Author: Elizabeth Walter, MD. Mayo Clinic Emergency Medicine Residency Program
Salicylate Toxicity: Practice Essentials, Etiology And Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
Salicylates are ubiquitous agents found in hundreds of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and in numerous prescription drugs, making salicylate toxicity an important cause of morbidity and mortality. [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ] Salicylates are used as analgesic agents for the treatment of mild to moderate pain. Aspirin is used as an antipyretic and as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of soft tissue and joint inflammation and vasculitides such as acute rheumatic fever and Kawasaki disease. Aspirin is also used to treat acute coronary syndrome. Low-dose aspirin helps to prevent thrombosis. Acetylsalicylic acid is colorless or white in crystalline, powder, or granular form. The chemical is odorless and is soluble in water. Salicylate is available for ingestion as tablets, capsules, and liquids. Salicylate is also available for topical application, in creams or lotions. Salicylate ingestion continues to be a common cause of poisoning in children and adolescents. The prevalence of aspirin-containing analgesic products makes these agents, found in virtually every household, common sources of unintentional and suicidal ingestion. However, the incidence of salicylate poisoning in childr
This is a video that I've been meaning to make for a while. I think the idea of converting one drug to another is a pretty cool concept. About a year ago, I made a series where I chemically converted Aspirin to Tylenol (aka acetaminophen, paracetamol, or APAP). The original series was spread out over several videos and was over 90 minutes long. It has a lot more detail, but it was a much bigger commitment to watch. ------------------------------------------ Nile Red Shop: https://nile.red Patreon: https://goo.gl/3h353G Facebook: https://goo.gl/uyxvJV Twitter: https://goo.gl/uCmnV4 Personal Instagram: https://goo.gl/EdBq4b
Metabolic Acidosis Due To Paracetamol (acetaminophen)
Summarized from McGregor A, Laight N, Nolan S. Paracetamol and high anion gap metabolic acidosis. J Intensive Care Society 2012; 13: 54-56 Armenian P, Gerona R, Blanc P et al. 5-oxoprolinemia causing elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis in the setting of acetaminophen use. J Emerg Med 2012; 43: 54-57 Metabolic acidosis is a common metabolic disturbance among the acutely/critically ill that has many possible causes. The condition is diagnosed by arterial blood gas analysis which reveals primary reduction in pH and bicarbonate, followed by secondary (compensatory) reduction in pCO2. Abnormal accumulation of endogenous organic acids is one broad mechanism that gives rise to metabolic acidosis, which is differentiated from other mechanisms by being associated with high anion gap. The most common endogenous organic acid metabolic acidosis are: lactic acidosis (accumulation of lactic acid) and ketoacidosis (accumulation of ketoacids). Rarer causes of high anion gap metabolic acidosis due to organic acid accumulation are those that result from ingestion of a toxic substance whose metabolism involves production of an organic acid. For example, the toxicity of ethylene glycol is due in par
Quickest Way to Flush Your BODY CLEAN of TOXINS. Help PREVENTS CANCER & REMOVE TOXIN from LIVER, COLON. On any given day, you may be exposed to any number of the 80,000-plus industrial chemicals in use today. Another 1,000 chemicals or so are introduced every year, according to Brenda Watson, a certified nutritional consultant and author of The Detox Strategy. These toxic substances lurk everywherein the air, water, household cleaners, perfumes, food and childrens toys. While the process of detox has its critics, natural health professionals extol its benefits for helping your body to expel toxins. Step 1 Reduce the amount of toxins you take in on a daily basis. Its self-defeating to do a detox if youre still taking in a significant amount of toxins, points out Peter Bennett, a naturopathic doctor and author of The Purification Plan. Switch to organic foods and beverages and drink filtered or distilled water. Avoid using products that contain toxins, such as household cleaners, inorganic cosmetics and perfumes, and avoid exposure to cigarette smoke or other airborne chemicals. Step 2 Eat about 30 to 40 grams of fiber daily. As Ann Louise Gittleman puts it in her book The Fast Track One-Day Detox Diet, "The colon is the garbage dump in your system, but fiber acts as a garbage truck hauling away the toxic waste." Organic vegetables, fruits and whole grains are good sources. Step 3 Drink a glass of cranberry juice combined with orange juice daily. Both juices are loaded with antioxidants that fight free radicals. Cranberry juice also enables the liver to break down fat more efficiently and contains a key ingredient, arbutin, which acts as a diuretic and draws out toxins to be excreted, according to Gittleman. Step 4 Drink at least eight 8 oz. glasses of purified water each day to increase kidney activity and speed up the removal of toxins. Water will also prevent constipation from your increased fiber intake. Step 5 Exercise for at least 30 minutes every day. When you dont exercise, the lymphatic systemwhich keeps your immune system working at peak conditionbecomes stagnant, causing waste to spill over into your body, Bennett explains. Exercise also increases sweating, which also effectively removes toxins. Step 6 Treat yourself to a full-body rub down with an organic sea salt scrub. According to Bennett, salts have detoxifying qualities and increase perspiration. They also exfoliate your skin to remove dead skin cells and dirt that may be blocking pores on your skin, another powerful detoxification organ in your body. Things You'll Need Dietary fiber Cranberry juice Orange juice Purified water Sea salt scrub Air purifier Tips Practice meditation or deep breathing for at least 15 minutes a day during your detox, which can be stressful. Also, it can help to offset detox side effects such as hunger pangs, according to Gittleman. Turn on an air purifier to eliminate airborne toxins in your home. Warnings If you have a disease or medical condition, consult your doctor before attempting a detoxification treatment.
Metabolic Acidosis Due To Drugs And Toxins
220.127.116.11.Metabolic Acidosis due to Drugs and Toxins Metabolic Acidosis due to Drugs and Toxins Several drugs and toxins have been implicated as direct or indirect causes of a high-anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA). A consideration of these drugs needs to be included in an differential diagnosis of a HAGMA. The three most common ones to consider are methanol, ethylene glycol and salicylates. Other toxins which can cause acidosis are isopropyl alcohol and butoxyethanol. Toluene also causes an acidosis and the anion gap may be normal or elevated. * Initially no acid-base disorder due to long latent period while methanol is metabolised * Later, typically develop a high anion gap metabolic acidosis -due to formic acid * May also develop a respiratory acidosis secondary to CNS depression (with depression of respiratory centre and/or airway obstruction) * May occasionally present with normal anion gap acidosis if smaller ingestion * If patient is an alcoholic, there may other types of acidosis present as well (eg alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, respiratory acidosis due aspiration, respiratory alkalosis due chronic liver disease.) Principles of Treatmen
Metformin is a prescription drug used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of medications called biguanides. People with type 2 diabetes have blood sugar (glucose) levels that rise higher than normal. Metformin doesn’t cure diabetes. Instead, it helps lower your blood sugar levels to a safe range. Metformin needs to be taken long-term. This may make you wonder what side effects it can cause. Metformin can cause mild and serious side ...
A FOUR STEP METHOD FOR INTERPRETATION OF ABGS Usefulness This method is simple, easy and can be used for the majority of ABGs. It only addresses acid-base balance and considers just 3 values. pH, PaCO2 HCO3- Step 1. Use pH to determine Acidosis or Alkalosis. ph < 7.35 7.35-7.45 > 7.45 Acidosis Normal or Compensated Alkalosis Step 2. Use PaCO2 to determine respiratory effect. PaCO2 < 35 35 -45 > 45 Tends toward alkalosis Causes high pH Neutralizes ...
Salicylates are ubiquitous agents found in hundreds of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and in numerous prescription drugs, making salicylate toxicity an important cause of morbidity and mortality. [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ] Salicylates are used as analgesic agents for the treatment of mild to moderate pain. Aspirin is used as an antipyretic and as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of soft tissue and joint inflammation and vasculitides such ...
The appropriate prescribing of many drugs depends on knowledge of the patient's total renal function, which is proportional to their body mass. The Cockcroft-Gault method of calculating creatinine clearance takes into account the patient's weight. The recently introduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, which is now routinely reported with biochemistry test results, is useful for screening for renal disease, but is unsuitable for calculating ...
are allergic to dapagliflozin or any of the ingredients in FARXIGA. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction may include skin rash, raised red patches on your skin (hives), swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing. If you have any of these symptoms, stop taking FARXIGA and contact your healthcare provider or go to the nearest hospital emergency room right away have severe kidney problems o ...
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