any changes are detected. Notify your veterinarian if any of the following symptoms arise: A sudden drop in weight (some cats may show an increase in weight) Excessive drinking. Some cats may appear to be obsessed with water and hover around their water bowl or other water sources such as faucets Excessive urinating Excessive appetite (some cats may lose interest in eating) Weakness in the back legs General lethargy An unusual sweetness or acetone-smell to the cat’s breath due to ketoacidosis Presence of these symptoms can be serious and you should not hesitate to take your cat to the vet for testing of urine or blood to properly diagnosis diabetes. Treatment of diabetes in cats Early diagnosis will help treatment and may prevent complications and in some cases cats can go into remission. If your cat is found to have diabetes, then the normal course of treatment involves di Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes Symptoms List

Feline Diabetes Symptoms List

Feline diabetes symptoms will vary depending upon the type and stage of the disease. Excessive urination (polyuria), and excessive thirst (polydipsia) are the classic signs of diabetes in cats. In the early stages of the disease, otherwise healthy cats will often show few other symptoms, if any. The prime candidate for diabetes is an older obese male, but it can affect male or female cats of any age. Although this is one of the most serious cat health problems, this is often a very manageable disease. Most cats with diabetes can live out full, normal lives, except for the need for treatment. Some cats that receive treatment may experience only mild forms of these symptoms, and others will stop requiring treatment after a time. As in humans, weight management is a key factor, as is level of exercise. Both weight reduction and exercise help your cat to regulate blood sugar levels. You can help to prevent the onset of this disease by doing two things. Ensure that you don't overfeed your cat, and also that your cat is getting regular exercise. If your cat tends to be sedentary, stimulate her to exercise by regularly engaging her and providing plenty of toys. Feline Diabetes Symptoms Polyuria (excessive urination) Polydipsia (excessive thirst) Increased appetite Weight loss Lethargy Diabetic neuropathy (causes progressive weakness in the rear legs) Progressive Feline Diabetes Symptoms As the disease progresses, other signs and symptoms become more common. Vomiting Lose of appetite Dehydration Poor haircoat Liver disease Secondary bacterial infections Dehydration leads to electrolyte imbalance, which can cause a number of problems. Low water volume in the stool can lead to constipation. While periodic bouts of constipation are common among domestic cats, it's possible that de Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an extreme medical emergency that requires immediate veterinary attention. The condition can result in an accumulation of fluid in the brain and lungs, renal failure or heart failure. Affected animals that are not treated are likely to die. With timely intervention and proper treatment, it is likely that an affected cat can recover with little to no side effects. Diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin, creating an inability to efficiently process the sugars, fats, and proteins needed for energy. The resulting build-up of sugar causes extreme thirst and frequent urination. Since sugar levels help to control appetite, affected animals may experience a spike in hunger and lose weight at the same time due to the inability to properly process nutrients. In extreme cases, diabetes may be accompanied by a condition known as ketoacidosis. This is a serious ailment that causes energy crisis and abnormal blood-acid levels in affected pets. Cats affected with diabetic ketoacidosis are likely to present with one or more of the following symptoms: Vomiting Weakness Lethargy Depression Excessive Thirst Refusal to drink water Refusal to eat Sudden weight loss Loss of muscle tone Increased urination Dehydration Rough coat Dandruff Rapid breathing Sweet-smelling breath Jaundice The exact cause of diabetes in cats is unknown, but it is often accompanied by obesity, chronic pancreatitis, hormonal disease, or the use of corticosteroids like Prednisone. Ketoacidosis, the buildup of ketone waste products in the blood that occurs when the body burns fat and protein for energy instead of using glucose, is caused by insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis is commonly preceded by other conditions including: Stress Surgery Continue reading >>

Tilly's Diabetes Homepage

Tilly's Diabetes Homepage

Home Story Blood glucose values The future? Protocol Links Guestbook About this site Cats are carnivores. Their metabolism is optimized for a meat-based diet: they primarily require protein and fat as energy sources. Therefore, feeding cats carbohydrates (contained in dry cat food in large amounts) may potentially have a negative effect on their health. Diabetic cats in particular should eat as few carbohydrates as possible, since carbohydrates rapidly raise blood sugar levels. The typical prey of a cat - a mouse or a small bird - is composed of 3-5% carbohydrates. Most brands of dry food range from 35% to almost 50% carbohydrates. Low quality canned foods have 20% carbohydrates, while many of the better ones have under 10% (or even <5%). You can get a good overview of these figures from Janet & Binky’s tables, which illustrate the general differences between canned and dry food, even though not all of the brands mentioned are necessarily available in Europe. Diabetic cats, until they are well regulated on insulin, also require more water. When cats eat dry food, they need to compensate for the lack of moisture by drinking more. It has been observed that even healthy cats do not do this sufficiently, because they have a low thirst drive. A sufficient intake of water is even more important in diabetic cats. Canned food makes it easier to keep your cat well hydrated. Therefore, I fed Tilly canned food only. The ingredient information which manufacturers are required to provide in Germany is extremely minimal - it is next to impossible to reliably determine the carbohydrate content of cat food. Therefore, my rule of thumb is that the food may only ever contain the following ingredients: • meat • meat by-products • fish • fish by-products • minerals In particula Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes Mellitus in Cats Diabetes in cats is most similar to type 2 diabetes in people: the blood sugar becomes elevated because the cat’s insulin is either ineffective or not produced in sufficient quantity. If not treated accordingly, it can become a life-threatening condition. Obese, middle-aged indoor male cats are most likely to develop diabetes, but it can happen to any cat at almost any age. There is the possibility that your cat will not need life-long insulin therapy, especially if diagnosed early and the blood sugar is stabilized quickly. What to Watch For Increased water consumption Increased urination, possibly urinating outside the litterbox Increased appetite (early stages) or loss of appetite (late stages) Weight loss Lethargy Vomiting Sometimes the cat will develop a plantigrade stance – that is, he will stand and walk with his hocks touching or nearly touching the ground. This is a form of diabetic neuropathy. If a diabetic cat goes untreated for long enough, it will develop ketoacidosis. Cats at this stage will not eat or drink, become dehydrated and more lethargic. Eventually they will slip into a coma and die if not treated immediately. Primary Cause of Diabetes in Cats The insulin produced by the cat is either insufficient or ineffective. Immediate Care It is important that you schedule an appointment with your veterinarian if you suspect you cat has diabetes. In the meantime, let him have all the water he wants. Diagnosing Diabetes in Cats After a physical exam and discussion of your cat’s symptoms, your veterinarian will take blood and urine samples for testing. In addition to checking the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood and urine, your vet will be checking for evidence of other disease that have symptoms similar to diabetes, like kidne Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis in cats at a glance Ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes in which ketones and blood sugar levels build up in the body due to insufficient levels of insulin which is required to move glucose into the cells for energy. As a result, the body uses fat as an alternate energy source which produces ketones causing the blood to become too acidic. Common causes include uncontrolled diabetes, missed or insufficient insulin, surgery, infection, stress and obesity. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include increased urination and thirst, dehydration, nausea, diarrhea, confusion, rapid breathing which may later change to laboured breathing. What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes characterised by metabolic acidosis (increased acids in the blood), hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and ketonuria (ketones in the urine). It is caused by a lack of or insufficient amounts of insulin which is required to move glucose from the bloodstream and into the cells to be used for energy. When this occurs, the body begins to search for alternate sources of energy and begins to break down fat. When fat is broken down (metabolised) into fatty acids, waste products known as ketones (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetone) are released from the liver and accumulate in the bloodstream (known as ketonemia). This causes the blood to become too acidic (metabolic acidosis). As well as metabolic acidosis, ketones also cause central nervous depression.The body will try to get rid of the ketones by excreting them out of the body via the urine, increased urine output leads to dehydration, making the problem worse. Meanwhile, the unused glucose remains in the bloodstream, resulting in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).Insulin Continue reading >>

Hat You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes

Hat You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes

W - Care Of Your Diabetic Cat - If You Would Like To See How Diabetes Effects My Body, Click Here. Controlling diabetes in your cat is considerably harder than doing so in us humans. Keeping your cat at a healthy weight is essential . Read a 2014 article about how really difficult it can be here. Never allow a glucose meter to be used on more than one pet . The meters are hard to disinfect(ref) Lots of my articles are plagiarized and altered on the web to market products and services. There are never ads running or anything for sale with my real articles. Try to stay with the ones with in the URL box or find all my articles at ACC.htm. Some Information About Your Cat’s Pancreas Your cat’s pancreas is a small, pinkish organ that is nestled in the folds of its small intestine. You can see it if you enlarge the fanciful image I put at the top of this page. Although it is quite small, the pancreas has two very important functions. One is to produce enzymes that allow your cat to digest food. The other is to produce a hormone (insulin) that regulates how your cat’s body utilizes sugar (glucose). Glucose is the main fuel of all animal cells. Most of it is manufactured in the pet’s liver or released from recent carbohydrate meals. The process by which the pancreas regulates your cat’s blood sugar level is actually much more complicated than my explanation and not yet fully understood. But my explanation should do for this article. Should you wish to know more, go here . Many types of cells form the pancreas. The ones that are important in understanding diabetes occur in small islands scattered throughout the pancreas (islets of Langerhans). These particular insulin-secreting cells are called ß (beta) cells. What Is Diabetes? There are several forms of diabetes. But Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

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