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The Body Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids True Or False

Adipose Tissue

Adipose Tissue

Ann L. Albright and Judith S. Stern Department of Nutrition and Internal Medicine University of California at Davis Davis, CA USA Morphology and Development of Adipose TissueAdipose-Tissue MetabolismAdipose Tissue DistributionDefinition and Causes of ObesityFurther Reading Albright, A.L. and Stern, J.S. (1998). Adipose tissue. In: Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, T.D.Fahey (Editor). Internet Society for Sport Science: 30 May 1998. Adipose tissue is specialized connective tissue that functions as the major storage site for fat in the form of triglycerides. Adipose tissue is found in mammals in two different forms: white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. The presence, amount, and distribution of each varies depending upon the species. Most adipose tissue is white, the focus of this review. White adipose tissue serves three functions: heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and most importantly, a source of energy. Subcutaneous adipose tissue, found directly below the skin, is an especially important heat insulator in the body, because it conducts heat only one third as readily as other tissues. The degree of insulation is dependent upon the thickness of this fat layer. For example, a person with a 2-mm layer of subcutaneous fat will feel as comfortable at 15°C as a person with a 1-mm layer at 16°C. Adipose tissue also surrounds internal organs and provides some protection for these organs from jarring. As the major form of energy storage, fat provides a buffer for energy imbalances when energy intake is not equal to energy output. It is an efficient way to store excess energy, because it is stored with very little water. Consequently, more energy can be derived per gram of fat (9 kcal.gm-1) than per gram of carbohydrate (4 kcal.gm-1) or protein (4 kcal.g Continue reading >>

How Does The Body Adapt To Starvation?

How Does The Body Adapt To Starvation?

- [Instructor] In this video, I want to explore the question of how does our body adapt to periods of prolonged starvation. So in order to answer this question, I actually think it's helpful to remind ourselves first of a golden rule of homeostasis inside of our body. So in order to survive, remember that our body must be able to maintain proper blood glucose levels. I'm gonna go ahead and write we must be able to maintain glucose levels in our blood, and this is important even in periods of prolonged starvation, because it turns out that we need to maintain glucose levels above a certain concentration in order to survive, even if that concentration is lower than normal. And this of course brings up the question, well, how does our body maintain blood glucose levels? So let's go ahead and answer this question by starting off small. Let's say we have a mini case of starvation, let's say three or four hours after a meal. Your blood glucose levels begin to drop, and so what does your body do to resolve that? Well, at this point, it has a quick and easy solution. It turns to its glycogen stores in the liver. Remember that our body stores up these strings of glucose inside of our body so that we can easily pump it back into the blood when we're not eating. But unfortunately humans only have enough glycogen stores to last us about a day, so after a day of starvation, our body's pretty much reliant exclusively on the metabolic pathways involved in gluconeogenesis, which if you remember is the pathway by which we produce new or neo glucose. And we produce this glucose from non-carbohydrate precursor molecules. So let's think about what else we have in our body. Remember that our other two major storage fuels are fats, and we usually think about fatty acids containing most of th Continue reading >>

Nbpns

Nbpns

INDICATIONS:If the GI tract works,useit;partial/trophic GI feeds as possible.Parenteral nutrition should only be used when there is a clear indication. Energy & nutrient requirements & delivery True/False: Patients on TPN usually need higher caloric intakes (relative to body weight). This is FALSE. Patient on TPN frequently have several factors contributing to lower calorie needs. First, there is usually decreased energy expenditure from activity compared to healthy peers. Second, there may be additional limitations on activity such as is seen with sedation and mechanical ventilation. And third, with the infusion of nutrients directly into the veins, the energy expenditure related to the thermic effect of food is eliminated. The thermogenic effect of feeding can contribute to 7 - 10% of energy expenditure. So, even though patients on parenteral nutrition are often critically ill, their energy needs will not necessarily be higher. Sources of Energy in parenteral solutions: Protein (amino acids):4 kcal/g (g N = protein g/6.25) True or False: Dextrose should provide the main exogenous energy source during TPN. This is TRUE. Intravenous dextrose suppresses the endogenous breakdown of protein for energy, provides an easily oxidized substrate, and provides the primary fuel for the brain, red and white bloods cells, and for wounds. IV dextrose should be the main source of exogenous energy: it suppresses gluconeogenesis and provides easily oxidized substrate; Start at D10-12.5%;by 2.5% per day (2.5 g/kg/d) until reach goal of ~ 50-60% of total kcal Glucose loadis dependent on concentration & rate (g/kg/d or mg/kg/min); max hepatic oxidation rates are highest in young infant (18 g/kg/d12.5 mg/kg/min), lowest in adults (4.3 g/kg/d3.0 mg/kg/min); exceeding these may result in com Continue reading >>

The Fat-fueled Brain: Unnatural Or Advantageous?

The Fat-fueled Brain: Unnatural Or Advantageous?

Disclaimer: First things first. Please note that I am in no way endorsing nutritional ketosis as a supplement to, or a replacement for medication. As you’ll see below, data exploring the potential neuroprotective effects of ketosis are still scarce, and we don’t yet know the side effects of a long-term ketogenic diet. This post talks about the SCIENCE behind ketosis, and is not meant in any way as medical advice. The ketogenic diet is a nutritionist’s nightmare. High in saturated fat and VERY low in carbohydrates, “keto” is adopted by a growing population to paradoxically promote weight loss and mental well-being. Drinking coffee with butter? Eating a block of cream cheese? Little to no fruit? To the uninitiated, keto defies all common sense, inviting skeptics to wave it off as an unnatural “bacon-and-steak” fad diet. Yet versions of the ketogenic diet have been used to successfully treat drug-resistant epilepsy in children since the 1920s – potentially even back in the biblical ages. Emerging evidence from animal models and clinical trials suggest keto may be therapeutically used in many other neurological disorders, including head ache, neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders, bipolar disorder, autism and brain cancer. With no apparent side effects. Sound too good to be true? I feel ya! Where are these neuroprotective effects coming from? What’s going on in the brain on a ketogenic diet? Ketosis in a nutshell In essence, a ketogenic diet mimics starvation, allowing the body to go into a metabolic state called ketosis (key-tow-sis). Normally, human bodies are sugar-driven machines: ingested carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is mainly transported and used as energy or stored as glycogen in liver and muscle tissue. When deprived of d Continue reading >>

Popular Study Materials From Nutrition 251

Popular Study Materials From Nutrition 251

Size: 177 A) they are needed in larger amounts than the nonessential amino acids. B) they provide energy to the body, while nonessential amino acids do not. C) they are more important than the nonessential amino acids. D) they must be supplied in the diet. A) eggs B) steak C) bread D) orange soda E) hotdog A) has at least some of each essential amino acid B) contains all essential and nonessential amino acids C) is used solely for the manufacture of bodily protein D) contains all the essential amino acids in a pattern which is proportional to human needs A) So that high quality and low quality protein are mixed. B) Because this reduces fats from meat and poultry by mixing with heart healthy fats from the other subgroups. C) To reduce the cost of weekly menus that contain mostly protein from high cost meats such as beef and poultry. D) To reduce the intake of grilled beef and poultry which may contain carcinogens from the grilling process. A) Creamy peanut butter B) Milk C) Parmesan cheese D) Ground beef A) Conversion to nonessential amino acids B) Conversion to niacin, a B vitamin C) Regulation of fluid balance D) Transport nutrients into cells E) Answers A and B above A) Proteins that facilitate chemical reactions B) Proteins that are not altered by the reactions they facilitate C) Chemical messengers that are secreted from one tissue, travels through the body, and cause a change in a target tissue. D) Options A and B above E) Options A, B and C above. Using Matt's dietary analysis from your study questions, it indicates he consumed 170% of his RDA for protein and 13% of his total kcalories from protein. Based on this information, which of the following is the best conclusion? A) Matt met his RDA for protein, but did not meet the Acceptable Maconutrient Distribution Ra Continue reading >>

Fsn127 E2

Fsn127 E2

Which is false about type 1 and type 2 diabetes ?A) when untreated they both cause hyperglycemiaB) initially, they both involve the failure of the pancreas to produce insulinC) they both are diseases relating to the control of blood glucose Flashcards Matching Hangman Crossword Type In Quiz Test StudyStack Study Table Bug Match Hungry Bug Unscramble Chopped Targets FSN127 Exam 2 Study Guide and Reading Assignment Question Answer Which is false about type 1 and type 2 diabetes ?A) when untreated they both cause hyperglycemiaB) initially, they both involve the failure of the pancreas to produce insulinC) they both are diseases relating to the control of blood glucose B) initially, they both involve the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin Which type of hypoglycemia occurs a few hours after a meal and is associated with a panic attack ? A) reactive hypoglycemia B) fasting hypoglycemia A) reactive hypoglycemia Which are signs that suggest a person should get evaluated for diabetes ?A) excessive hungerB) frequent urinationC) blurred visionD) A and B only E) A, B, and C E) A, B, and C It is possible that person who is classified as being insulin resistant will have a very high blood level of insulin. A) true B) false A) True All people who develop insulin resistance go on to develop Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A) true B) false B) False Various studies have shown that diabetics who consume food of low glycemic index tend to have improved blood glucose levels. A) true B) false A) True Hypoglycemia refers to A) high blood sugar B) high blood pressure C) low blood sugar D) low blood pressure C) Low blood sugar Which of the following refers to damage to the kidneys caused by chronic hyperglycemia, as occurs in poorly managed diabetes mellitus ?A) retinopathy B) neuropathy C) n Continue reading >>

© British Nutrition Foundation 2013

© British Nutrition Foundation 2013

© BRITISH NUTRITION FOUNDATION 2013 Learning objectives To understand that macronutrients are needed by the body to produce energy. To know the functions and sources of carbohydrate, protein and fat. To understand the consequences of not having enough carbohydrate, protein and fat. © BRITISH NUTRITION FOUNDATION 2013 Food is eaten and digested in the body to allow the absorption of energy and nutrients. There are two different types of nutrients: macronutrients; micronutrients. Macronutrients provide energy and these include: carbohydrate; protein; fat. Macronutrients are measured in grams (g). © BRITISH NUTRITION FOUNDATION 2013 Carbohydrate The two types of carbohydrate that provide dietary energy are starch and sugars. Dietary fibre is also a type of carbohydate which is not digested to provide energy. Starchy carbohydrate is an important source of energy. 1 gram of carbohydrate provides 4kcal (17kJ). © BRITISH NUTRITION FOUNDATION 2013 Structure of carbohydrate All types of carbohydrate are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They can be classified in many different ways. One common way is according to their structure. They can be divided into three main groups according to the size of the molecule. © BRITISH NUTRITION FOUNDATION 2013 Monosaccharides These are the simplest carbohydrate molecules. Examples of monosaccharides are: glucose; fructose; galactose. Disaccharides These sugars are formed when two monosaccharide molecules join together with the removal of one molecule of water. Examples of disaccharides are: sucrose (glucose + fructose); lactose (glucose + galactose); maltose (glucose + glucose). Monosaccharides and disaccharides are collectively termed as ‘sugars’. © BRITISH NUTRITION FOUNDATION 2013 Polysaccharides These Continue reading >>

Metabolism

Metabolism

Sort Catabolism Degradation from large complex molecules to smaller simple ones: 1) Carbohydrate Catabolism: a) Glycolysis b) Penthose Phosphate Passway c) Kerbs Cycle (Cytric Acid Cycle) d) Electron transport Chain e) Glycogenolysis 2) Lipid Catabolism a) β oxidation b) Ketone metabolism c) Cholestrol catabolism 3) Protein Catabolism 4) Nucleic Acid Catabolism Glycolysis: Definition and Enzymes Converts Glucose to Pyruvate (or Lactate in anaerobic conditions) Net energy yield: 2 ATP, 2 NADH Steps: 1) Glucose ---> Glucose-6p 2) Glucose-6p <---> Fructose-6p 3) Fructose-6p ---> Fruktose-1,6 bisphosphate --- 4) Fruktose-1,6 bisphosphate <--->Glyceraldehyde-3p + DHAP 4-a) Glyceraldehyde-3p <---> DHAP 5) Glyceraldehyde-3p <---> 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate 6) 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate <---> 3-Phosphoglycerate 7) 3-Phosphoglycerate <---> 2-Phosphoglycerate 8) 2-Phosphoglycerate ----> Phosphoenylpyruvate (PEP) 9) PEP ---> Pyruvate Enzymes: 1) Hexokonase (Glucokinase in liver), 2) Glucose 6-p isomerase (Phosphoglucose isomerase) 3) PFK, 4) Aldolase, 4-a) Triose-phosphate isomerase, 5) Glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6) Phosphoglycerate kinase, 7) Phosphoglycerate mutase, 8) Enolase, 9) Pyruvate Kinase Hexokinase, PFK and Pyruvate Kinase are irreversible and regulatory PFK is Rate Limiting Step ATP is used in steps 1 & 3 NADH produced in 5 ATP produced in 6 & 9 Glycolysis: regulators 1) Hexokinase inhibited by:G6P (In Liver: Glucokinase regulated by: Glucokinase regulatory protein: GKRP) 2) PFK-1 Stimulated by AMP & Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate⁰ and inhibited by ATP & Citrate PFK-2 stimulated by Insukine and inhibited by Glucagon 3) Pyruvate kinase activated by: fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and Insuline⁰, Inhibited by ATP, Acetyl-CoA, Glucagon⁰ and Alanine⁰ ⁰Liver specific G Continue reading >>

Nutrition Review Exam2

Nutrition Review Exam2

1. Nutrition 101Exam 2 Review Session TAs: Helen Corless and Delma Betancourt 2. Chapter 6Protein: Amino Acids 3. Which of the following atoms is not a component of carbohydrate or fat?a) Hydrogenb) Nitrogenc) Oxygend) Carbon 4. Which of the following atoms is not a component of carbohydrate or fat?a) Hydrogenb) Nitrogenc) Oxygend) Carbon 5. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are all composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in various arrangementsBut…protein is unique in that it also contains nitrogen 6. Which of the following differentiates amino acids from each other?a) Number of carbon-carbon double bondsb) The side groupc) The amino groupd) Hydrogenation 7. Which of the following differentiates amino acids from each other?a) Number of carbon-carbon double bondsb) The side groupc) The amino groupd) Hydrogenation 8. There are 20 different amino acids, eachwith its own unique side group 9. An amino acid that the body can synthesize is called:a) Indispensableb) Essentialc) Conditionally essentiald) Non-essential 10. An amino acid that the body can synthesize is called:a) Indispensableb) Essentialc) Conditionally essentiald) Non-essential 11. Most amino acids are nonessential, meaning the body can synthesize them for itself (as long as building blocks are available)Essential amino acids must come from the diet, because the body cannot make these in sufficient quantities (indispensable)Conditionally essential: normally nonessential but must be supplied by diet under special circumstances (e.g. PKU -> tyrosine) 12. Proteins form when _______ bonds join amino acids in a ________ reaction.a) Carbon; hydrolysisb) Carbon; anabolicc) Peptide; condensationd) Peptide; catabolic 13. Proteins form when _______ bonds join amino acids in a ________ reaction.a) Carbon; hydrolysisb) Continue reading >>

How To Strengthen The Immune System

How To Strengthen The Immune System

Self-Study Examination Instructions: After studying the text answer the following true/false or multiple choice questions. Remember, there's only one answer to each question. 1. Immunity exists in the parasite. a) True b) False 2. The immune system is composed of lymph. a) True b) False 3. The immune system is activated by recognizing any part of the body as non-self. a) True b) False 4. The immune response can be divided into two broad types: humoral response and cell mediated response. a) True b) False 5. Adaptive immunity leads to specific memory which is related to vaccination. a) True b) False a) True b) False 7. Macrophages are the first line of defense in the lymph system. a) True b) False 8. NK cells are the first line of defense against cancer. a) True b) False 9. The T-cell count can fall to zero and a person will still live. a) True b) False a) True b) False 11. Nutrition, age, environment can affect the immune system. a) True b) False a) True b) False 13. When we drink a beer, the body recognizes that a “non-self” chemical has entered and in detoxification calls out its army of B and T cells to fight it. a) True b) False a) True b) False a) True b) False a) True b) False a) True b) False a) True b) False a) True b) False a) True b) False 21. Free radicals neutralize antioxidants. a) True b) False a) True b) False a) True b) False Continue reading >>

Each Organ Has A Unique Metabolic Profile

Each Organ Has A Unique Metabolic Profile

The metabolic patterns of the brain, muscle, adipose tissue, kidney, and liver are strikingly different. Let us consider how these organs differ in their use of fuels to meet their energy needs: 1. Brain. Glucose is virtually the sole fuel for the human brain, except during prolonged starvation. The brain lacks fuel stores and hence requires a continuous supply of glucose. It consumes about 120 g daily, which corresponds to an energy input of about 420 kcal (1760 kJ), accounting for some 60% of the utilization of glucose by the whole body in the resting state. Much of the energy, estimates suggest from 60% to 70%, is used to power transport mechanisms that maintain the Na+-K+ membrane potential required for the transmission of the nerve impulses. The brain must also synthesize neurotransmitters and their receptors to propagate nerve impulses. Overall, glucose metabolism remains unchanged during mental activity, although local increases are detected when a subject performs certain tasks. Glucose is transported into brain cells by the glucose transporter GLUT3. This transporter has a low value of KM for glucose (1.6 mM), which means that it is saturated under most conditions. Thus, the brain is usually provided with a constant supply of glucose. Noninvasive 13C nuclear magnetic resonance measurements have shown that the concentration of glucose in the brain is about 1 mM when the plasma level is 4.7 mM (84.7 mg/dl), a normal value. Glycolysis slows down when the glucose level approaches the KM value of hexokinase (~50 μM), the enzyme that traps glucose in the cell (Section 16.1.1). This danger point is reached when the plasma-glucose level drops below about 2.2 mM (39.6 mg/dl) and thus approaches the KM value of GLUT3. Fatty acids do not serve as fuel for the brain, beca Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7

Nutrition Ch. 7

Front Back .Wirisformula{ margin:0 !important; padding:0 !important; vertical-align:top !important;} Metabolism The sum total of all the chemcial reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends energy from food. Example: Nutrients provide the body with FUEL and follows them through a series of reactions that release energy from their chemical bonds. As the bonds break, they release energy in a controlled version of the process by which wood burns in a fire. Energy metabolism All of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from food Anabolism Small compounds joined together to make largers ones; energy must be used in order to do this Ana = up Catabolism Larger compounds BROKEN down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED kata = down Coupled reactions Energy released from the breakdown of a large compounds is used to drive other reactions ATP Adenosine triphosphate; energy currency of the body -- produced when large compounds are broken down ATP is used to make large compounds from smaller ones. Ribosomes Cellular machinery used to make proteins Mitochondria Where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain Coenzyme Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures. co = with Cofactor The general term for substances that facilitate enzyme action is cofactors; they include both organic coenzymes such as vitamins and inorganic substances such as minerals Enzymes Protein catalysts - proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process Metalloenzyme Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their stru Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats supply 90% of the dry weight of the diet and 100% of its energy. All three provide energy (measured in calories), but the amount of energy in 1 gram (1/28 ounce) differs: These nutrients also differ in how quickly they supply energy. Carbohydrates are the quickest, and fats are the slowest. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested in the intestine, where they are broken down into their basic units: The body uses these basic units to build substances it needs for growth, maintenance, and activity (including other carbohydrates, proteins, and fats). Carbohydrates Depending on the size of the molecule, carbohydrates may be simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates: Various forms of sugar, such as glucose and sucrose (table sugar), are simple carbohydrates. They are small molecules, so they can be broken down and absorbed by the body quickly and are the quickest source of energy. They quickly increase the level of blood glucose (blood sugar). Fruits, dairy products, honey, and maple syrup contain large amounts of simple carbohydrates, which provide the sweet taste in most candies and cakes. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of long strings of simple carbohydrates. Because complex carbohydrates are larger molecules than simple carbohydrates, they must be broken down into simple carbohydrates before they can be absorbed. Thus, they tend to provide energy to the body more slowly than simple carbohydrates but still more quickly than protein or fat. Because they are digested more slowly than simple carbohydrates, they are less likely to be converted to fat. They also increase blood sugar levels more slowly and to lower levels than simple carbohydrates but for a longer time. Complex carbohydrates include starches and fib Continue reading >>

Nutrition Test 2

Nutrition Test 2

Sort Because they do not consume any animal products, vegans must make extra efforts to include nutrients that are found in animal products but to a much lesser degree, if at all, in plant products. These nutrients are iron, calcium, zinc, and ____________ Vitamin B12 The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research recommend that people limit their intake of red meat to no more than 18 ounces every week and eat very little processed meat. These recommendations are explained by ___________ the 2010 dietary guidelines and myplate During infancy the ability to process the essential fatty acids to other fatty acids such as arachidonic acid and DHA may be impaired due to immature production of the required enzymes. In this situation, arachidonic acid and DHA are considered to be _________________ conditionally essential Continue reading >>

General Biology €“chapter 8 Review

General Biology €“chapter 8 Review

Mary Stangler Center for Academic Success This review is meant to highlight basic concepts from Chapter 8. It does not cover all concepts presented by your instructor. Refer back to your notes, unit objectives, labs, handouts, etc. to further prepare for your exam. 1. Define cellular respiration as it relates to its purpose. 2. Write the equation that represents cellular respiration. 3. List the 4 stages of cellular respiration. Fill in the blank/True or False/short answer 4. Glycolysis occurs in the mitochondria. True or False? 5. The Citric Acid Cycle takes place in the Mitochondria. True or False? 6. The preparatory reaction takes place across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. True or false? 7. The Electron Transport Chain is a series of carriers on the cristae of the mitochondria. True or false? 8. ________________ (which process?) starts with a molecule of glucose. 9. _________________(which process?) ends with 2, 2-carbon acetyl CoA molecules. 10. _________________(which process?) produces both NADH and FADH2. 11. _________________(which process?) starts with 2, 2-carbon acetyl CoA molecules. 12. ATP synthase is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. True or false? 13. During the electron transport chain, _________(#) ATP are produced from each NADH, and ______(#) ATP are produced from each FADH2. 14. FADH2 is formed from an FAD (temporary electron acceptor), 2 electrons, and 2 hydrogen ions. True or false? 15. NADH is formed from an NAD+ (temporary electron acceptor), 2 electrons, and 2 hydrogen ions. True or false? 16. Glycolysis is an anabolic process. True or false? 17. Glycolysis produces 4 NADH. True or false? 18. Only carbohydrates can undergo the process of cellular respiration. True or false? 19. The __________________(which process?) c Continue reading >>

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