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The Body Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids True Or False

Biochemistry

Biochemistry

Sort what is the regulation of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle is regulated mostly by substrate availability, product inhibition and by some cycle intermediates. • pyruvate dehydrogenase: is inhibited by its products, acetyl-CoA and NADH • citrate synthase: is inhibited by its product, citrate. It is also inhibited by NADH and succinyl-CoA (which signal the abundance of citric acid cycle intermediates). • isocitrate dehydrogenase and a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase: like citrate synthase, these are inhibited by NADH and succinyl-CoA. Isocitrate dehydrogenase is also inhibited by ATP and stimulated by ADP. All aforementioned dehydrogenases are stimulated by Ca2+. This makes sense in the muscle, since Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum triggers muscle contraction, which requires a lot of energy. This way, the same "second messenger" activates an energy-demanding task and the means to produce that energy. What is the regulation of fatty acid metabolism Acyl-CoA movement into the mitochondrion is a crucial factor in regulation. Malonyl-CoA (which is present in the cytoplasm in high amounts when metabolic fuels are abundant) inhibits carnitine acyltransferase, thereby preventing acyl-CoA from entering the mitochondrion. Furthermore, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase is inhibited by NADH and thiolase is inhibited by acetyl-CoA, so that fatty acids wil not be oxidized when there are plenty of energy-yielding substrates in the cell. Explain in overview the metabolic reactions in the body that lead to the formation of ketone bodies (Ketogenesis). Ketogenesis is the process by which ketone bodies are produced as a result of fatty acid breakdown. Ketone bodies are produced mainly in the mitochondria of liver cells, and synthesis can occur in response to una Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats supply 90% of the dry weight of the diet and 100% of its energy. All three provide energy (measured in calories), but the amount of energy in 1 gram (1/28 ounce) differs: These nutrients also differ in how quickly they supply energy. Carbohydrates are the quickest, and fats are the slowest. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested in the intestine, where they are broken down into their basic units: The body uses these basic units to build substances it needs for growth, maintenance, and activity (including other carbohydrates, proteins, and fats). Carbohydrates Depending on the size of the molecule, carbohydrates may be simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates: Various forms of sugar, such as glucose and sucrose (table sugar), are simple carbohydrates. They are small molecules, so they can be broken down and absorbed by the body quickly and are the quickest source of energy. They quickly increase the level of blood glucose (blood sugar). Fruits, dairy products, honey, and maple syrup contain large amounts of simple carbohydrates, which provide the sweet taste in most candies and cakes. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of long strings of simple carbohydrates. Because complex carbohydrates are larger molecules than simple carbohydrates, they must be broken down into simple carbohydrates before they can be absorbed. Thus, they tend to provide energy to the body more slowly than simple carbohydrates but still more quickly than protein or fat. Because they are digested more slowly than simple carbohydrates, they are less likely to be converted to fat. They also increase blood sugar levels more slowly and to lower levels than simple carbohydrates but for a longer time. Complex carbohydrates include starches and fib Continue reading >>

General, Organic & Biological Chemistry, 5e

General, Organic & Biological Chemistry, 5e

(Timberlake) Chapter 24 Metabolic Pathways for Lipids and Amino Acids 24.1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The digestion of fats begins in the A) mouth. B) stomach. C) small intestine. D) large intestine. E) pancreas. Answer: C Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 2) The digestion of fats begins when the fat globules are A) emulsified by bile salts. B) attacked by protease enzymes to form smaller fat globules. C) converted to lipoproteins for greater solubility. D) hydrolyzed to glucose and amino acids. E) hydrolyzed to glycerol and fatty acids. Answer: A Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 3) Fatty acids and glycerol are produced from the metabolism of A) lipids. B) proteins. C) carbohydrates. D) amino acids. E) glucose. Answer: A Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 4) Most of the energy stored in the human body is in the form of A) glycogen. B) glucose. C) muscle tissue. D) triacylglycerols. E) the amino acid pool. Answer: D Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 5) Fat cells are known as A) lysosomes. B) adipocytes. C) glycerides. D) islet cells. E) monoacylglycerols. Answer: B Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 6) The small droplets of fat that are the first step in the digestion of dietary fats are called A) emulsions. B) detergents. C) bile drops. D) lipoproteins. E) micelles. Answer: E Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 7) The action of pancreatic lipase on triacylglycerols produces A) emulsions. B) micelles. C) monoacylglycerols and free fatty acids. D) high-density lipoproteins. E) low-density lipoproteins. Answer: C Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 8) A chylomicron is a A) lipase. B) digestive enzyme. C) triacylglycerol. D) transport lipoprotein. E) storage protein. Answer: D Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 9) Fatty acids are not a source of energy f Continue reading >>

Question: 1. The Body Can Make Long Chain Fatty Acids Through A Process Called &nbs...

Question: 1. The Body Can Make Long Chain Fatty Acids Through A Process Called &nbs...

1. The body can make long chain fatty acids through a process called A. glycolysis B. lipogenesis C . ketogenesis D. lipolysis 2. Once inside a milochondrion, a process called __________ disassembles a fatty acid chain A. ketosis B. cylolysis C. the citric acid cycle D. beta oxidation 3. When a person has diabetes or is starving, ________ help(s) provide emergency energy to all body tissues, especially the brain and central nervous system. A. lipogenesis B. glycolysis C. ketone bodies D. fatty acids 4. The body prefers protein as an energy source True False 5. On average, a person can survive total starvation for 60 days. True False 6. Which type of foods tend to have high satiety value? A. high CHO B. high fat C. high fiber and water content D. low protein 7. Body fat levels of 5-7% for men and 12-19% for women are considered A. high B. just right C. low D. morbidly obese 8. ________________ can trigger your desire for a specific type of food. A . Appetite B. Satiety C. Hunger D. Food intake 9. Having a pear-shaped body is also known as android obesity. True False 10. If a person suffers from hyperplasia, this means A. this person has an above average amount of percentage of fat cells B. his or her fat tissue is likely to have bigger fat cells and more of them C. the person has fat cells which are larger than normal D. the person has lost many fat cells due to excessive weight loss 11. Water provides energy. True False 12. The energy needed to digest, absorb and metabolyze energy-yielding foodstuffs is called____________ A. nonexercise activity thermogenesis B. resting energy expenditure C. thermic affect of food D. negative energy balance 13. Most people overestimate the amount of food they consume. True False 14. The body needs __________ to synthesize fat A. ribofla Continue reading >>

Fsn127 E2

Fsn127 E2

Which is false about type 1 and type 2 diabetes ?A) when untreated they both cause hyperglycemiaB) initially, they both involve the failure of the pancreas to produce insulinC) they both are diseases relating to the control of blood glucose Flashcards Matching Hangman Crossword Type In Quiz Test StudyStack Study Table Bug Match Hungry Bug Unscramble Chopped Targets FSN127 Exam 2 Study Guide and Reading Assignment Question Answer Which is false about type 1 and type 2 diabetes ?A) when untreated they both cause hyperglycemiaB) initially, they both involve the failure of the pancreas to produce insulinC) they both are diseases relating to the control of blood glucose B) initially, they both involve the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin Which type of hypoglycemia occurs a few hours after a meal and is associated with a panic attack ? A) reactive hypoglycemia B) fasting hypoglycemia A) reactive hypoglycemia Which are signs that suggest a person should get evaluated for diabetes ?A) excessive hungerB) frequent urinationC) blurred visionD) A and B only E) A, B, and C E) A, B, and C It is possible that person who is classified as being insulin resistant will have a very high blood level of insulin. A) true B) false A) True All people who develop insulin resistance go on to develop Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A) true B) false B) False Various studies have shown that diabetics who consume food of low glycemic index tend to have improved blood glucose levels. A) true B) false A) True Hypoglycemia refers to A) high blood sugar B) high blood pressure C) low blood sugar D) low blood pressure C) Low blood sugar Which of the following refers to damage to the kidneys caused by chronic hyperglycemia, as occurs in poorly managed diabetes mellitus ?A) retinopathy B) neuropathy C) n Continue reading >>

Can Amino Acids Be Used By The Body To Make Glucose & Fatty Acids?

Can Amino Acids Be Used By The Body To Make Glucose & Fatty Acids?

Amino acids are nitrogen-containing molecules that are the building blocks of all proteins in food and in the body. They can be used as energy, yielding about 4 calories per gram, but their primary purpose is the synthesis and maintenance of body proteins including, but not limited to, muscle mass. Video of the Day During normal protein metabolism, a certain number of amino acids are pushed aside each day. When these amino acids are disproportionate to other amino acids for the synthesis of new protein, your liver and kidneys dispose of the nitrogen as urea, and the rest of the molecule is used as energy in a variety of ways. Then certain amino acids -- minus their nitrogen -- can enter the citric acid cycle -- the biochemical pathway that converts food into energy. Others can be converted to glucose or fat. This process may be enhanced when you take in more protein than you need. Your body relies on a continuous supply of glucose and fatty acids for energy for physical activity and cellular needs during rest. When you exercise, your body relies still more on glucose because fat is slower to metabolize. The higher your exercise intensity is, the more your body requires quicker-burning glucose. Some glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles and can be recruited when blood glucose is used up. When glycogen becomes depleted, the process of gluconeogenesis can take over -- the creation of new glucose from another source. The usual source for gluconeogenesis is amino acids. Healthy people store adequate body fat to cover their energy needs. Although certain amino acids can be converted to fatty acids, there should be no need for this to occur in order to supply energy. But if a very high protein intake adds substantially more calories, theoretically those extra Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7

Nutrition Ch. 7

Front Back .Wirisformula{ margin:0 !important; padding:0 !important; vertical-align:top !important;} Metabolism The sum total of all the chemcial reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends energy from food. Example: Nutrients provide the body with FUEL and follows them through a series of reactions that release energy from their chemical bonds. As the bonds break, they release energy in a controlled version of the process by which wood burns in a fire. Energy metabolism All of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from food Anabolism Small compounds joined together to make largers ones; energy must be used in order to do this Ana = up Catabolism Larger compounds BROKEN down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED kata = down Coupled reactions Energy released from the breakdown of a large compounds is used to drive other reactions ATP Adenosine triphosphate; energy currency of the body -- produced when large compounds are broken down ATP is used to make large compounds from smaller ones. Ribosomes Cellular machinery used to make proteins Mitochondria Where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain Coenzyme Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures. co = with Cofactor The general term for substances that facilitate enzyme action is cofactors; they include both organic coenzymes such as vitamins and inorganic substances such as minerals Enzymes Protein catalysts - proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process Metalloenzyme Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their stru Continue reading >>

Practice Quizzes

Practice Quizzes

Spotlight on Metabolism 1: In a state of starvation, the body will burn all of its protein stores before its fat stores. TRUE FALSE 2: In what part of the cell does glycolysis take place? mitochondria cytosol ribosome lysosome 3: This is the organelle in a cell that is the power-generator. mitochondria ribosome golgi apparatus endoplasmic reticulum 4: Your body can make glucose through a process called photosynthesis. TRUE FALSE 5: Your body stores glycogen in your liver and muscles. TRUE FALSE 6: ______ is particularly dangerous in uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. ketoacidosis biosynthesis glycolysis none of the above 7: In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water join to form oxygen and _____. lactose hydrogen ions glucose starch 8: Cytosol is an organelle in the cytoplasm of a cell. the fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell. the site in a cell where protein synthesis occurs. the portion of the cell that controls the passage of substances. 9: Ketone bodies are not only used as an emergency energy source, but are used on an everyday basis. TRUE FALSE 10: The final step in glucose breakdown is a sequence of linked reactions that take place in the mitochondrial membrane cytosol intravascular spaces nucleus of the cell 11: The electron transport chain is located in the mitochondrial membrane. ribosome lysosome Golgi apparatus 12: An alternative fuel that muscle cells can use or that the liver can convert to glucose is ______. ATP oxaloacetate lactate citric acid 13: ____ are the "work centers" of metabolism. muscles ribosomes cells none of the above 14: To extract energy from fat, the body first breaks down ______ into their components. glucose-glucose disaccharide triglycerides lactate citric acid 15: Your body can make long fatty-acid chains using a process called desynthesis l Continue reading >>

General Biology €“chapter 8 Review

General Biology €“chapter 8 Review

Mary Stangler Center for Academic Success This review is meant to highlight basic concepts from Chapter 8. It does not cover all concepts presented by your instructor. Refer back to your notes, unit objectives, labs, handouts, etc. to further prepare for your exam. 1. Define cellular respiration as it relates to its purpose. 2. Write the equation that represents cellular respiration. 3. List the 4 stages of cellular respiration. Fill in the blank/True or False/short answer 4. Glycolysis occurs in the mitochondria. True or False? 5. The Citric Acid Cycle takes place in the Mitochondria. True or False? 6. The preparatory reaction takes place across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. True or false? 7. The Electron Transport Chain is a series of carriers on the cristae of the mitochondria. True or false? 8. ________________ (which process?) starts with a molecule of glucose. 9. _________________(which process?) ends with 2, 2-carbon acetyl CoA molecules. 10. _________________(which process?) produces both NADH and FADH2. 11. _________________(which process?) starts with 2, 2-carbon acetyl CoA molecules. 12. ATP synthase is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. True or false? 13. During the electron transport chain, _________(#) ATP are produced from each NADH, and ______(#) ATP are produced from each FADH2. 14. FADH2 is formed from an FAD (temporary electron acceptor), 2 electrons, and 2 hydrogen ions. True or false? 15. NADH is formed from an NAD+ (temporary electron acceptor), 2 electrons, and 2 hydrogen ions. True or false? 16. Glycolysis is an anabolic process. True or false? 17. Glycolysis produces 4 NADH. True or false? 18. Only carbohydrates can undergo the process of cellular respiration. True or false? 19. The __________________(which process?) c Continue reading >>

Metabolism

Metabolism

Sort Catabolism Degradation from large complex molecules to smaller simple ones: 1) Carbohydrate Catabolism: a) Glycolysis b) Penthose Phosphate Passway c) Kerbs Cycle (Cytric Acid Cycle) d) Electron transport Chain e) Glycogenolysis 2) Lipid Catabolism a) β oxidation b) Ketone metabolism c) Cholestrol catabolism 3) Protein Catabolism 4) Nucleic Acid Catabolism Glycolysis: Definition and Enzymes Converts Glucose to Pyruvate (or Lactate in anaerobic conditions) Net energy yield: 2 ATP, 2 NADH Steps: 1) Glucose ---> Glucose-6p 2) Glucose-6p <---> Fructose-6p 3) Fructose-6p ---> Fruktose-1,6 bisphosphate --- 4) Fruktose-1,6 bisphosphate <--->Glyceraldehyde-3p + DHAP 4-a) Glyceraldehyde-3p <---> DHAP 5) Glyceraldehyde-3p <---> 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate 6) 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate <---> 3-Phosphoglycerate 7) 3-Phosphoglycerate <---> 2-Phosphoglycerate 8) 2-Phosphoglycerate ----> Phosphoenylpyruvate (PEP) 9) PEP ---> Pyruvate Enzymes: 1) Hexokonase (Glucokinase in liver), 2) Glucose 6-p isomerase (Phosphoglucose isomerase) 3) PFK, 4) Aldolase, 4-a) Triose-phosphate isomerase, 5) Glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6) Phosphoglycerate kinase, 7) Phosphoglycerate mutase, 8) Enolase, 9) Pyruvate Kinase Hexokinase, PFK and Pyruvate Kinase are irreversible and regulatory PFK is Rate Limiting Step ATP is used in steps 1 & 3 NADH produced in 5 ATP produced in 6 & 9 Glycolysis: regulators 1) Hexokinase inhibited by:G6P (In Liver: Glucokinase regulated by: Glucokinase regulatory protein: GKRP) 2) PFK-1 Stimulated by AMP & Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate⁰ and inhibited by ATP & Citrate PFK-2 stimulated by Insukine and inhibited by Glucagon 3) Pyruvate kinase activated by: fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and Insuline⁰, Inhibited by ATP, Acetyl-CoA, Glucagon⁰ and Alanine⁰ ⁰Liver specific G Continue reading >>

Chapter Summary

Chapter Summary

Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical and physical processes by which the body breaks down and builds up molecules. All forms of life maintain a balance between anabolic and catabolic reactions, which determines if the body achieves growth and repair or if it persists in a state of loss. Metabolic pathways are clusters of chemical reactions that occur sequentially and achieve a particular goal, such as the breakdown of glucose for energy. These pathways are carefully controlled, either turned on or off, by hormones released within the body. Condensation and hydrolysis are chemical reactions involving water, whereas phosphorylation is a chemical reaction in which phosphate is transferred. In oxidation-reduction reactions, the molecules involved exchange electrons. Enzymes, coenzymes, and cofactors increase the efficiency of metabolism. Glucose oxidation occurs in three well-defined stages: glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation via the electron transport chain. The end products of glucose oxidation are carbon dioxide, water, and ATP. During glycolysis, six-carbon glucose is converted into two molecules of three-carbon pyruvate. If glycolysis is anaerobic, this pyruvate is converted to lactic acid. If glycolysis is aerobic, this pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA and enters the TCA cycle. During the TCA cycle, acetyl CoA coming from either carbohydrate,fat, or protein metabolism results in the production of GTP or ATP, NADH, and FADH2. These two final compounds go through oxidative phosphorylation (as part of the electron transport chain) to produce energy. During oxidative phosphorylation, the NADH and the FADH2 enter the electron transport chain where, through a series of reactions, ATP is produced. Triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and Continue reading >>

Chapter 5 Fats, Oils, And Other Lipids

Chapter 5 Fats, Oils, And Other Lipids

Nutrition & You, 4e (Blake) 1) Lipids contain all the following elements except A) nitrogen. B) carbon. C) hydrogen. D) oxygen. Answer: A Page Ref: 146 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 5.1 Section: 5.1 2) The two essential fatty acids are A) monoglycerides and diglycerides. B) cholesterol and trans fatty acids. C) linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. D) PUFAs and MUFAs. Answer: C Page Ref: 148 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 5.1 Section: 5.1 3) Which of the following terms encompasses all of the other listed terms? A) LDL B) HDL C) lipoprotein D) VLDL Answer: C Page Ref: 153 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 5.2 Section: 5.2 4) Which of the following types of lipoprotein contains the highest percentage of protein? A) VLDL B) HDL C) LDL D) chylomicron Answer: B Page Ref: 153 Skill: Comprehension Learning Outcome: 5.2 Section: 5.2 5) Phospholipids are made up of how many fatty acid chains? A) 4 B) 3 C) 2 D) 1 Answer: C Page Ref: 146 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 5.1 Section: 5.1 6) The phosphate-containing head of a phospholipid attracts water and is thus said to be A) polar. B) nonpolar. C) hydrophobic. D) None of the answers is correct. Answer: A Page Ref: 149, 150 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 5.1 Section: 5.1 7) Sterols contain how many glycerol and fatty acid groups? A) 3 B) 5 C) 0 D) 2 Answer: C Page Ref: 150 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 5.1 Section: 5.1 8) A fatty acid that has a single double bond is called a A) unsaturated fatty acid. B) polyunsaturated fatty acid. C) monounsaturated fatty acid. D) saturated fatty acid. Answer: C Page Ref: 148 Skill: Knowledge Learning Outcome: 5.1 Section: 5.1 9) Which of the following lipids is a precursor for both vitamin D and testosterone? A) cholesterol B) alpha-linolenic acid C) eicosanoids D) satu Continue reading >>

The Inuit Paradox

The Inuit Paradox

Patricia Cochran, an Inupiat from Northwestern Alaska, is talking about the native foods of her childhood: “We pretty much had a subsistence way of life. Our food supply was right outside our front door. We did our hunting and foraging on the Seward Peninsula and along the Bering Sea. “Our meat was seal and walrus, marine mammals that live in cold water and have lots of fat. We used seal oil for our cooking and as a dipping sauce for food. We had moose, caribou, and reindeer. We hunted ducks, geese, and little land birds like quail, called ptarmigan. We caught crab and lots of fish—salmon, whitefish, tomcod, pike, and char. Our fish were cooked, dried, smoked, or frozen. We ate frozen raw whitefish, sliced thin. The elders liked stinkfish, fish buried in seal bags or cans in the tundra and left to ferment. And fermented seal flipper, they liked that too.” Cochran’s family also received shipments of whale meat from kin living farther north, near Barrow. Beluga was one she liked; raw muktuk, which is whale skin with its underlying blubber, she definitely did not. “To me it has a chew-on-a-tire consistency,” she says, “but to many people it’s a mainstay.” In the short subarctic summers, the family searched for roots and greens and, best of all from a child’s point of view, wild blueberries, crowberries, or salmonberries, which her aunts would mix with whipped fat to make a special treat called akutuq—in colloquial English, Eskimo ice cream. Now Cochran directs the Alaska Native Science Commission, which promotes research on native cultures and the health and environmental issues that affect them. She sits at her keyboard in Anchorage, a bustling city offering fare from Taco Bell to French cuisine. But at home Cochran keeps a freezer filled with fish Continue reading >>

Chapter 24 Nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Chapter 24 Nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

1. Using Figure 24.1, match the following: 1) A 2) D 3) B 4) C 5) C 6) E 7) A Using Figure 24.1, match the following: 1) Ten-step enzymatically driven process that converts glucose into pyruvic acid. 2) Occurs via substrate-level phosphorylation. 3) Produces the CO2 involved during glucose oxidation. 4) Where the hydrogens removed during the oxidation of food fuels are combined with O2. 5) Contains ATP synthases, small rotary motors. 6) ATP formed by oxidative phosphorylation. 7) Involves sugar activation, sugar cleavage, and oxidation and ATP formation. 2. Match the following: A) Glycolysis B) Krebs cycle and electron transport chain 8) Glucose serves as the initial reactant. 9) Involves the removal of hydrogen electrons and CO2 from the substrate molecule. 10) Occurs in the cytosol of a cell. 11) Produces the most ATP. 12) Involves the use of oxygen to pick up excess hydrogen and electrons. 3. Match the following: A) glycogenesis B) glycogenolysis C) glycolysis D) gluconeogenesis 13) Breakdown of glycogen to release glucose. 14) Formation of glucose from proteins or fats. 15) Storage of glucose in the form of glycogen. 16) Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid. 4. Match the following: A) lipolysis B) beta oxidation C) lipogenesis D) ketogenesis 17) Synthesis of lipids from glucose or amino acids. 18) Splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids. 19) Conversion of fatty acids into acetyl groups. 20) Formation of ketone bodies. 42. The metabolic rate of the elderly declines steadily with age as skeletal muscles begin to atrophy and activity usually declines. Even eating enough to maintain proper nutrition, the metabolic rate is so slow that not all of the food is used for energy. 9) Explain why the elderly more easily gain weight, even though they may actuall Continue reading >>

Nutrition Review Exam2

Nutrition Review Exam2

1. Nutrition 101Exam 2 Review Session TAs: Helen Corless and Delma Betancourt 2. Chapter 6Protein: Amino Acids 3. Which of the following atoms is not a component of carbohydrate or fat?a) Hydrogenb) Nitrogenc) Oxygend) Carbon 4. Which of the following atoms is not a component of carbohydrate or fat?a) Hydrogenb) Nitrogenc) Oxygend) Carbon 5. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are all composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in various arrangementsBut…protein is unique in that it also contains nitrogen 6. Which of the following differentiates amino acids from each other?a) Number of carbon-carbon double bondsb) The side groupc) The amino groupd) Hydrogenation 7. Which of the following differentiates amino acids from each other?a) Number of carbon-carbon double bondsb) The side groupc) The amino groupd) Hydrogenation 8. There are 20 different amino acids, eachwith its own unique side group 9. An amino acid that the body can synthesize is called:a) Indispensableb) Essentialc) Conditionally essentiald) Non-essential 10. An amino acid that the body can synthesize is called:a) Indispensableb) Essentialc) Conditionally essentiald) Non-essential 11. Most amino acids are nonessential, meaning the body can synthesize them for itself (as long as building blocks are available)Essential amino acids must come from the diet, because the body cannot make these in sufficient quantities (indispensable)Conditionally essential: normally nonessential but must be supplied by diet under special circumstances (e.g. PKU -> tyrosine) 12. Proteins form when _______ bonds join amino acids in a ________ reaction.a) Carbon; hydrolysisb) Carbon; anabolicc) Peptide; condensationd) Peptide; catabolic 13. Proteins form when _______ bonds join amino acids in a ________ reaction.a) Carbon; hydrolysisb) Continue reading >>

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