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The Common Pathway For The Oxidation Of Glucose And Fatty Acid Is

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What is CLINICAL PATHWAY? What does CLINICAL PATHWAY mean? CLINICAL PATHWAY meaning - CLINICAL PATHWAY definition - CLINICAL PATHWAY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... A clinical pathway, also known as care pathway, integrated care pathway, critical pathway, or care map, is one of the main tools used to manage the quality in healthcare concerning the standardisation of care processes. It has been shown that their implementation reduces the variability in clinical practice and improves outcomes. Clinical pathways aim to promote organised and efficient patient care based on evidence-based medicine, and aim to optimise outcomes in settings such as acute care and home care. A single clinical pathway may refer to multiple clinical guidelines on several topics in a well specified context. A clinical pathway is a multidisciplinary management tool based on evidence-based practice for a specific group of patients with a predictable clinical course, in which the different tasks (interventions) by the professionals involved in the pa

Metabolic Pathway - Wikipedia

In biochemistry , a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell . The reactants, products, and intermediates of an enzymatic reaction are known as metabolites , which are modified by a sequence of chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes . [1] :26 In most cases a metabolic pathway, the product of one enzyme acts as the substrate for the next. However, set products are considered waste and removed from the cell. [2] These enzymes often require dietary minerals, vitamins, and other cofactors to function. Different metabolic pathways function based on the position within a eukaryotic cell and the significance of the pathway in the given compartment of the cell. [3] For instance, the citric acid cycle , electron transport chain , and oxidative phosphorylation all take place in the mitochondrial membrane. [4] :73, 74 & 109 In contrast, glycolysis , pentose phosphate pathway , and fatty acid biosynthesis all occur in the cytosol of a cell. [5] :441442 There are two types of metabolic pathways that are characterized by their ability to either synthesize molecules with the utilization of energy ( anabolic pathway ) or break down of complex molecules b Continue reading >>

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  1. nobodysfool

    Hello,
    I'm nearly 32 weeks and i have lots of complications-high risk beacuse of a previous emercency c section with ds1,low lying placenta,and now gestational diabetes.
    Saw the MW today and she found ketones in my urine sample.
    She asked if i was eating properly-i am albeit on a very strict diabetic diet-then she didnt mention it anymore.
    I have come home and started worrying.
    I'm not sure if the diabetes lack of food has caused the ketones or is it something else.
    Any ideas will be great.
    Many thanks

  2. nailpolish

    ketones arise in urine when you ahvent eaten ina while
    they are a result of the body breaking down fatty acids for energy

  3. SpringySunshine

    Going from A Level biology (I'm really not an expert!):
    Ketones come from breaking down fatty acids. Diabetics have their urine monitored for ketones as it can indicate that the diabetes is being poorly managed & the body is beginning to struggle.
    If I were you, until a medical professional says anything differently, I'd just make sure that I wasn't going hungry & that I stuck to the diabetic diet to the letter. If you're feeling okay within yourself (no nausea or tummy pain) & your midwife hasn't said anything specific, I wouldn't worry too much.
    Is she sending the urine off to microbiology to be checked or anything like that?

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Fatty acid oxidation lecture - This biochemistry lecture explains the process of beta oxidation of fatty acids. This lectures explains the beta oxidation process of fatty acids step by step. beta-oxidationis the catabolic process by whichfatty acidmolecules are broken down in the cytosol in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria in eukaryotes to generate acetyl-CoA, which enters the citricacidcycle, and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport to generate ATP molecules. Beta oxidationof fatty acids takes place in the mitochondrial matrix for the most part. However, fatty acids have to be activated for degradation by coenzyme A by forming a fatty acyl-CoA thioester. For short and medium length fatty acids, they undergo this reaction in the mitochondria. When pancreatic lipase acts on the small lipid droplets, it breaks them down into freefatty acidsand monoglycerides, which are the two digestive products of lipids. These small units are able to pass through the intestinal mucosa and enter the epithelial cells of the small intestine. Where are fatty acids stored in the body? Fatty acidsare released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where t

Fatty Acid Oxidation And Its Relation With Insulin Resistance And Associated Disorders

Fatty Acid Oxidation and Its Relation with Insulin Resistance and Associated Disorders Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 423 HMRB University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2S2 (Canada) Alterations in muscle fatty acid metabolism have been implicated in mediating the severity of insulin resistance. In the insulin resistant heart fatty acids are favored as an energy source over glucose, which is thus associated with increased fatty acid oxidation, and an overall decrease in glycolysis and glucose oxidation. In addition, excessive uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids in obesity and diabetes can compromise cardiac function. In animal studies, mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) show cardiac insulin resistance in which the accumulation of intra-myocardial diacylglycerol has been implicated, likely involving parallel signaling pathways. A HFD also results in accumulation of fatty acid oxidation byproducts in muscle, further contributing to insulin resistance. Carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) has an essential role in the cardiomyocyte because of its need for large amounts of carnitine. In the cardiomyocyte, carnitine switches energy substrate preference in the heart from fatty acid Continue reading >>

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  1. Kodah007

    I'm new here and may be too late for this discussion. Our 8 year old husky was in diabetic ketoacidosis 4 days ago. 3 nights on fluid at vet, started insulin, steroids and pain meds. She cannot walk on her own, like her hind legs are totally numb. She's also been going potty on herself at vet. I'm really worried she won't get better and I don't have the time to be carrying her around and/or cleaning up messes. How long can I expect this yo last? Do all dogs recover?

  2. k9diabetes

    Hi,
    I decided to copy your question to a thread of your own... so sorry such a scary experience brings you here.
    If she can get past the ketoacidosis, whatever leg problems and incontinence coming from neuropathy should gradually diminish with better blood sugar.
    Most dogs I've seen have fully recovered from neuropathy. Sometimes a dog has other spinal issues also involved and in those cases the problems associated with neuropathy go away so things get better.
    So, yes, chances are very good she can get back to normal. Beaming her Get Well wishes.... hang in there.
    Natalie

  3. Rubytuesday

    Hi there,
    If the sole cause of weakness in the backend is diabetic neuropathy, and it could well be, they can recover and go on to be healthy diabetics. Surviving diabetic ketoacidosis can take quite a toll on them and I would not judge her condition now as long as she isn't suffering. weakness isn't a lot of fun for either of you but they can get back to normal.
    I will attach some info about a key role a specific form of B-12 (methylcobalimin) plays in recovery.
    Many dogs here have struggled with hind end weakness. Has the B-12 helped in these cases? I don't know, but it hasn't hurt.
    The single most important thing you can do now is to find the best dose to manage her diabetes. This can be a trying process. To tell the truth this was the best place I found for getting the best information about how to go about that. My dog wasn't an easy diabetic and frankly my vets didn't know what to do to make our situation better. Folks here helped us tremendously. The collective knowledge and creativity was a godsend.
    I found that I couldn't rely on just the guidance from my vet and some stories I have heard have been downright scary. The best advice I can give is read a lot from the home page and threads, ask a bunch of questions and if at all possible give home testing a try. Doing your own home testing not only saves you money and keeps your dog safe, but it will help you progess through the regulation process a bit quicker.
    I will go grab the home page link for you and the b-12 info. Just don't want to lose this post. The ipad sometimes doesn't like me switching around.
    Tara
    ____________

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Krebs cycle / Citric acid cycle / TCA cycle & ATP count Mnemonic series # 9 The citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs Cycle or TCA cycle/Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle) is actually a part of the much larger process called cellular respiration, the process where your body harvests energy from the food you eat. Yes, t he citric acid cycle has the same citric acid found in oranges and other citrus fruits! The citric acid cycle is called a cycle because the starting molecule, oxaloacetate (which has 4 carbons), is regenerated at the end of the cycle. Throughout the citric acid cycle, oxaloacetate is progressively transformed into several different molecules (as carbon atoms are added to and removed from it), but at the end of the cycle it always turns back into oxaloacetate to be used again. Energy can be captured from this cycle because several of the steps are energetically favourable. When a step is favoured, it means that the products of the reaction have lower energy than the reactants. The difference in energy between the products and the reactants is the energy that is released when the reaction takes place (see enzyme kinetics). The released energy is captured as the electron sh

The Citric Acid Cycle: The Central Pathway Of Carbohydrate, Lipid & Amino Acid Metabolism | Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry, 30e | Accessmedicine | Mcgraw-hill Medical

The citric acid cycle (the Krebs or tricarboxylic acid cycle) is a sequence of reactions in mitochondria that oxidizes the acetyl moiety of acetyl-CoA to CO2 and reduces coenzymes that are reoxidized through the electron transport chain (see Chapter 13 ), linked to the formation of ATP. The citric acid cycle is the final common pathway for the oxidation of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein because glucose, fatty acids, and most amino acids are metabolized to acetyl-CoA or intermediates of the cycle. It also has a central role in gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and interconversion of amino acids. Many of these processes occur in most tissues, but liver is the only tissue in which all occur to a significant extent. The repercussions are therefore profound when, for example, large numbers of hepatic cells are damaged as in acute hepatitis or replaced by connective tissue (as in cirrhosis). The few genetic defects of citric acid cycle enzymes that have been reported are associated with severe neurological damage as a result of very considerably impaired ATP formation in the central nervous system. Hyperammonemia, as occurs in advanced liver disease, leads to loss of consciousness, coma, Continue reading >>

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  1. MDS

    In light of the information Palmer posted showing severe abdominal pain as a
    potential side effect of ketosis, I'd like to say two things. First, as the
    information itself seems to indicate, only a small minority have experienced
    this. Second, you can count me in that small minority because the same
    thing happened to me the first and last time I did the induction phase. I
    was almost done with that phase when the pain hit me like a ton of bricks.
    I went to the local medical center, and the doctor on duty suspected
    appendicitis and sent me to the emergency room via ambulance, but the
    hospital staff determined that it wasn't appendicitis and decided it was
    either a stomach bug or constipation. Let me stress here that Palmer is not
    trolling or joking around. I was in so much pain in the hospital that they
    had to put me on morphine. I quit the induction phase early and began
    taking in more carbs while still keeping them below 125g per day. The pain
    went away within two days. I eventually quit low-carbing altogether until I
    was diagnosed with diabetes six weeks ago. My doctor told me to cut my carb
    intake, and when I told her about my past experience with Atkins, she told
    me to avoid ketosis because of the potential problems, like severe abdominal
    pain. She didn't really give me any specific advice on which diet to try,
    and since then I have normalized my blood sugar and am slowly losing weight
    by keeping my carb intake at less than 100g per day.
    I must admit that I'm rather surprised that so many people here overlooked
    where Palmer said he was on a low-carb diet that wasn't Atkins. I'd be
    ****ed too if people ignored something I said and then accused me of being a
    liar or a troll. To the rest of you more courteous people, I understand how
    you might not be able to relate to Palmer's situation, but I do think that
    it shows a need for more research into this as well as a greater need for
    understanding that some people can and do suffer from severe abdominal pain
    caused by ketosis.
    --
    MDS (Mister Doctor Sir)

  2. MDS

    "Wayne Crannell" wrote in message
    ...
    In article ,
    "MDS" wrote:
    some people can and do suffer from severe abdominal pain
    caused by ketosis.
    --
    MDS (Mister Doctor Sir)
    Wow...amazing that in five years of reading the books, reading the
    newsgroups, and researching I've never heard of this. Good thing I have
    a 'doctor' to keep me updated.
    Wow! I have a doctor, too! And she warned me about ketosis! I guess that
    means your doctor is smarter than my doctor.

  3. In light of the information Palmer posted showing severe abdominal pain as a
    potential side effect of ketosis, I'd like to say two things. First, as the
    information itself seems to indicate, only a small minority have experienced
    this. Second, you can count me in that small minority because the same
    thing happened to me the first and last time I did the induction phase. I
    was almost done with that phase when the pain hit me like a ton of bricks.
    I went to the local medical center, and the doctor on duty suspected
    appendicitis and sent me to the emergency room via ambulance, but the
    hospital staff determined that it wasn't appendicitis and decided it was
    either a stomach bug or constipation. Let me stress here that Palmer is not
    trolling or joking around. I was in so much pain in the hospital that they
    had to put me on morphine. I quit the induction phase early and began
    taking in more carbs while still keeping them below 125g per day. The pain
    went away within two days.
    Now this is a classic. We're supposed to believe that during induction
    you had stomach pain so severe you went via ambulance to the emergency
    room. The pain was so bad, you were put on morphine. Then you tell
    us that as a result of that you "quit the induction phase early and
    began taking in more carbs while still keeping them below 125g per
    day."
    Am I the only one that finds this quite amazing? If you were in such
    pain and went through that experience, any normal person would have
    immediately just gone back to normal eating, not fooling around with
    modifying the LC plan by upping the carbs, but keeping them under 125
    to see what would happen next.
    I don't doubt that some people could experience stomach problems from a
    sudden radical change in diet, whether to LC or anything else. But
    from some of what I'm hearing here and from Palmer, I have serious
    doubts as to the veracity of these events.

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