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The Body Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids. Quizlet

Exam 3 Quizlet - Which Of The Following Is The Major...

Exam 3 Quizlet - Which Of The Following Is The Major...

Unformatted text preview: Which of the following is the major regulation point for transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria? carnitine acyltransferase I ?? The primary activation of triacylglycerol mobilization in adipocytes is through __________ of the enzyme ____________. phosphorylation; hormone sensitive lipase ?? Which of the following lipoproteins distributes dietary lipids? chylomicron ?? Which of the following statements regarding lipid digestion and absorption is true? The products of lipid digestion are resynthesized into triacylglycerols in intestinal epithelial cells. ?? The emulsification of fats: A. results in the formation of small fat droplets. B. depends upon the amphipathic structure of bile salts. C. results in the formation of micelles. A, B and C. results in the formation of small fat droplets. depends upon the amphipathic structure of bile salts. results in the formation of micelles. ?? In animals, the bulk of energy is stored as __________. triacylglycerols ?? Under fasting conditions, elevated glucagon will activate: hormone sensitive lipase ?? VLDL characteristic of which aproprotein: Apo B 100 ?? Which sphingolipid is a precursor for all other types of sphingolipids? Ceramide. ?? Which of the following is the regulated step of fatty acid synthesis in eukaryotes? Carboxylation of acetyl CoA. ?? The first step in fatty acid synthesis is the formation of ________ from acetyl CoA and carbon dioxide. malonyl CoA ?? The role of biotin in fatty acid biosynthesis is in ____________. malonyl CoA formation. ?? In chylomicro assembly which Apo protein is transferred from HDL? Apo CII ?? Regulation of acetylCoA carboxylase takes place on several levels. When glucose is low: Citrate levels are low ?? When the liver converts excess glucose into fatty a Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort Feasting eating in excess of energy needs metabolism favors fat formation - dietary fat to body fat is most direct and efficient conversion (carbohydrate and protein have other roles to fulfill before) fuel mix - depends on diet; carbohydrate and protein intakes influence fuel mix; increases in carbohydrate and protein intakes DISPLACE fat in the diet (more carbohydrate/protein and less fat) increase fat eaten DOES NOT enhance fat breakdown - does not respond to dietary fat intake! Transition from Feasting to Fasting after a meal (2-3 hours), glucose, glycerol, fatty acids used as needed, stored - fasting state draws on these stores (glycogen and fat are released/broken down) energy needed all the time! (sleeping) basal metabolism - cell's work to maintain life processes; 2/3 energy a person expends per day fasting (choice) vs. starving (no choice) - body cannot distinguish difference between them, forced to draw on reserves of carbohydrate and fat Fasting carbohydrate, fat, protein all eventually used as energy begins with release of glucose from liver's glycogen stores, fatty acids from adipose cells breakdown and acetyl CoA produced - Krebs cycle to produce energy (ATP) decrease blood glucose levels serve as signal - promotes further fat breakdown; release of amino acids from muscles Fatty Acids as Fuel good for now, but glucose is needed brain, nervous system, and RBC - primary source brain/nerve cells consume 1/2 total glucose used/day (50%) 1/4 of energy body uses at rest spent by brain RBC completely dependent on glucose, brain/nerve cells prefer glucose for energy Protein to the Rescue amino acids yielding pyruvate (to make glucose); breakdown of body proteins; amino acids that canoot make glucose used for energy by other cells; expensive way to make glucos Continue reading >>

University Of Central Florida

University Of Central Florida

Size: 391 Proteins differ based on the combinations of amino acids used in each type of protein. Some nutrient deficiencies occur quickly, whereas others take more time to develop. Which of the following nutrient deficiencies are listed in the order reflecting most quickly to least quickly? A varied diet also balances the calories you take in with the calories you use up in your daily activities so that your body weight stays in the health range. Simple diffusion is the process by which substances move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This process sometimes requires energy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that no more than ____ percent of calories come from saturated fat. In regard to blood circulation, if you begin with oxygen-poor blood that reaches the heart from the body and is pumped through arteries to capillaries of the lungs, then determine the order for the following: 1. In capillaries of the body, nutrients and oxygen move from the blood to body tissues. 2. Oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart from the lungs by veins. 3. In capillaries of the lungs, oxygen from inhaled air is picked up by the blood and carbon dioxide is released into the lungs and exhaled. 4. Oxygen-rich blood is pumped out of the heart into arteries leading to the body. What might occur if the sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach doesn’t close correctly, and some of the contents from the stomach enter into the esophagus? An individual who eats food contaminated with bacteria may be protected from the ill effects of the bacteria because of the presence of: Which of the following body systems secretes hormones that help regulate how much we eat how quickly food and nutrients travel through the digestive system? As compared to Continue reading >>

Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism

Sort Electron Transport Chain The electron transport chain is the final pathway in energy metabolism that transports electrons from hydrogen to oxygen and captures the energy released in the bonds of ATP (respiratory chain). The electron transport chain captures energy in the high-energy bonds of ATP. The electron transport chain consists of a series of proteins that serve as electron "carriers." These carriers are mounted in sequence on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electron carriers pass the electrons down until they reach oxygen. Oxygen accepts the electrons and combines with hydrogen atoms to form water. Oxygen must be available for energy metabolism. As electrons are passed from carrier to carrier, hydrogen ions are pumped across the membrane to the outer compartment of the mitochondria. The rush of hydrogen ions back into the inner compartment powers the synthesis of ATP (energy is captured in the bonds of ATP). The ATP leaves the mitochondria and enters the cytoplasm, where it can be used for energy. Anaerobic When the body needs energy quickly, pyruvate is converted to lactate. The breakdown of glucose-to-pyruvate-to-lactate proceeds without oxygen-it is anaerobic. This anaerobic pathway yields energy quickly, but it cannot be sustained for long. Coenzymes carry the hydrogens from glucose breakdown to the electron transport chain. If the electron transport chain is unable to accept the hydrogens, as may occur when cells lack sufficient mitochondria or in the absence of oxygen, pyruvate can accept the hydrogens. By accepting the hydrogens, pyruvate becomes lactate, and the coenzymes are freed to return to glycolysis to pick up more hydrogens. In this way, glucose can continue provided energy anaerobically for a while. One possible fate of the lactat Continue reading >>

Chapter 24 -nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Chapter 24 -nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Nutrient - substance that promotes normal growth, maintenance and repair Major nutrients - carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins Other nutrients - vitamins and minerals (and technically speaking, water) Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates (starches) are found in bread, cereal, flour, pasta, nuts, and potatoes Simple carbohydrates (sugars) are found in soft drinks, candy, fruit, and ice cream Glucose is the molecule ultimately used by body cells to make ATP Neurons and RBCs rely almost entirely upon glucose to supply their energy needs Excess glucose is converted to glycogen or fat and stored The minimum amount of carbohydrates needed to maintain adequate blood glucose levels is 100 grams per day Starchy foods and milk have nutrients such as vitamins and minerals in addition to complex carbohydrates Refined carbohydrate foods (candy and soft drinks) provide energy sources only and are referred to as "empty calories" Lipids The most abundant dietary lipids, triglycerides, are found in both animal and plant foods Essential fatty acids - linoleic and linolenic acid, found in most vegetables, must be ingested Dietary fats: Help the body to absorb vitamins Are a major energy fuel of hepatocytes and skeletal muscle Are a component of myelin sheaths and all cell membranes Fatty deposits in adipose tissue provide: A protective cushion around body organs An insulating layer beneath the skin An easy-to-store concentrated source of energy Dietary Requirements Higher for infants and children than for adults The American Heart Association suggests that: Fats should represent less than 30% of one's total caloric intake Saturated fats should be limited to 10% or less of one's total fat intake Daily cholesterol intake should not exceed 200 mg Proteins Complete proteins that meet all the b Continue reading >>

What Is The Main Function Of Glucose?

What Is The Main Function Of Glucose?

There are many types of sugars, which are the simplest type of carbohydrate. While too much dietary sugar poses a number of health risks, the simple sugar glucose serves a critical role in the human body. Glucose serves a primary fuel to generate energy that the body's cells use to carry out their metabolic and biological functions. Glucose is particularly important for the brain, red blood cells and muscle cells during exercise. Video of the Day Biological Fuel Source The primary function of glucose is to serve as a biological fuel source for the body. All cells of the body are capable of using glucose to generate energy. Through a series of complex biochemical reactions, the breakdown of glucose yields high-energy molecules called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP molecules then provide the energy to drive the cellular activities that ultimately keep the body functioning. While many types of body cells can use nutrients other than glucose to generate energy, some rely exclusively or almost exclusively on glucose. Brain and nerve cells normally rely exclusively on glucose as their fuel source. The brain is a relatively large organ with high metabolic rate. A typical adult brain utilizes roughly 120 grams of glucose each day. Because brain cells cannot store glucose, a constant supply must be provided from the blood stream. During periods of prolonged starvation, the brain can switch to using breakdown product of fats (ketones) for fuel. Mature red blood cells also rely exclusively on glucose for fuel because these cells lack the internal machinery to generate energy from any other nutrient source. Other cells that rely almost exclusively on glucose to generate high-energy ATP molecules include: the lens of the eye some retinal cells (the vision-sensing tissue at the ba Continue reading >>

44 True/false Questions

44 True/false Questions

Print test Glucocorticoids → -most important is cortisol -increase blood glucose in response to stress by mobilizing fat stores and amino acids, and inhibiting glucose uptake -increase the impact of glucagon, epinephrine, and other catecholamines Ways to measure metabolic rate → -calorimetry -respirometry -consumption tracking -blood concentrations of substrates and hormones Flavoproteins → -secreted by fat cells -decrease appetite by suppressing orexin production Orexin → -increases appetite -involved in alertness and sleep-wake cycle -also triggered by hypoglycemia Closed systems → -many biological systems are considered this -can exchange both energy and matter with the environment Why is ATP a good energy carrier? → -its high-phosphate bonds -negative charges on phosphate groups experience repulsive forces with one another -upon hydrolysis, forming ADP and Pi, these molecules are stabilized by resonance, ionization, and loss of charge repulsion, making these molecules more stable Cardiac muscle regulation → -store lipids under influence of insulin (comes from VLDLs and chylomicrons) -release lipids under influence of epinephrine (HSL) Respirometry → measure basal metabolic rate based on heat exchange with the environment Insulin hormonal regulation → -peptide hormone secreted by alpha-cells of pancreatic islets -increase liver glycogenolysis by activating glycogen phosphorylase and inactivating glycogen synthase -increase liver gluconeogensis -increase liver ketogenesis -increased lipolysis (activates hormone sensitive lipase) -decreased lipogenesis Hepatocytes maintain blood glucose levels by... → glycogenolysis and gluoconeogensis in response to pancreatic hormone activity Physiological concentr Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids[1] during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,[2], alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy.[3] In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids).[1] They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting)[1]. When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>

Nutr 108

Nutr 108

Home > Preview A lacto-ovo vegetarian would eat all the following except: A) red meat B)cheese C) corn D) eggs The major role of vitamine E in the body seems to be to: A) pervent skin cancer B) act as an antioxidant C) aid in protein metabolism D) aid in formation of normal epithelial tissue What happens when the diet is lacking an essential amino acid? A) a person's health will not be affected as long as carbohydrate and fat intake is adequate B) protein synthesis will be limited C) proteins will be made but they will be missing that particular amino acid D) the body will synthesize it The production of glucose from protein or fat is called A) glycolysis B) glyconeoglycolysis C) gluconeogenesis D) glucogenolysis Linolenicand linoleic acids are found primarily in: A) vegetable and fish oils B) butter C) seeds D) none of the above which of the following are formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available? A) amino acids B) pyruvate C) ketones D) ammonia and urea Water is involved in all of the followint except: A) regulation of body temperature B) conversion of lipids to amino acids C) lubricant around joints D) solvent for vitamins and minerals Which of the following foods would make the greatest contribution to a person's intake of riboflavin? A) milk B) oatmeal C) oranges D) broccoli Among the followint, the best food sources for the water-soluble vitamins are: A) butter and vegetable oils B) oranges and cereals C) tuna and shrimp D) egg yolks and apples Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used for: A) regulate muscle contraction B) regulate the transmission of nerve impulses C) provide energy for cells D) provide rigidity for bones The six diet planning principles include: A) adequacy, B vitamins, carbohydrates, meat, variety Continue reading >>

Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Sort What is the difference between energy and metabolism? Energy metabolism? Energy is the capacity to do work - heat, mechanical, electrical, CHEMICAL Metabolism is how the body uses food to meet its needs - specifically, it is the sum total of all chemical reactions in the living cells of the body - energy metabolism includes all reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from food What are the two types of metabolic reactions in the body? Anabolic/Anabolism - building body compounds (requires energy) - ex. glucose + glucose = glycogen - ex. glycerol + fatty acid = triglycerides - ex. amino acid + amino acid = protein Catabolic/Catabolism - breaking down body compounds (releases energy) - ex. glycogen -> glucose - ex. triglycerides -> glycerol + fatty acid - ex. protein -> amino acids What is ATP? How is it formed? (adenosine triphosphate) It is a molecule made up of three phosphate groups that has high energy bonds (so it provides lots of energy when it is broken down) - it is what provides energy for any reaction or cell activity in the body It is formed from the breakdown of glucose (glycolysis), fatty acids, and amino acids Its negative charge makes it vulnerable to hydrolysis What is the idea of coupled reactions? The body makes ATP in coupled reactions. Energy (ATP) is needed to facilitate the reactions that make more ATP. So the body uses ATP to make ATP 1.) ATP is broken down, which provides energy for a variety of functions in the body - when ATP is broken down, it loses a phosphate group and becomes ADP 2.) Energy is required to add a phosphate group to ADP to make ATP (uses ATP from food to do this) This system is about 50% efficient, and the rest is lost as heat How does digestion break things down into smaller units? Carbs -> glucose (and Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort 13. Before entering the TCA cycle, each of the energy yielding nutrients nutrients is broken down to: a. ammonia b. pyruvate c. electrons d. acetyl CoA d. acetyl CoA 17. During a fast, when glycogen stores have been depleted, the body begins to synthesize glucose from: a. acetyl CoA b. amino acids c. fatty acids d. ketone bodies b. amino acids Learn it - Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids Carbohydrate, fat, and protein take different paths to acetyl CoA, but once there, the final pathways - the TCA cycle and electron transport change- are shared. All of the pathways, which are shown as a simplified overview in Fig 7-5 (p207), are shown in more detail in Fig 7-18 (p216). Instead of dismissing this figure as "too busy." take a few moments to appreciated the busyness of it all. Consider that this figure is merely an overview of energy metabolism, and then imagine how busy a living cell really is during the metabolism of hundreds of compounds, each of which may be involved in several reactions, each requiring specific enzymes. Learn it - Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism When energy intake exceeds energy needs, the body makes fat- regardless of whether the excess intake is from protein, carbohydrate, or fat. The only difference is that the body is much more efficient at storing energy when the excess derives from dietary fat. When fasting, the body makes a number of adaptations: increasing the breakdown of fat to provide energy for most of the cells, using glycerol and amino acids to make glucose for the red blood cells and central nervous system, producing ketones to fuel the brain, suppr Continue reading >>

Nutrition Midterms 2

Nutrition Midterms 2

Sort Describe the types of lipids in body and basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are namedDescribe the types of lipids in body and basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are namedDescribe the types of lipids in body Types of Lipids (fat): Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Sterols Identify food sources of triglycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids and sterols SATURATED (solid or soft) ) double bonds F.A.:lard beef, pork, lamb fat. (LC) MC and SC: milk fat, cocnut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil Mono and Polyunsaturated (liquid) one 2 or three double bonds : olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, safflower oil, fish oil EFA: Omega 3 cold water fish (salmon, tuna, sardines, mackarel) walnuts, flaxeed, hemp oil, soybean oil) reduce inflammation, blood clotting plasma triglycerides Omega 6: beef, poultry, safflower oil, sunflower oil, corn oil. 2 double bonds regulates blood pressure and increases blood clotting Trans fatty acids: margarine (increase blood cholesterol more than saturated fat Three Pathways for Cholesterol Uptake Receptor Pathway LDLs taken up by cells, broken down, and components utilized Excess in blood become oxidized Scavenger Pathway White blood cells remove oxidized LDLs Cholesterol can build up in these cells and kill them; this results in plaque (atherosclerosis) High Density Lipoproteins Picks up cholesterol throughout the body Discuss health concerns related to dietary fat intake Major killer of North Americans is CVD Development:(Atherosclerotic plaque leads to Heart attack and stroke) Risk factors for CVD age, gender, race and genetics (cannot change) can change or prevent: blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes and other diseases Descr Continue reading >>

Multiple Choice Quiz

Multiple Choice Quiz

Please answer all questions A) pathways of chemical reactions that build compounds. C) the entire network of chemical processes involved in maintaining life and encompasses all of the sequences of chemical reactions that occur in the body. D) the process of photosynthesis. 4 As an antioxidant vitamin E or C can donate electrons to highly reactive compounds. These antioxidants then become 5 In metabolism, glucose is degraded to carbon dioxide and water. The carbon dioxide is produced in: 12 The action of the cytochromes in donating all the electrons that have moved down the chain to oxygen could be described as a C) fatty acids become many acetyl-CoA molecules. A) Fats must be broken down to glycerol and fatty acids before oxidation can occur. B) Fatty acids are oxidized stepwise into 2-carbon fragments. C) 2-carbon fragments of fatty acids enter the citric acid cycle to be oxidized. D) 2-carbon fragments from fatty acids can be used to synthesize glucose. A) Deficiencies of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin may slow energy metabolism. B) The citric acid cycle begins when acetyl-CoA combines with citric acid to form oxaloacetic acid. C) Hydrogens released via the citric acid cycle are transported to the electron transport chain. D) In the electron transport system hydrogen reacts with oxygen and some of the energy is trapped as ATP. A) Glucose provides many more calories than fat on a per gram basis B) To maintain glycolysis it is necessary that fats provide the beginning fuel C) The entire pathway for fatty acid oxidation works best when carbohydrate is present. D) Carbohydrates provide all the ATP the cells need as long as fats provide the spark to start the whole process. A) removal of a protein from another protein molecule. C) removal of a carbon skeleton from a carbo Continue reading >>

1. What Is The Difference Between Food Sanitation And Food Safety?

1. What Is The Difference Between Food Sanitation And Food Safety?

Food sanitation is cleanliness of food and equipment, food safety is how food was handled 2. Name people who have higher risk of becoming sick from contaminated foods. (4) elderly, pregnant women, small children, weakened immune syndrome 3. Name the most common foodborne illnesses and give an example of their sources. (4) Campylobacter – any raw meat e-coli – ground meat Norwalk- shellfish, raw veggies, feces / raw sewage, contaminated water Salmonella – chicken Hepatitis A – seafood / salads Botulism – canned food 4. Name four key recommendations the USDA gives for food safety. Clean, separate, cook, chill 5. What does FIFO mean? First in, first out 6. The temperature danger zone is: 41 - 135 7. Give one prevention technique for each hazard: Foods I VoCATS Review a. b. Cuts Burns c. Electrical issues d. Chemical poisoning e. Falls f. Choking g. Other 8. 9. Define cross contamination. Contamination of one food from contact with another food or unclean surface 10. Define dove tailing. Doing 2 or more things at once 11. Identify and describe parts of a recipe. (5 parts and optional) Title, ingredients, directions, cooking temp, yield – optional – nutritional data 12. Identify the following types of equipment and describe what they do: a. Measuring – spoons, cups, scales – used to measure b. Cutting/mixing – knives, mixer, pastry blender – used to mix ingredients c. Cooking – stove , grill….used to prep food 13. What are the abbreviations for the following measurements: a. b. Ounce oz c. Tablespoon (2) Tbsp, T d. Fluid ounce fl.oz. e. Cup c f. Pound lb g. Gallon gal h. Pint pt i. Quart qt 14. 15. What are the equivalents to the following measurements (name as many as possible): a. b. Continue reading >>

Nutrition-chapter 7

Nutrition-chapter 7

Sort Carbohydrates -Metabolizes fructose, galactose, and glucose - Makes and stores glycogen -Breaks down glycogen and releases glucose -Breaks down glucose for energy when needed -Makes glucose from some amino acids and glycerol when needed -Converts excess glucose and fructose to fatty acids - Lipids lipids -Builds and breaks down triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol as needed -Breaks down fatty acids for energy when needed - Packages lipids in lipoproteins for transport to other body tissues -Manufactures bile to send to the gallbladder for use in fat digestion -Makes ketone bodies when necessary Proteins -Manufactures nonessential amino acids that are in short supply -Removes from circulation amino acids that are present in excess of need and converts them to other amino acids or deaminates them and converts them to glucose or fatty acids -Removes ammonia from the blood and converts it to urea to be sent to the kidneys for excretion - Makes other nitrogen-containing compounds the body needs (such as bases used in DNA and RNA) -Makes many proteins other -Detoxifies alcohol, other drugs, and poisons; prepares waste products for excretion -Helps dismantle old red blood cells and captures the iron for recycling -Stores most vitamins and many minerals -Activates vitamin D Continue reading >>

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