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The Body Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids. Quizlet

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort 13. Before entering the TCA cycle, each of the energy yielding nutrients nutrients is broken down to: a. ammonia b. pyruvate c. electrons d. acetyl CoA d. acetyl CoA 17. During a fast, when glycogen stores have been depleted, the body begins to synthesize glucose from: a. acetyl CoA b. amino acids c. fatty acids d. ketone bodies b. amino acids Learn it - Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids Carbohydrate, fat, and protein take different paths to acetyl CoA, but once there, the final pathways - the TCA cycle and electron transport change- are shared. All of the pathways, which are shown as a simplified overview in Fig 7-5 (p207), are shown in more detail in Fig 7-18 (p216). Instead of dismissing this figure as "too busy." take a few moments to appreciated the busyness of it all. Consider that this figure is merely an overview of energy metabolism, and then imagine how busy a living cell really is during the metabolism of hundreds of compounds, each of which may be involved in several reactions, each requiring specific enzymes. Learn it - Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism When energy intake exceeds energy needs, the body makes fat- regardless of whether the excess intake is from protein, carbohydrate, or fat. The only difference is that the body is much more efficient at storing energy when the excess derives from dietary fat. When fasting, the body makes a number of adaptations: increasing the breakdown of fat to provide energy for most of the cells, using glycerol and amino acids to make glucose for the red blood cells and central nervous system, producing ketones to fuel the brain, suppr Continue reading >>

Nutrients And Metab

Nutrients And Metab

The most used substance for producing the energy- rich ATP Flashcards Matching Hangman Crossword Type In Quiz Test StudyStack Study Table Bug Match Hungry Bug Unscramble Chopped Targets Nutrients used by body cells Question Answer The most used substance for producing the energy- rich ATP Carbohydrates Important in building myelin sheaths and cell membranes Fats Tend to be conserved by cells Amino acids the second most important food source for making cellular energy fats form insulating deposits around body organs and beneath the skin Fats Used to make the bulk of cell structure and functional substances such as enzymes amino acids Examples of carbohydrate-rich food in the diet Fruits,vegetables, breads/ pasta Fatty foods ingested in the normal diet include Cream and cheese The only important digestible polysaccharide Starch An indigestible polysaccharide that aids elimination because it adds bulk to the diet is Cellulose protein- rich foods include ____and _____ Cheese/cream, Meat/fish most examples of these nutrients, which are found largely in vegetables and fruits, are used as coenzymes Vitamins Include copper, iron, and sodium Minerals Which of the oxidative phases does not require oxygen Glycolysis Which phases do require oxygen Krebs cycle and the electron In which form is chemical energy transferred from the first two phases to the third phase in the form of hydrogen atoms bearing high energy electrons which of the phases produces the largest amount of ATP the electron transport chain Which phase combines energetic H atoms with molecular oxygen The electron trasport chain When you eat food that contains carbohydrates, you break down the carbohydrates into a monosaccharide called? glucose If you don’t use this monosaccharide, your body can store it in the live Continue reading >>

Nutrition-chapter 7

Nutrition-chapter 7

Sort Carbohydrates -Metabolizes fructose, galactose, and glucose - Makes and stores glycogen -Breaks down glycogen and releases glucose -Breaks down glucose for energy when needed -Makes glucose from some amino acids and glycerol when needed -Converts excess glucose and fructose to fatty acids - Lipids lipids -Builds and breaks down triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol as needed -Breaks down fatty acids for energy when needed - Packages lipids in lipoproteins for transport to other body tissues -Manufactures bile to send to the gallbladder for use in fat digestion -Makes ketone bodies when necessary Proteins -Manufactures nonessential amino acids that are in short supply -Removes from circulation amino acids that are present in excess of need and converts them to other amino acids or deaminates them and converts them to glucose or fatty acids -Removes ammonia from the blood and converts it to urea to be sent to the kidneys for excretion - Makes other nitrogen-containing compounds the body needs (such as bases used in DNA and RNA) -Makes many proteins other -Detoxifies alcohol, other drugs, and poisons; prepares waste products for excretion -Helps dismantle old red blood cells and captures the iron for recycling -Stores most vitamins and many minerals -Activates vitamin D Continue reading >>

University Of Central Florida

University Of Central Florida

Size: 391 Proteins differ based on the combinations of amino acids used in each type of protein. Some nutrient deficiencies occur quickly, whereas others take more time to develop. Which of the following nutrient deficiencies are listed in the order reflecting most quickly to least quickly? A varied diet also balances the calories you take in with the calories you use up in your daily activities so that your body weight stays in the health range. Simple diffusion is the process by which substances move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This process sometimes requires energy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that no more than ____ percent of calories come from saturated fat. In regard to blood circulation, if you begin with oxygen-poor blood that reaches the heart from the body and is pumped through arteries to capillaries of the lungs, then determine the order for the following: 1. In capillaries of the body, nutrients and oxygen move from the blood to body tissues. 2. Oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart from the lungs by veins. 3. In capillaries of the lungs, oxygen from inhaled air is picked up by the blood and carbon dioxide is released into the lungs and exhaled. 4. Oxygen-rich blood is pumped out of the heart into arteries leading to the body. What might occur if the sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach doesn’t close correctly, and some of the contents from the stomach enter into the esophagus? An individual who eats food contaminated with bacteria may be protected from the ill effects of the bacteria because of the presence of: Which of the following body systems secretes hormones that help regulate how much we eat how quickly food and nutrients travel through the digestive system? As compared to Continue reading >>

44 True/false Questions

44 True/false Questions

Print test Glucocorticoids → -most important is cortisol -increase blood glucose in response to stress by mobilizing fat stores and amino acids, and inhibiting glucose uptake -increase the impact of glucagon, epinephrine, and other catecholamines Ways to measure metabolic rate → -calorimetry -respirometry -consumption tracking -blood concentrations of substrates and hormones Flavoproteins → -secreted by fat cells -decrease appetite by suppressing orexin production Orexin → -increases appetite -involved in alertness and sleep-wake cycle -also triggered by hypoglycemia Closed systems → -many biological systems are considered this -can exchange both energy and matter with the environment Why is ATP a good energy carrier? → -its high-phosphate bonds -negative charges on phosphate groups experience repulsive forces with one another -upon hydrolysis, forming ADP and Pi, these molecules are stabilized by resonance, ionization, and loss of charge repulsion, making these molecules more stable Cardiac muscle regulation → -store lipids under influence of insulin (comes from VLDLs and chylomicrons) -release lipids under influence of epinephrine (HSL) Respirometry → measure basal metabolic rate based on heat exchange with the environment Insulin hormonal regulation → -peptide hormone secreted by alpha-cells of pancreatic islets -increase liver glycogenolysis by activating glycogen phosphorylase and inactivating glycogen synthase -increase liver gluconeogensis -increase liver ketogenesis -increased lipolysis (activates hormone sensitive lipase) -decreased lipogenesis Hepatocytes maintain blood glucose levels by... → glycogenolysis and gluoconeogensis in response to pancreatic hormone activity Physiological concentr Continue reading >>

Quizlet-inborn Errors

Quizlet-inborn Errors

1.  A 21 year old woman with phenylketonuria discontinued the PKU diet in early adolescence. She presents to her OBGYN for her first prenatal visit. Her husband does not have the disease. Which of the following is the best course of action? A. Since the child is heterozygous for PKU, no special action needs to be taken. B. The patient blood phenylalanine levels should be monitored and appropriate action taken if they become too high. C. The patient should try to avoid excess phenylalanine in her diet by restricting protein intake D. The patient should immediately resume the PKU diet and have her blood phenylalanine levels monitored on a regular basis. D  36 hours after birth, a term male infant presents post seizure. The infant appeared well at birth but on the second day of life developed irritability, vomiting, feed refusal, and becomes increasingly lethargic. Blood gas analysis shows a respiratory alkalosis and plasma ammonia concentrations are found to be 360 micro-m/l (normal for a full term infant is <50 micro-m/l). Which of the following is most consistent with these symptoms? A. Branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex deficiency B. Glucose 6-phosphatase deficiency C. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency D. Ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency E. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency D  Which statement regarding phenyketonuria (PKU) is FALSE? A. PKU is the most common disorder of amino acid metabolism in the United States. B. PKU symptoms result from an excess of the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. C. PKU is only caused by a mutation in the gene for phenylalanine hydroxylase. D. A phenylalanine restricted diet must be implemented soon after birth for classic PKU E. Untreated patients with classic PKU will be mentally retarded. C* 2.  Which Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7

Nutrition Ch. 7

• ATP (transfer of energy in reactions) o one of the main energy-storage molecules: only form of energy that can be used directly by cells to do work they need to do o Made up of 3 phosphate groups o add water - Hydrolysis of its phosphate groups generates energy • Provides energy that powers living cell activity • Body captures and releases energy in bonds of ATP o Involved in coupled reactions • coupled reactions: hydrolysis at time body needs energy • Body converts chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP -when used, called ADP • Pyruvate #1 → lactate - When body needs energy quickly, but energy doesn't last long (couple of minutes) - Anaerobic (no oxygen) - Pyruvate accepts hydrogen - Occurs even a little at rest - During intense exercise, lactate accumulates in muscles and causes blood pH drop, burning pain, and fatigue - Liver can convert lactate to glucose - called Cori cycle (recycling process) o Pyruvate → acetyl CoA • When body expends energy more slowly, but energy sustained for longer (greater total energy yield) • Aerobic (requires oxygen) • Carbon group removed from 3-carbon pyruvate → 2-carbon compound → bonds with CoA → acetyl CoA • Produces carbon dioxide • Not reversible pathway • Much more ATP produced than glycolysis • Amino acids o Amino acid deamination occurs (lose their nitrogen-containing amino group) o Amino acid pathways: • Some amino acid → pyruvate -- Can provide glucose • Some amino acid → acetyl CoA -- Can provide additional energy or make body fat (but not glucose) • Some amino acid enter TCA cycle directly as compounds -- Can generate energy in cycle -- Can generate glucose Continue reading >>

Nutrition Midterms 2

Nutrition Midterms 2

Sort Describe the types of lipids in body and basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are namedDescribe the types of lipids in body and basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are namedDescribe the types of lipids in body Types of Lipids (fat): Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Sterols Identify food sources of triglycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids and sterols SATURATED (solid or soft) ) double bonds F.A.:lard beef, pork, lamb fat. (LC) MC and SC: milk fat, cocnut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil Mono and Polyunsaturated (liquid) one 2 or three double bonds : olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, safflower oil, fish oil EFA: Omega 3 cold water fish (salmon, tuna, sardines, mackarel) walnuts, flaxeed, hemp oil, soybean oil) reduce inflammation, blood clotting plasma triglycerides Omega 6: beef, poultry, safflower oil, sunflower oil, corn oil. 2 double bonds regulates blood pressure and increases blood clotting Trans fatty acids: margarine (increase blood cholesterol more than saturated fat Three Pathways for Cholesterol Uptake Receptor Pathway LDLs taken up by cells, broken down, and components utilized Excess in blood become oxidized Scavenger Pathway White blood cells remove oxidized LDLs Cholesterol can build up in these cells and kill them; this results in plaque (atherosclerosis) High Density Lipoproteins Picks up cholesterol throughout the body Discuss health concerns related to dietary fat intake Major killer of North Americans is CVD Development:(Atherosclerotic plaque leads to Heart attack and stroke) Risk factors for CVD age, gender, race and genetics (cannot change) can change or prevent: blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes and other diseases Descr Continue reading >>

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Sort Proteins: makes nonessential AA that are in short supply. Removes excess AA & converts them to other AA, or deaminates them & converts them to glucose or fatty acids. Removes ammonia from blood & converts it to urea for excretion. Makes DNA/RNA. & many proteins. >> Other: Detoxifies alcohol, drugs, poison, & excretes them. Helps dismantle old RBC's & captures the iron for recycling. Stores most vitamins, & many minerals. Activates Vitamin D. AA: Before entering metabolic pathways, AA are deaminated (lose their nitrogen amino group). deamination produces ammonia (which provides nitrogen to make nonessential AA. Remaining ammonia is excreted by urea in liver/kid. AA pathway: can enter pathways as pyruvate/Acetyl CoA/others enter krebs as compounds other than Acetyl CoA. AA that make glucose either by pyruvate or krebs cycle are glucogenic. AA that are degraded to Acetyl CoA are Ketogenic. Thus, proteins unlike fats, are a good source of glucose when carbs aren't available. In the liver: because of capillary network the liver is first to get alcohol saturated blood. liver cells are the only other cells in the body that can make sufficient quantities of dehydrogenase, to oxidize alcohol at a decent rate. >> Alcohol affects every organ of the body, bu t the most dramatic evidence is disruptive behavior is in the liver. Normally the liver prefers fatty acids for fuel, & it packages excess out. But when alcohol is there it has to process it first. >> Continue reading >>

Multiple Choice Quiz

Multiple Choice Quiz

Please answer all questions A) pathways of chemical reactions that build compounds. C) the entire network of chemical processes involved in maintaining life and encompasses all of the sequences of chemical reactions that occur in the body. D) the process of photosynthesis. 4 As an antioxidant vitamin E or C can donate electrons to highly reactive compounds. These antioxidants then become 5 In metabolism, glucose is degraded to carbon dioxide and water. The carbon dioxide is produced in: 12 The action of the cytochromes in donating all the electrons that have moved down the chain to oxygen could be described as a C) fatty acids become many acetyl-CoA molecules. A) Fats must be broken down to glycerol and fatty acids before oxidation can occur. B) Fatty acids are oxidized stepwise into 2-carbon fragments. C) 2-carbon fragments of fatty acids enter the citric acid cycle to be oxidized. D) 2-carbon fragments from fatty acids can be used to synthesize glucose. A) Deficiencies of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin may slow energy metabolism. B) The citric acid cycle begins when acetyl-CoA combines with citric acid to form oxaloacetic acid. C) Hydrogens released via the citric acid cycle are transported to the electron transport chain. D) In the electron transport system hydrogen reacts with oxygen and some of the energy is trapped as ATP. A) Glucose provides many more calories than fat on a per gram basis B) To maintain glycolysis it is necessary that fats provide the beginning fuel C) The entire pathway for fatty acid oxidation works best when carbohydrate is present. D) Carbohydrates provide all the ATP the cells need as long as fats provide the spark to start the whole process. A) removal of a protein from another protein molecule. C) removal of a carbon skeleton from a carbo Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7 (test 2)

Nutrition Chapter 7 (test 2)

Sort acetyl CoA -two carbon compound that pyruvate is converted to in an aerobic environment -occurs in mitochondria -releases carbon dioxide -cannot be reversed through glucose synthesis (unlike conversion of lactate to glucose) -can be further metabolized to produce ATP or redirected into fatty acid synthesis -links glycolysis to the TCA cycle -marks transition from cytosol baed pathways to mitochondria based pathways TCA cycle -continuous cycle of 8 metabolic reactions -located in the mitochondria -needs oxaloacetate to function -acetyl CoA reacts with oxaloacetate to form citrate -produces 2 carbon dioxides, GTP (equivalent to one ATP), eight hydrogen which are transferred to coenzymes NAD and FAD to produce NADH and FADH2), which transport the hydrogen and their electrons to the electron transport chain -must complete two rotations for each molecule of glucose b-oxidation also known as fatty acid oxidation takes place in mitochondria fatty acids activated by Coenzyme A so they can be moved across mitochondrial membrane once in the mitochondria, breaking down the fatty acid in two carbon segments to make one acetyl CoA unit high energy electrons transferred to coenzymes NAD and FAD acetyl coA feeds into TCA cycle and onto the electron transport chain produces more ATP than glucose catabolism and have fewer oxygen atoms, resulting in higher output of NADH and FADH2 fatty acids have a much higher potential energy than glucose it is IMPOSSIBLE for fatty acids to be converted to glucose proteolysis protein breakdown, dietary proteins are digested into single amino acids or small peptides that are absorbed in the body amino acids are transported to the liver, where they can be made into different proteins or released into the bloodstream for uptake by other cells no amin Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids[1] during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,[2], alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy.[3] In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids).[1] They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting)[1]. When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>

Nutr 108

Nutr 108

Home > Preview A lacto-ovo vegetarian would eat all the following except: A) red meat B)cheese C) corn D) eggs The major role of vitamine E in the body seems to be to: A) pervent skin cancer B) act as an antioxidant C) aid in protein metabolism D) aid in formation of normal epithelial tissue What happens when the diet is lacking an essential amino acid? A) a person's health will not be affected as long as carbohydrate and fat intake is adequate B) protein synthesis will be limited C) proteins will be made but they will be missing that particular amino acid D) the body will synthesize it The production of glucose from protein or fat is called A) glycolysis B) glyconeoglycolysis C) gluconeogenesis D) glucogenolysis Linolenicand linoleic acids are found primarily in: A) vegetable and fish oils B) butter C) seeds D) none of the above which of the following are formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available? A) amino acids B) pyruvate C) ketones D) ammonia and urea Water is involved in all of the followint except: A) regulation of body temperature B) conversion of lipids to amino acids C) lubricant around joints D) solvent for vitamins and minerals Which of the following foods would make the greatest contribution to a person's intake of riboflavin? A) milk B) oatmeal C) oranges D) broccoli Among the followint, the best food sources for the water-soluble vitamins are: A) butter and vegetable oils B) oranges and cereals C) tuna and shrimp D) egg yolks and apples Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used for: A) regulate muscle contraction B) regulate the transmission of nerve impulses C) provide energy for cells D) provide rigidity for bones The six diet planning principles include: A) adequacy, B vitamins, carbohydrates, meat, variety Continue reading >>

How To Reduce Lactic Acid Build Up In Muscles

How To Reduce Lactic Acid Build Up In Muscles

Reader Approved Three Parts:Understanding Lactic AcidReducing Lactic Acid During a WorkoutReducing Lactic Acid Through Your DietCommunity Q&A Lactic acid is released into the muscles when they have used up their normal energy stores but still have intense energy needs. Small amounts of lactic acid operate as a temporary energy source, thus helping you avoid fatigue during a workout. However, a buildup of lactic acid during a workout can create burning sensations in the muscles that can slow down or halt your athletic activity. For this reason, it may be desirable to reduce lactic acid build up in the muscles. This wikiHow will show you how to do this. 1 Understand that lactic acid does not cause muscle soreness after a workout. Lactic acid is often wrongly accused of being responsible for the post-workout muscle soreness experienced 1 to 3 days after a hard workout. However, new research shows that lactic acid (which operates as a temporary fuel source during intense physical activity) washes out of the system within an hour of the end of a workout, so it cannot be responsible for the pain felt days later. The latest theory suggests that this muscle pain -- also known as delayed onset muscle soreness or DOMS -- is the result of damage to the muscle cells during intense exercise. This causes inflammation, swelling and tenderness as the muscles repair themselves.[1] In order to reduce muscle soreness after a workout, it is necessary to do a proper warm up before exercising. This wakes up the muscles and prepares them for physical activity. It is also important to avoid pushing yourself past your physical limit and to build up your workouts gradually instead. 2 Understand that lactic acid causes the burning sensation during a workout. On the other hand, built-up lactic aci Continue reading >>

Metabolism

Metabolism

Sort cell membrane (outer double layer of phospholipid membrane that contains receptors for hormones and other regulatory compounds) cytoplasm (filled with cytosol, a jelly like substance that has organelles, including mitochondria,a floating in it) nucleus (with genetic info in the DNA of chromosomes and site of RNA synthesis) 3 major parts of a cell Continue reading >>

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