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The Body Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids. Quizlet

Multiple Choice Questions- Lipid Metabolism (revision)- Set-2

Multiple Choice Questions- Lipid Metabolism (revision)- Set-2

1. Which of the following are the ketone bodies? a) Acetyl co A and Propionyl co A b) Lecithin and Lysolecithin c) Acetoacetate and Betahydroxy butyrate d) Pyruvate and lactate e) Succinyl co A and succinate 2. The enzyme ‘Thiolase’ catalyzes the conversion of- a) 2 Acetyl co A to Acetoacetyl co A b) Acetyl co A to Malonyl co A c) Fatty acid to Fatty Acyl co A d) Succinyl co A to succinate e) Propionyl co A to D- Methyl malonyl co A 3. In contrast to secondary bile salts, which of the following is characteristic of primary bile salts? a) Are hydroxylated at carbon 7 b) Have an oxidized side chain c) Form co A derivatives d) Can be conjugated to Glycine or Taurine e) Are reabsorbed in the intestine 4. Which of the following statements best describes the fatty acid synthase complex? a) Is a dimer of dissimilar subunits b) is composed of 7 different proteins c) Dissociates in to eight different proteins d) Catalyzes 8 different enzymatic steps e) Is composed of covalently linked enzymes 5. The end product of fatty acid synthesis in mammals is – a) Arachidonic acid b) Linoleic acid c) Stearic acid d) Palmitic acid e) Erucic acid 6. Which enzyme often mal functions in diseases associated with the symptoms of high blood triglyceride levels and Steatorrhea? a) Phospholipase D b) Lipoprotein lipase c) Thiokinase d) Acetyl co A carboxylase e) Pancreatic lipase 7. Which enzyme is an allosteric regulator of another enzyme on the list ? a) Acetyl co A carboxylase b) Pancreatic lipase c) Carnitine acyl transferase-1 d) Acetyl transacylase e) Keto acyl synthase 8. A new-born has severe respiratory problems. Over the next few days it is observed that the baby has severe muscle problems, demonstrates little development, and has neurological problems. A liver biopsy reveals a very Continue reading >>

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Sort Proteins: makes nonessential AA that are in short supply. Removes excess AA & converts them to other AA, or deaminates them & converts them to glucose or fatty acids. Removes ammonia from blood & converts it to urea for excretion. Makes DNA/RNA. & many proteins. >> Other: Detoxifies alcohol, drugs, poison, & excretes them. Helps dismantle old RBC's & captures the iron for recycling. Stores most vitamins, & many minerals. Activates Vitamin D. AA: Before entering metabolic pathways, AA are deaminated (lose their nitrogen amino group). deamination produces ammonia (which provides nitrogen to make nonessential AA. Remaining ammonia is excreted by urea in liver/kid. AA pathway: can enter pathways as pyruvate/Acetyl CoA/others enter krebs as compounds other than Acetyl CoA. AA that make glucose either by pyruvate or krebs cycle are glucogenic. AA that are degraded to Acetyl CoA are Ketogenic. Thus, proteins unlike fats, are a good source of glucose when carbs aren't available. In the liver: because of capillary network the liver is first to get alcohol saturated blood. liver cells are the only other cells in the body that can make sufficient quantities of dehydrogenase, to oxidize alcohol at a decent rate. >> Alcohol affects every organ of the body, bu t the most dramatic evidence is disruptive behavior is in the liver. Normally the liver prefers fatty acids for fuel, & it packages excess out. But when alcohol is there it has to process it first. >> Continue reading >>

Nutrition-chapter 7

Nutrition-chapter 7

Sort Carbohydrates -Metabolizes fructose, galactose, and glucose - Makes and stores glycogen -Breaks down glycogen and releases glucose -Breaks down glucose for energy when needed -Makes glucose from some amino acids and glycerol when needed -Converts excess glucose and fructose to fatty acids - Lipids lipids -Builds and breaks down triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol as needed -Breaks down fatty acids for energy when needed - Packages lipids in lipoproteins for transport to other body tissues -Manufactures bile to send to the gallbladder for use in fat digestion -Makes ketone bodies when necessary Proteins -Manufactures nonessential amino acids that are in short supply -Removes from circulation amino acids that are present in excess of need and converts them to other amino acids or deaminates them and converts them to glucose or fatty acids -Removes ammonia from the blood and converts it to urea to be sent to the kidneys for excretion - Makes other nitrogen-containing compounds the body needs (such as bases used in DNA and RNA) -Makes many proteins other -Detoxifies alcohol, other drugs, and poisons; prepares waste products for excretion -Helps dismantle old red blood cells and captures the iron for recycling -Stores most vitamins and many minerals -Activates vitamin D Continue reading >>

Metabolism

Metabolism

Sort cell membrane (outer double layer of phospholipid membrane that contains receptors for hormones and other regulatory compounds) cytoplasm (filled with cytosol, a jelly like substance that has organelles, including mitochondria,a floating in it) nucleus (with genetic info in the DNA of chromosomes and site of RNA synthesis) 3 major parts of a cell Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7 (test 2)

Nutrition Chapter 7 (test 2)

Sort acetyl CoA -two carbon compound that pyruvate is converted to in an aerobic environment -occurs in mitochondria -releases carbon dioxide -cannot be reversed through glucose synthesis (unlike conversion of lactate to glucose) -can be further metabolized to produce ATP or redirected into fatty acid synthesis -links glycolysis to the TCA cycle -marks transition from cytosol baed pathways to mitochondria based pathways TCA cycle -continuous cycle of 8 metabolic reactions -located in the mitochondria -needs oxaloacetate to function -acetyl CoA reacts with oxaloacetate to form citrate -produces 2 carbon dioxides, GTP (equivalent to one ATP), eight hydrogen which are transferred to coenzymes NAD and FAD to produce NADH and FADH2), which transport the hydrogen and their electrons to the electron transport chain -must complete two rotations for each molecule of glucose b-oxidation also known as fatty acid oxidation takes place in mitochondria fatty acids activated by Coenzyme A so they can be moved across mitochondrial membrane once in the mitochondria, breaking down the fatty acid in two carbon segments to make one acetyl CoA unit high energy electrons transferred to coenzymes NAD and FAD acetyl coA feeds into TCA cycle and onto the electron transport chain produces more ATP than glucose catabolism and have fewer oxygen atoms, resulting in higher output of NADH and FADH2 fatty acids have a much higher potential energy than glucose it is IMPOSSIBLE for fatty acids to be converted to glucose proteolysis protein breakdown, dietary proteins are digested into single amino acids or small peptides that are absorbed in the body amino acids are transported to the liver, where they can be made into different proteins or released into the bloodstream for uptake by other cells no amin Continue reading >>

Nutr 108

Nutr 108

Home > Preview A lacto-ovo vegetarian would eat all the following except: A) red meat B)cheese C) corn D) eggs The major role of vitamine E in the body seems to be to: A) pervent skin cancer B) act as an antioxidant C) aid in protein metabolism D) aid in formation of normal epithelial tissue What happens when the diet is lacking an essential amino acid? A) a person's health will not be affected as long as carbohydrate and fat intake is adequate B) protein synthesis will be limited C) proteins will be made but they will be missing that particular amino acid D) the body will synthesize it The production of glucose from protein or fat is called A) glycolysis B) glyconeoglycolysis C) gluconeogenesis D) glucogenolysis Linolenicand linoleic acids are found primarily in: A) vegetable and fish oils B) butter C) seeds D) none of the above which of the following are formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available? A) amino acids B) pyruvate C) ketones D) ammonia and urea Water is involved in all of the followint except: A) regulation of body temperature B) conversion of lipids to amino acids C) lubricant around joints D) solvent for vitamins and minerals Which of the following foods would make the greatest contribution to a person's intake of riboflavin? A) milk B) oatmeal C) oranges D) broccoli Among the followint, the best food sources for the water-soluble vitamins are: A) butter and vegetable oils B) oranges and cereals C) tuna and shrimp D) egg yolks and apples Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used for: A) regulate muscle contraction B) regulate the transmission of nerve impulses C) provide energy for cells D) provide rigidity for bones The six diet planning principles include: A) adequacy, B vitamins, carbohydrates, meat, variety Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 6-7

Nutrition Exam 6-7

Sort the _________________ structure of proteins occurs as long polypeptide chains twist and fold into a variety of complex tangled shapes (aa side groups attracted to water = hydrophilic) (aa side groups repel water = hydrophilic) tertiary structure when polypeptides enter the small intestine, several pancreatic and intestinal _______________ hydrolyze them further into short peptide chains. the _______________ enzymes on the membrane surfaces of the intestinal cells split most of the dipeptides and tripeptides into single single amino acids 1. proteases 2. peptidase the instructions for making every protein in a person's body are transmitted by way of the genetic information received at conception. this body of knowledge which is filed by _____________ within the nucleus of every cell, never leaves the nucleus DNA in the 1st step, known as ______________ , a stretch of DNA is used as a template to make messenger RNA. messenger RNA then carries the code across the nuclear membrane into the body of the cell, where it seeks out and attaches itself to one of the ribosome transcription an error in the amino acid sequence results in an altered protein--sometimes with dramatic consequences. the protein hemoglobin offers one example of such a genetic variation. in a person with _____________________, 2 of hemoglobins four polypeptide chains have the normal sequence of amino acids, but the other 2 chains do not--they have etc... sickle-cell anemia "protein turnover" and _______________ go hand in hand. in healthy adults, protein synthesis balances with degradation, and protein intake from food balances with nitrogen excretion in the urine feces, and sweat. when the nitrogen intake equals nitrogen output, the person ins in nitrogen equilibrium, or zero _________________ nitroge Continue reading >>

Chapter 24 -nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Chapter 24 -nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation

Nutrient - substance that promotes normal growth, maintenance and repair Major nutrients - carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins Other nutrients - vitamins and minerals (and technically speaking, water) Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates (starches) are found in bread, cereal, flour, pasta, nuts, and potatoes Simple carbohydrates (sugars) are found in soft drinks, candy, fruit, and ice cream Glucose is the molecule ultimately used by body cells to make ATP Neurons and RBCs rely almost entirely upon glucose to supply their energy needs Excess glucose is converted to glycogen or fat and stored The minimum amount of carbohydrates needed to maintain adequate blood glucose levels is 100 grams per day Starchy foods and milk have nutrients such as vitamins and minerals in addition to complex carbohydrates Refined carbohydrate foods (candy and soft drinks) provide energy sources only and are referred to as "empty calories" Lipids The most abundant dietary lipids, triglycerides, are found in both animal and plant foods Essential fatty acids - linoleic and linolenic acid, found in most vegetables, must be ingested Dietary fats: Help the body to absorb vitamins Are a major energy fuel of hepatocytes and skeletal muscle Are a component of myelin sheaths and all cell membranes Fatty deposits in adipose tissue provide: A protective cushion around body organs An insulating layer beneath the skin An easy-to-store concentrated source of energy Dietary Requirements Higher for infants and children than for adults The American Heart Association suggests that: Fats should represent less than 30% of one's total caloric intake Saturated fats should be limited to 10% or less of one's total fat intake Daily cholesterol intake should not exceed 200 mg Proteins Complete proteins that meet all the b Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids[1] during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,[2], alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy.[3] In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids).[1] They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting)[1]. When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>

Nutrients And Metab

Nutrients And Metab

The most used substance for producing the energy- rich ATP Flashcards Matching Hangman Crossword Type In Quiz Test StudyStack Study Table Bug Match Hungry Bug Unscramble Chopped Targets Nutrients used by body cells Question Answer The most used substance for producing the energy- rich ATP Carbohydrates Important in building myelin sheaths and cell membranes Fats Tend to be conserved by cells Amino acids the second most important food source for making cellular energy fats form insulating deposits around body organs and beneath the skin Fats Used to make the bulk of cell structure and functional substances such as enzymes amino acids Examples of carbohydrate-rich food in the diet Fruits,vegetables, breads/ pasta Fatty foods ingested in the normal diet include Cream and cheese The only important digestible polysaccharide Starch An indigestible polysaccharide that aids elimination because it adds bulk to the diet is Cellulose protein- rich foods include ____and _____ Cheese/cream, Meat/fish most examples of these nutrients, which are found largely in vegetables and fruits, are used as coenzymes Vitamins Include copper, iron, and sodium Minerals Which of the oxidative phases does not require oxygen Glycolysis Which phases do require oxygen Krebs cycle and the electron In which form is chemical energy transferred from the first two phases to the third phase in the form of hydrogen atoms bearing high energy electrons which of the phases produces the largest amount of ATP the electron transport chain Which phase combines energetic H atoms with molecular oxygen The electron trasport chain When you eat food that contains carbohydrates, you break down the carbohydrates into a monosaccharide called? glucose If you don’t use this monosaccharide, your body can store it in the live Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort 13. Before entering the TCA cycle, each of the energy yielding nutrients nutrients is broken down to: a. ammonia b. pyruvate c. electrons d. acetyl CoA d. acetyl CoA 17. During a fast, when glycogen stores have been depleted, the body begins to synthesize glucose from: a. acetyl CoA b. amino acids c. fatty acids d. ketone bodies b. amino acids Learn it - Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids Carbohydrate, fat, and protein take different paths to acetyl CoA, but once there, the final pathways - the TCA cycle and electron transport change- are shared. All of the pathways, which are shown as a simplified overview in Fig 7-5 (p207), are shown in more detail in Fig 7-18 (p216). Instead of dismissing this figure as "too busy." take a few moments to appreciated the busyness of it all. Consider that this figure is merely an overview of energy metabolism, and then imagine how busy a living cell really is during the metabolism of hundreds of compounds, each of which may be involved in several reactions, each requiring specific enzymes. Learn it - Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism When energy intake exceeds energy needs, the body makes fat- regardless of whether the excess intake is from protein, carbohydrate, or fat. The only difference is that the body is much more efficient at storing energy when the excess derives from dietary fat. When fasting, the body makes a number of adaptations: increasing the breakdown of fat to provide energy for most of the cells, using glycerol and amino acids to make glucose for the red blood cells and central nervous system, producing ketones to fuel the brain, suppr Continue reading >>

Masteringaandp Nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation Chapter 24 P Besaw

Masteringaandp Nutrition, Metabolism, And Body Temperature Regulation Chapter 24 P Besaw

The electron carriers within complex IV have a greater affinity for electrons than the electron carrier within complex III. Oxidation of electron carriers within the electron transport chain results in the transport of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. xxx Each enzyme complex in the electron transport chain catalyzes the conversion of oxygen to water. Transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain from NADH results in more ATP synthesis than transfer of electrons from FADH2. Continue reading >>

Ketogenesis

Ketogenesis

Ketogenesis pathway. The three ketone bodies (acetoacetate, acetone, and beta-hydroxy-butyrate) are marked within an orange box Ketogenesis is the biochemical process by which organisms produce a group of substances collectively known as ketone bodies by the breakdown of fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids.[1][2] This process supplies energy to certain organs (particularly the brain) under circumstances such as fasting, but insufficient ketogenesis can cause hypoglycemia and excessive production of ketone bodies leads to a dangerous state known as ketoacidosis.[3] Production[edit] Ketone bodies are produced mainly in the mitochondria of liver cells, and synthesis can occur in response to an unavailability of blood glucose, such as during fasting.[3] Other cells are capable of carrying out ketogenesis, but they are not as effective at doing so.[4] Ketogenesis occurs constantly in a healthy individual.[5] Ketogenesis takes place in the setting of low glucose levels in the blood, after exhaustion of other cellular carbohydrate stores, such as glycogen.[citation needed] It can also take place when there is insufficient insulin (e.g. in type 1 (but not 2) diabetes), particularly during periods of "ketogenic stress" such as intercurrent illness.[3] The production of ketone bodies is then initiated to make available energy that is stored as fatty acids. Fatty acids are enzymatically broken down in β-oxidation to form acetyl-CoA. Under normal conditions, acetyl-CoA is further oxidized by the citric acid cycle (TCA/Krebs cycle) and then by the mitochondrial electron transport chain to release energy. However, if the amounts of acetyl-CoA generated in fatty-acid β-oxidation challenge the processing capacity of the TCA cycle; i.e. if activity in TCA cycle is low due to low amo Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7

Nutrition Ch. 7

Front Back .Wirisformula{ margin:0 !important; padding:0 !important; vertical-align:top !important;} Metabolism The sum total of all the chemcial reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends energy from food. Example: Nutrients provide the body with FUEL and follows them through a series of reactions that release energy from their chemical bonds. As the bonds break, they release energy in a controlled version of the process by which wood burns in a fire. Energy metabolism All of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from food Anabolism Small compounds joined together to make largers ones; energy must be used in order to do this Ana = up Catabolism Larger compounds BROKEN down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED kata = down Coupled reactions Energy released from the breakdown of a large compounds is used to drive other reactions ATP Adenosine triphosphate; energy currency of the body -- produced when large compounds are broken down ATP is used to make large compounds from smaller ones. Ribosomes Cellular machinery used to make proteins Mitochondria Where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain Coenzyme Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures. co = with Cofactor The general term for substances that facilitate enzyme action is cofactors; they include both organic coenzymes such as vitamins and inorganic substances such as minerals Enzymes Protein catalysts - proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process Metalloenzyme Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their stru Continue reading >>

What Is The Main Function Of Glucose?

What Is The Main Function Of Glucose?

There are many types of sugars, which are the simplest type of carbohydrate. While too much dietary sugar poses a number of health risks, the simple sugar glucose serves a critical role in the human body. Glucose serves a primary fuel to generate energy that the body's cells use to carry out their metabolic and biological functions. Glucose is particularly important for the brain, red blood cells and muscle cells during exercise. Video of the Day Biological Fuel Source The primary function of glucose is to serve as a biological fuel source for the body. All cells of the body are capable of using glucose to generate energy. Through a series of complex biochemical reactions, the breakdown of glucose yields high-energy molecules called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP molecules then provide the energy to drive the cellular activities that ultimately keep the body functioning. While many types of body cells can use nutrients other than glucose to generate energy, some rely exclusively or almost exclusively on glucose. Brain and nerve cells normally rely exclusively on glucose as their fuel source. The brain is a relatively large organ with high metabolic rate. A typical adult brain utilizes roughly 120 grams of glucose each day. Because brain cells cannot store glucose, a constant supply must be provided from the blood stream. During periods of prolonged starvation, the brain can switch to using breakdown product of fats (ketones) for fuel. Mature red blood cells also rely exclusively on glucose for fuel because these cells lack the internal machinery to generate energy from any other nutrient source. Other cells that rely almost exclusively on glucose to generate high-energy ATP molecules include: the lens of the eye some retinal cells (the vision-sensing tissue at the ba Continue reading >>

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