What is BIOLOGICAL PUMP? What does BIOLOGICAL PUMP mean? BIOLOGICAL PUMP meaning - BIOLOGICAL PUMP definition - BIOLOGICAL PUMP explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. The biological pump, in its simplest form, is the ocean’s biologically driven sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere to the deep sea. It is the part of the oceanic carbon cycle responsible for the cycling of organic matter formed by phytoplankton during photosynthesis (soft-tissue pump), as well as the cycling of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed by certain plankton and mollusks as a protective coating (carbonate pump). The biological pump can be divided into three distinct phases, the first of which is the production of fixed carbon by planktonic phototrophs in the euphotic (sunlit) surface region of the ocean. In these surface waters, phytoplankton use carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and other trace elements (barium, iron, zinc, etc.) during photosynthesis to make carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Some plankton, (e.g. coccolithophores and foraminifera) combine calcium (Ca) and dissolved carbonates (carbonic acid and bicarbonate) to form a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) protective coating. Once this carbon is fixed into soft or hard tissue, the organisms either stay in the euphotic zone to be recycled as part of the regenerative nutrient cycle or once they die, continue to the second phase of the biological pump and begin to sink to the ocean floor. The sinking particles will often form aggregates as they sink, greatly increasing the sinking rate. It is this aggregation that gives particles a better chance of escaping predation and decomposition in the water column and eventually make it to the sea floor. The fixed carbon that is either decomposed by bacteria on the way down or once on the sea floor then enters the final phase of the pump and is remineralized to be used again in primary production. The particles that escape these processes entirely are sequestered in the sediment and may remain there for thousands of years. It is this sequestered carbon that is responsible for ultimately lowering atmospheric CO2. The first step in the biological pump is the synthesis of both organic and inorganic carbon compounds by phytoplankton in the uppermost, sunlit layers of the ocean. Organic compounds in the form of sugars, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are synthesized during the process of photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O + light › CH2O + O2 In addition to carbon, organic matter found in phytoplankton is composed of nitrogen, phosphorus and various other trace metals. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen and phosphorus varies little and has an average ratio of 106C:16N:1P, known as the Redfield ratio. Trace metals such as magnesium, cadmium, iron, calcium, barium and copper are orders of magnitude less prevalent in phytoplankton organic material, but necessary for certain metabolic processes and therefore can be limiting nutrients in photosynthesis due to their lower abundance in the water column. Oceanic primary production accounts for about half of the carbon fixation carried out on Earth. Approximately 50-60 Pg of carbon are fixed by marine phytoplankton each year despite the fact that they comprise less than 1% of the total photosynthetic biomass on Earth. The majority of this carbon fixation (~80%) is carried out in the open ocean while the remaining amount occurs in the very productive upwelling regions of the ocean. Despite these productive regions producing 2 to 3 times as much fixed carbon per area, the open ocean accounts for greater than 90% of the ocean area and therefore is the larger contributor. The vast majority of carbon incorporated in organic and inorganic biological matter is formed at the sea surface and then must sink to the ocean floor. A single phytoplankton cell has a sinking rate around 1 m per day and with 4000 m as the average depth of the ocean, it can take over ten years for these cells to reach the ocean floor. However, through processes such as coagulation and expulsion in predator fecal pellets, these cells form aggregates. These aggregates, known as marine snow, have sinking rates orders of magnitude greater than individual cells and complete their journey to the deep in a matter of days.
General, Organic & Biological Chemistry, 5e
(Timberlake) Chapter 24 Metabolic Pathways for Lipids and Amino Acids 24.1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The digestion of fats begins in the A) mouth. B) stomach. C) small intestine. D) large intestine. E) pancreas. Answer: C Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 2) The digestion of fats begins when the fat globules are A) emulsified by bile salts. B) attacked by protease enzymes to form smaller fat globules. C) converted to lipoproteins for greater solubility. D) hydrolyzed to glucose and amino acids. E) hydrolyzed to glycerol and fatty acids. Answer: A Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 3) Fatty acids and glycerol are produced from the metabolism of A) lipids. B) proteins. C) carbohydrates. D) amino acids. E) glucose. Answer: A Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 4) Most of the energy stored in the human body is in the form of A) glycogen. B) glucose. C) muscle tissue. D) triacylglycerols. E) the amino acid pool. Answer: D Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 5) Fat cells are known as A) lysosomes. B) adipocytes. C) glycerides. D) islet cells. E) monoacylglycerols. Answer: B Objective: 24.1 Global Outcomes: GO2 6) The small droplets of fat that are the first step in the digestio
How to Strengthen Weak Legs Top 5 Home Remedies Correct ways to strengthen legs 1. Massage 2. Enjoy Regular Walking 3. Leg Strengthening Exercises 4. Enjoy Sunshine 5. Drink More Fluids
How To Strengthen The Immune System
Self-Study Examination Instructions: After studying the text answer the following true/false or multiple choice questions. Remember, there's only one answer to each question. 1. Immunity exists in the parasite. a) True b) False 2. The immune system is composed of lymph. a) True b) False 3. The immune system is activated by recognizing any part of the body as non-self. a) True b) False 4. The immune response can be divided into two broad types: humoral response and cell mediated response. a) True b) False 5. Adaptive immunity leads to specific memory which is related to vaccination. a) True b) False a) True b) False 7. Macrophages are the first line of defense in the lymph system. a) True b) False 8. NK cells are the first line of defense against cancer. a) True b) False 9. The T-cell count can fall to zero and a person will still live. a) True b) False a) True b) False 11. Nutrition, age, environment can affect the immune system. a) True b) False a) True b) False 13. When we drink a beer, the body recognizes that a “non-self” chemical has entered and in detoxification calls out its army of B and T cells to fight it. a) True b) False a) True b) False a) True b) False a) True b)
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Sort what is the regulation of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle is regulated mostly by substrate availability, product inhibition and by some cycle intermediates. • pyruvate dehydrogenase: is inhibited by its products, acetyl-CoA and NADH • citrate synthase: is inhibited by its product, citrate. It is also inhibited by NADH and succinyl-CoA (which signal the abundance of citric acid cycle intermediates). • isocitrate dehydrogenase and a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase: like citrate synthase, these are inhibited by NADH and succinyl-CoA. Isocitrate dehydrogenase is also inhibited by ATP and stimulated by ADP. All aforementioned dehydrogenases are stimulated by Ca2+. This makes sense in the muscle, since Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum triggers muscle contraction, which requires a lot of energy. This way, the same "second messenger" activates an energy-demanding task and the means to produce that energy. What is the regulation of fatty acid metabolism Acyl-CoA movement into the mitochondrion is a crucial factor in regulation. Malonyl-CoA (which is present in the cytoplasm in high amounts when metabolic fuels are abundant) inhibits carnitine acyltransferase,
Sort Catabolism Degradation from large complex molecules to smaller simple ones: 1) Carbohydrate Catabolism: a) Glycolysis b) Penthose Phosphate Passway c) Kerbs Cycle (Cytric Acid Cycle) d) Electron transport Chain e) Glycogenolysis 2) Lipid Catabolism a) β oxidation b) Ketone metabolism c) Cholestrol catabolism 3) Protein Catabolism 4) Nucleic Acid Catabolism Glycolysis: Definition and Enzymes Converts Glucose to Pyruvate (or Lactate in anaero ...
Amino acids are nitrogen-containing molecules that are the building blocks of all proteins in food and in the body. They can be used as energy, yielding about 4 calories per gram, but their primary purpose is the synthesis and maintenance of body proteins including, but not limited to, muscle mass. Video of the Day During normal protein metabolism, a certain number of amino acids are pushed aside each day. When these amino acids are disproportion ...
Not to be confused with Glycogenesis or Glyceroneogenesis. Simplified Gluconeogenesis Pathway Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol (although not fatty acids); and fr ...
Why do we humans eat food? What do we need it for, and get out of it? W O R K T O G E T H E R Cellular respiration is an: Endergonic process Exergonic process Exergonic OR endergonic process, depending on the organism. In which organelle does cellular respiration occur? Chloroplast Mitochondria Depends on whether itâ€™s a plant or an animal. What is â€œfoodâ€ (i.e. source of metabolic energy) for plants? Sunlight Sugar Water Oxygen Mi ...
Biochemistry textbooks generally tell us that we can’t turn fatty acids into glucose. For example, on page 634 of the 2006 and 2008 editions of Biochemistry by Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, we find the following: Animals Cannot Convert Fatty Acids to Glucose It is important to note that animals are unable to effect the net synthesis of glucose from fatty acids. Specficially, acetyl CoA cannot be converted into pyruvate or oxaloacetate in animals. ...
Sort Carbohydrates -Metabolizes fructose, galactose, and glucose - Makes and stores glycogen -Breaks down glycogen and releases glucose -Breaks down glucose for energy when needed -Makes glucose from some amino acids and glycerol when needed -Converts excess glucose and fructose to fatty acids - Lipids lipids -Builds and breaks down triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol as needed -Breaks down fatty acids for energy when needed - Packages ...