Exam 3 Quizlet - Which Of The Following Is The Major...
Unformatted text preview: Which of the following is the major regulation point for transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria? carnitine acyltransferase I ?? The primary activation of triacylglycerol mobilization in adipocytes is through __________ of the enzyme ____________. phosphorylation; hormone sensitive lipase ?? Which of the following lipoproteins distributes dietary lipids? chylomicron ?? Which of the following statements regarding lipid digestion and absorption is true? The products of lipid digestion are resynthesized into triacylglycerols in intestinal epithelial cells. ?? The emulsification of fats: A. results in the formation of small fat droplets. B. depends upon the amphipathic structure of bile salts. C. results in the formation of micelles. A, B and C. results in the formation of small fat droplets. depends upon the amphipathic structure of bile salts. results in the formation of micelles. ?? In animals, the bulk of energy is stored as __________. triacylglycerols ?? Under fasting conditions, elevated glucagon will activate: hormone sensitive lipase ?? VLDL characteristic of which aproprotein: Apo B 100 ?? Which sphingolipid is a precursor for all other types of sphingolipids? Ceramide. ?? Which of the following is the regulated step of fatty acid synthesis in eukaryotes? Carboxylation of acetyl CoA. ?? The first step in fatty acid synthesis is the formation of ________ from acetyl CoA and carbon dioxide. malonyl CoA ?? The role of biotin in fatty acid biosynthesis is in ____________. malonyl CoA formation. ?? In chylomicro assembly which Apo protein is transferred from HDL? Apo CII ?? Regulation of acetylCoA carboxylase takes place on several levels. When glucose is low: Citrate levels are low ?? When the liver converts excess glucose into fatty a Continue reading >>
Nutrition Chapter 7 (test 2)
Sort acetyl CoA -two carbon compound that pyruvate is converted to in an aerobic environment -occurs in mitochondria -releases carbon dioxide -cannot be reversed through glucose synthesis (unlike conversion of lactate to glucose) -can be further metabolized to produce ATP or redirected into fatty acid synthesis -links glycolysis to the TCA cycle -marks transition from cytosol baed pathways to mitochondria based pathways TCA cycle -continuous cycle of 8 metabolic reactions -located in the mitochondria -needs oxaloacetate to function -acetyl CoA reacts with oxaloacetate to form citrate -produces 2 carbon dioxides, GTP (equivalent to one ATP), eight hydrogen which are transferred to coenzymes NAD and FAD to produce NADH and FADH2), which transport the hydrogen and their electrons to the electron transport chain -must complete two rotations for each molecule of glucose b-oxidation also known as fatty acid oxidation takes place in mitochondria fatty acids activated by Coenzyme A so they can be moved across mitochondrial membrane once in the mitochondria, breaking down the fatty acid in two carbon segments to make one acetyl CoA unit high energy electrons transferred to coenzymes NAD and FAD acetyl coA feeds into TCA cycle and onto the electron transport chain produces more ATP than glucose catabolism and have fewer oxygen atoms, resulting in higher output of NADH and FADH2 fatty acids have a much higher potential energy than glucose it is IMPOSSIBLE for fatty acids to be converted to glucose proteolysis protein breakdown, dietary proteins are digested into single amino acids or small peptides that are absorbed in the body amino acids are transported to the liver, where they can be made into different proteins or released into the bloodstream for uptake by other cells no amin Continue reading >>
44 True/false Questions
Print test Glucocorticoids â†’ -most important is cortisol -increase blood glucose in response to stress by mobilizing fat stores and amino acids, and inhibiting glucose uptake -increase the impact of glucagon, epinephrine, and other catecholamines Ways to measure metabolic rate â†’ -calorimetry -respirometry -consumption tracking -blood concentrations of substrates and hormones Flavoproteins â†’ -secreted by fat cells -decrease appetite by suppressing orexin production Orexin â†’ -increases appetite -involved in alertness and sleep-wake cycle -also triggered by hypoglycemia Closed systems â†’ -many biological systems are considered this -can exchange both energy and matter with the environment Why is ATP a good energy carrier? â†’ -its high-phosphate bonds -negative charges on phosphate groups experience repulsive forces with one another -upon hydrolysis, forming ADP and Pi, these molecules are stabilized by resonance, ionization, and loss of charge repulsion, making these molecules more stable Cardiac muscle regulation â†’ -store lipids under influence of insulin (comes from VLDLs and chylomicrons) -release lipids under influence of epinephrine (HSL) Respirometry â†’ measure basal metabolic rate based on heat exchange with the environment Insulin hormonal regulation â†’ -peptide hormone secreted by alpha-cells of pancreatic islets -increase liver glycogenolysis by activating glycogen phosphorylase and inactivating glycogen synthase -increase liver gluconeogensis -increase liver ketogenesis -increased lipolysis (activates hormone sensitive lipase) -decreased lipogenesis Hepatocytes maintain blood glucose levels by... â†’ glycogenolysis and gluoconeogensis in response to pancreatic hormone activity Physiological concentr Continue reading >>
Sort Carbohydrates -Metabolizes fructose, galactose, and glucose - Makes and stores glycogen -Breaks down glycogen and releases glucose -Breaks down glucose for energy when needed -Makes glucose from some amino acids and glycerol when needed -Converts excess glucose and fructose to fatty acids - Lipids lipids -Builds and breaks down triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol as needed -Breaks down fatty acids for energy when needed - Packages lipids in lipoproteins for transport to other body tissues -Manufactures bile to send to the gallbladder for use in fat digestion -Makes ketone bodies when necessary Proteins -Manufactures nonessential amino acids that are in short supply -Removes from circulation amino acids that are present in excess of need and converts them to other amino acids or deaminates them and converts them to glucose or fatty acids -Removes ammonia from the blood and converts it to urea to be sent to the kidneys for excretion - Makes other nitrogen-containing compounds the body needs (such as bases used in DNA and RNA) -Makes many proteins other -Detoxifies alcohol, other drugs, and poisons; prepares waste products for excretion -Helps dismantle old red blood cells and captures the iron for recycling -Stores most vitamins and many minerals -Activates vitamin D Continue reading >>
Nutrients And Metab
The most used substance for producing the energy- rich ATP Flashcards Matching Hangman Crossword Type In Quiz Test StudyStack Study Table Bug Match Hungry Bug Unscramble Chopped Targets Nutrients used by body cells Question Answer The most used substance for producing the energy- rich ATP Carbohydrates Important in building myelin sheaths and cell membranes Fats Tend to be conserved by cells Amino acids the second most important food source for making cellular energy fats form insulating deposits around body organs and beneath the skin Fats Used to make the bulk of cell structure and functional substances such as enzymes amino acids Examples of carbohydrate-rich food in the diet Fruits,vegetables, breads/ pasta Fatty foods ingested in the normal diet include Cream and cheese The only important digestible polysaccharide Starch An indigestible polysaccharide that aids elimination because it adds bulk to the diet is Cellulose protein- rich foods include ____and _____ Cheese/cream, Meat/fish most examples of these nutrients, which are found largely in vegetables and fruits, are used as coenzymes Vitamins Include copper, iron, and sodium Minerals Which of the oxidative phases does not require oxygen Glycolysis Which phases do require oxygen Krebs cycle and the electron In which form is chemical energy transferred from the first two phases to the third phase in the form of hydrogen atoms bearing high energy electrons which of the phases produces the largest amount of ATP the electron transport chain Which phase combines energetic H atoms with molecular oxygen The electron trasport chain When you eat food that contains carbohydrates, you break down the carbohydrates into a monosaccharide called? glucose If you don’t use this monosaccharide, your body can store it in the live Continue reading >>
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University Of Central Florida
Size: 391 Proteins differ based on the combinations of amino acids used in each type of protein. Some nutrient deficiencies occur quickly, whereas others take more time to develop. Which of the following nutrient deficiencies are listed in the order reflecting most quickly to least quickly? A varied diet also balances the calories you take in with the calories you use up in your daily activities so that your body weight stays in the health range. Simple diffusion is the process by which substances move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This process sometimes requires energy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that no more than ____ percent of calories come from saturated fat. In regard to blood circulation, if you begin with oxygen-poor blood that reaches the heart from the body and is pumped through arteries to capillaries of the lungs, then determine the order for the following: 1. In capillaries of the body, nutrients and oxygen move from the blood to body tissues. 2. Oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart from the lungs by veins. 3. In capillaries of the lungs, oxygen from inhaled air is picked up by the blood and carbon dioxide is released into the lungs and exhaled. 4. Oxygen-rich blood is pumped out of the heart into arteries leading to the body. What might occur if the sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach doesn’t close correctly, and some of the contents from the stomach enter into the esophagus? An individual who eats food contaminated with bacteria may be protected from the ill effects of the bacteria because of the presence of: Which of the following body systems secretes hormones that help regulate how much we eat how quickly food and nutrients travel through the digestive system? As compared to Continue reading >>
Sort What is the difference between energy and metabolism? Energy metabolism? Energy is the capacity to do work - heat, mechanical, electrical, CHEMICAL Metabolism is how the body uses food to meet its needs - specifically, it is the sum total of all chemical reactions in the living cells of the body - energy metabolism includes all reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from food What are the two types of metabolic reactions in the body? Anabolic/Anabolism - building body compounds (requires energy) - ex. glucose + glucose = glycogen - ex. glycerol + fatty acid = triglycerides - ex. amino acid + amino acid = protein Catabolic/Catabolism - breaking down body compounds (releases energy) - ex. glycogen -> glucose - ex. triglycerides -> glycerol + fatty acid - ex. protein -> amino acids What is ATP? How is it formed? (adenosine triphosphate) It is a molecule made up of three phosphate groups that has high energy bonds (so it provides lots of energy when it is broken down) - it is what provides energy for any reaction or cell activity in the body It is formed from the breakdown of glucose (glycolysis), fatty acids, and amino acids Its negative charge makes it vulnerable to hydrolysis What is the idea of coupled reactions? The body makes ATP in coupled reactions. Energy (ATP) is needed to facilitate the reactions that make more ATP. So the body uses ATP to make ATP 1.) ATP is broken down, which provides energy for a variety of functions in the body - when ATP is broken down, it loses a phosphate group and becomes ADP 2.) Energy is required to add a phosphate group to ADP to make ATP (uses ATP from food to do this) This system is about 50% efficient, and the rest is lost as heat How does digestion break things down into smaller units? Carbs -> glucose (and Continue reading >>
Masteringaandp Nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation Chapter 24 P Besaw
The electron carriers within complex IV have a greater affinity for electrons than the electron carrier within complex III. Oxidation of electron carriers within the electron transport chain results in the transport of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. xxx Each enzyme complex in the electron transport chain catalyzes the conversion of oxygen to water. Transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain from NADH results in more ATP synthesis than transfer of electrons from FADH2. Continue reading >>
Nutrition Midterms 2
Sort Describe the types of lipids in body and basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are namedDescribe the types of lipids in body and basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are namedDescribe the types of lipids in body Types of Lipids (fat): Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Sterols Identify food sources of triglycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids and sterols SATURATED (solid or soft) ) double bonds F.A.:lard beef, pork, lamb fat. (LC) MC and SC: milk fat, cocnut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil Mono and Polyunsaturated (liquid) one 2 or three double bonds : olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, safflower oil, fish oil EFA: Omega 3 cold water fish (salmon, tuna, sardines, mackarel) walnuts, flaxeed, hemp oil, soybean oil) reduce inflammation, blood clotting plasma triglycerides Omega 6: beef, poultry, safflower oil, sunflower oil, corn oil. 2 double bonds regulates blood pressure and increases blood clotting Trans fatty acids: margarine (increase blood cholesterol more than saturated fat Three Pathways for Cholesterol Uptake Receptor Pathway LDLs taken up by cells, broken down, and components utilized Excess in blood become oxidized Scavenger Pathway White blood cells remove oxidized LDLs Cholesterol can build up in these cells and kill them; this results in plaque (atherosclerosis) High Density Lipoproteins Picks up cholesterol throughout the body Discuss health concerns related to dietary fat intake Major killer of North Americans is CVD Development:(Atherosclerotic plaque leads to Heart attack and stroke) Risk factors for CVD age, gender, race and genetics (cannot change) can change or prevent: blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes and other diseases Descr Continue reading >>
1. What Is The Difference Between Food Sanitation And Food Safety?
Food sanitation is cleanliness of food and equipment, food safety is how food was handled 2. Name people who have higher risk of becoming sick from contaminated foods. (4) elderly, pregnant women, small children, weakened immune syndrome 3. Name the most common foodborne illnesses and give an example of their sources. (4) Campylobacter â€“ any raw meat e-coli â€“ ground meat Norwalk- shellfish, raw veggies, feces / raw sewage, contaminated water Salmonella â€“ chicken Hepatitis A â€“ seafood / salads Botulism â€“ canned food 4. Name four key recommendations the USDA gives for food safety. Clean, separate, cook, chill 5. What does FIFO mean? First in, first out 6. The temperature danger zone is: 41 - 135 7. Give one prevention technique for each hazard: Foods I VoCATS Review a. b. Cuts Burns c. Electrical issues d. Chemical poisoning e. Falls f. Choking g. Other 8. 9. Define cross contamination. Contamination of one food from contact with another food or unclean surface 10. Define dove tailing. Doing 2 or more things at once 11. Identify and describe parts of a recipe. (5 parts and optional) Title, ingredients, directions, cooking temp, yield â€“ optional â€“ nutritional data 12. Identify the following types of equipment and describe what they do: a. Measuring â€“ spoons, cups, scales â€“ used to measure b. Cutting/mixing â€“ knives, mixer, pastry blender â€“ used to mix ingredients c. Cooking â€“ stove , grillâ€¦.used to prep food 13. What are the abbreviations for the following measurements: a. b. Ounce oz c. Tablespoon (2) Tbsp, T d. Fluid ounce fl.oz. e. Cup c f. Pound lb g. Gallon gal h. Pint pt i. Quart qt 14. 15. What are the equivalents to the following measurements (name as many as possible): a. b. Continue reading >>
Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.
Sort Proteins: makes nonessential AA that are in short supply. Removes excess AA & converts them to other AA, or deaminates them & converts them to glucose or fatty acids. Removes ammonia from blood & converts it to urea for excretion. Makes DNA/RNA. & many proteins. >> Other: Detoxifies alcohol, drugs, poison, & excretes them. Helps dismantle old RBC's & captures the iron for recycling. Stores most vitamins, & many minerals. Activates Vitamin D. AA: Before entering metabolic pathways, AA are deaminated (lose their nitrogen amino group). deamination produces ammonia (which provides nitrogen to make nonessential AA. Remaining ammonia is excreted by urea in liver/kid. AA pathway: can enter pathways as pyruvate/Acetyl CoA/others enter krebs as compounds other than Acetyl CoA. AA that make glucose either by pyruvate or krebs cycle are glucogenic. AA that are degraded to Acetyl CoA are Ketogenic. Thus, proteins unlike fats, are a good source of glucose when carbs aren't available. In the liver: because of capillary network the liver is first to get alcohol saturated blood. liver cells are the only other cells in the body that can make sufficient quantities of dehydrogenase, to oxidize alcohol at a decent rate. >> Alcohol affects every organ of the body, bu t the most dramatic evidence is disruptive behavior is in the liver. Normally the liver prefers fatty acids for fuel, & it packages excess out. But when alcohol is there it has to process it first. >> Continue reading >>
Nutrition Chapter 7
Sort Feasting eating in excess of energy needs metabolism favors fat formation - dietary fat to body fat is most direct and efficient conversion (carbohydrate and protein have other roles to fulfill before) fuel mix - depends on diet; carbohydrate and protein intakes influence fuel mix; increases in carbohydrate and protein intakes DISPLACE fat in the diet (more carbohydrate/protein and less fat) increase fat eaten DOES NOT enhance fat breakdown - does not respond to dietary fat intake! Transition from Feasting to Fasting after a meal (2-3 hours), glucose, glycerol, fatty acids used as needed, stored - fasting state draws on these stores (glycogen and fat are released/broken down) energy needed all the time! (sleeping) basal metabolism - cell's work to maintain life processes; 2/3 energy a person expends per day fasting (choice) vs. starving (no choice) - body cannot distinguish difference between them, forced to draw on reserves of carbohydrate and fat Fasting carbohydrate, fat, protein all eventually used as energy begins with release of glucose from liver's glycogen stores, fatty acids from adipose cells breakdown and acetyl CoA produced - Krebs cycle to produce energy (ATP) decrease blood glucose levels serve as signal - promotes further fat breakdown; release of amino acids from muscles Fatty Acids as Fuel good for now, but glucose is needed brain, nervous system, and RBC - primary source brain/nerve cells consume 1/2 total glucose used/day (50%) 1/4 of energy body uses at rest spent by brain RBC completely dependent on glucose, brain/nerve cells prefer glucose for energy Protein to the Rescue amino acids yielding pyruvate (to make glucose); breakdown of body proteins; amino acids that canoot make glucose used for energy by other cells; expensive way to make glucos Continue reading >>
Sort cell membrane (outer double layer of phospholipid membrane that contains receptors for hormones and other regulatory compounds) cytoplasm (filled with cytosol, a jelly like substance that has organelles, including mitochondria,a floating in it) nucleus (with genetic info in the DNA of chromosomes and site of RNA synthesis) 3 major parts of a cell Continue reading >>
Ketogenesis pathway. The three ketone bodies (acetoacetate, acetone, and beta-hydroxy-butyrate) are marked within an orange box Ketogenesis is the biochemical process by which organisms produce a group of substances collectively known as ketone bodies by the breakdown of fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids. This process supplies energy to certain organs (particularly the brain) under circumstances such as fasting, but insufficient ketogenesis can cause hypoglycemia and excessive production of ketone bodies leads to a dangerous state known as ketoacidosis. Production Ketone bodies are produced mainly in the mitochondria of liver cells, and synthesis can occur in response to an unavailability of blood glucose, such as during fasting. Other cells are capable of carrying out ketogenesis, but they are not as effective at doing so. Ketogenesis occurs constantly in a healthy individual. Ketogenesis takes place in the setting of low glucose levels in the blood, after exhaustion of other cellular carbohydrate stores, such as glycogen. It can also take place when there is insufficient insulin (e.g. in type 1 (but not 2) diabetes), particularly during periods of "ketogenic stress" such as intercurrent illness. The production of ketone bodies is then initiated to make available energy that is stored as fatty acids. Fatty acids are enzymatically broken down in β-oxidation to form acetyl-CoA. Under normal conditions, acetyl-CoA is further oxidized by the citric acid cycle (TCA/Krebs cycle) and then by the mitochondrial electron transport chain to release energy. However, if the amounts of acetyl-CoA generated in fatty-acid β-oxidation challenge the processing capacity of the TCA cycle; i.e. if activity in TCA cycle is low due to low amo Continue reading >>
What Is The Main Function Of Glucose?
There are many types of sugars, which are the simplest type of carbohydrate. While too much dietary sugar poses a number of health risks, the simple sugar glucose serves a critical role in the human body. Glucose serves a primary fuel to generate energy that the body's cells use to carry out their metabolic and biological functions. Glucose is particularly important for the brain, red blood cells and muscle cells during exercise. Video of the Day Biological Fuel Source The primary function of glucose is to serve as a biological fuel source for the body. All cells of the body are capable of using glucose to generate energy. Through a series of complex biochemical reactions, the breakdown of glucose yields high-energy molecules called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP molecules then provide the energy to drive the cellular activities that ultimately keep the body functioning. While many types of body cells can use nutrients other than glucose to generate energy, some rely exclusively or almost exclusively on glucose. Brain and nerve cells normally rely exclusively on glucose as their fuel source. The brain is a relatively large organ with high metabolic rate. A typical adult brain utilizes roughly 120 grams of glucose each day. Because brain cells cannot store glucose, a constant supply must be provided from the blood stream. During periods of prolonged starvation, the brain can switch to using breakdown product of fats (ketones) for fuel. Mature red blood cells also rely exclusively on glucose for fuel because these cells lack the internal machinery to generate energy from any other nutrient source. Other cells that rely almost exclusively on glucose to generate high-energy ATP molecules include: the lens of the eye some retinal cells (the vision-sensing tissue at the ba Continue reading >>