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The Body Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids. Quizlet

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Sort Proteins: makes nonessential AA that are in short supply. Removes excess AA & converts them to other AA, or deaminates them & converts them to glucose or fatty acids. Removes ammonia from blood & converts it to urea for excretion. Makes DNA/RNA. & many proteins. >> Other: Detoxifies alcohol, drugs, poison, & excretes them. Helps dismantle old RBC's & captures the iron for recycling. Stores most vitamins, & many minerals. Activates Vitamin D. AA: Before entering metabolic pathways, AA are deaminated (lose their nitrogen amino group). deamination produces ammonia (which provides nitrogen to make nonessential AA. Remaining ammonia is excreted by urea in liver/kid. AA pathway: can enter pathways as pyruvate/Acetyl CoA/others enter krebs as compounds other than Acetyl CoA. AA that make glucose either by pyruvate or krebs cycle are glucogenic. AA that are degraded to Acetyl CoA are Ketogenic. Thus, proteins unlike fats, are a good source of glucose when carbs aren't available. In the liver: because of capillary network the liver is first to get alcohol saturated blood. liver cells are the only other cells in the body that can make sufficient quantities of dehydrogenase, to oxidize alcohol at a decent rate. >> Alcohol affects every organ of the body, bu t the most dramatic evidence is disruptive behavior is in the liver. Normally the liver prefers fatty acids for fuel, & it packages excess out. But when alcohol is there it has to process it first. >> Continue reading >>

Nutr 108

Nutr 108

Home > Preview A lacto-ovo vegetarian would eat all the following except: A) red meat B)cheese C) corn D) eggs The major role of vitamine E in the body seems to be to: A) pervent skin cancer B) act as an antioxidant C) aid in protein metabolism D) aid in formation of normal epithelial tissue What happens when the diet is lacking an essential amino acid? A) a person's health will not be affected as long as carbohydrate and fat intake is adequate B) protein synthesis will be limited C) proteins will be made but they will be missing that particular amino acid D) the body will synthesize it The production of glucose from protein or fat is called A) glycolysis B) glyconeoglycolysis C) gluconeogenesis D) glucogenolysis Linolenicand linoleic acids are found primarily in: A) vegetable and fish oils B) butter C) seeds D) none of the above which of the following are formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available? A) amino acids B) pyruvate C) ketones D) ammonia and urea Water is involved in all of the followint except: A) regulation of body temperature B) conversion of lipids to amino acids C) lubricant around joints D) solvent for vitamins and minerals Which of the following foods would make the greatest contribution to a person's intake of riboflavin? A) milk B) oatmeal C) oranges D) broccoli Among the followint, the best food sources for the water-soluble vitamins are: A) butter and vegetable oils B) oranges and cereals C) tuna and shrimp D) egg yolks and apples Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used for: A) regulate muscle contraction B) regulate the transmission of nerve impulses C) provide energy for cells D) provide rigidity for bones The six diet planning principles include: A) adequacy, B vitamins, carbohydrates, meat, variety Continue reading >>

What Is The Main Function Of Glucose?

What Is The Main Function Of Glucose?

There are many types of sugars, which are the simplest type of carbohydrate. While too much dietary sugar poses a number of health risks, the simple sugar glucose serves a critical role in the human body. Glucose serves a primary fuel to generate energy that the body's cells use to carry out their metabolic and biological functions. Glucose is particularly important for the brain, red blood cells and muscle cells during exercise. Video of the Day Biological Fuel Source The primary function of glucose is to serve as a biological fuel source for the body. All cells of the body are capable of using glucose to generate energy. Through a series of complex biochemical reactions, the breakdown of glucose yields high-energy molecules called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP molecules then provide the energy to drive the cellular activities that ultimately keep the body functioning. While many types of body cells can use nutrients other than glucose to generate energy, some rely exclusively or almost exclusively on glucose. Brain and nerve cells normally rely exclusively on glucose as their fuel source. The brain is a relatively large organ with high metabolic rate. A typical adult brain utilizes roughly 120 grams of glucose each day. Because brain cells cannot store glucose, a constant supply must be provided from the blood stream. During periods of prolonged starvation, the brain can switch to using breakdown product of fats (ketones) for fuel. Mature red blood cells also rely exclusively on glucose for fuel because these cells lack the internal machinery to generate energy from any other nutrient source. Other cells that rely almost exclusively on glucose to generate high-energy ATP molecules include: the lens of the eye some retinal cells (the vision-sensing tissue at the ba Continue reading >>

1. What Is The Difference Between Food Sanitation And Food Safety?

1. What Is The Difference Between Food Sanitation And Food Safety?

Food sanitation is cleanliness of food and equipment, food safety is how food was handled 2. Name people who have higher risk of becoming sick from contaminated foods. (4) elderly, pregnant women, small children, weakened immune syndrome 3. Name the most common foodborne illnesses and give an example of their sources. (4) Campylobacter – any raw meat e-coli – ground meat Norwalk- shellfish, raw veggies, feces / raw sewage, contaminated water Salmonella – chicken Hepatitis A – seafood / salads Botulism – canned food 4. Name four key recommendations the USDA gives for food safety. Clean, separate, cook, chill 5. What does FIFO mean? First in, first out 6. The temperature danger zone is: 41 - 135 7. Give one prevention technique for each hazard: Foods I VoCATS Review a. b. Cuts Burns c. Electrical issues d. Chemical poisoning e. Falls f. Choking g. Other 8. 9. Define cross contamination. Contamination of one food from contact with another food or unclean surface 10. Define dove tailing. Doing 2 or more things at once 11. Identify and describe parts of a recipe. (5 parts and optional) Title, ingredients, directions, cooking temp, yield – optional – nutritional data 12. Identify the following types of equipment and describe what they do: a. Measuring – spoons, cups, scales – used to measure b. Cutting/mixing – knives, mixer, pastry blender – used to mix ingredients c. Cooking – stove , grill….used to prep food 13. What are the abbreviations for the following measurements: a. b. Ounce oz c. Tablespoon (2) Tbsp, T d. Fluid ounce fl.oz. e. Cup c f. Pound lb g. Gallon gal h. Pint pt i. Quart qt 14. 15. What are the equivalents to the following measurements (name as many as possible): a. b. Continue reading >>

Nutrients And Metab

Nutrients And Metab

The most used substance for producing the energy- rich ATP Flashcards Matching Hangman Crossword Type In Quiz Test StudyStack Study Table Bug Match Hungry Bug Unscramble Chopped Targets Nutrients used by body cells Question Answer The most used substance for producing the energy- rich ATP Carbohydrates Important in building myelin sheaths and cell membranes Fats Tend to be conserved by cells Amino acids the second most important food source for making cellular energy fats form insulating deposits around body organs and beneath the skin Fats Used to make the bulk of cell structure and functional substances such as enzymes amino acids Examples of carbohydrate-rich food in the diet Fruits,vegetables, breads/ pasta Fatty foods ingested in the normal diet include Cream and cheese The only important digestible polysaccharide Starch An indigestible polysaccharide that aids elimination because it adds bulk to the diet is Cellulose protein- rich foods include ____and _____ Cheese/cream, Meat/fish most examples of these nutrients, which are found largely in vegetables and fruits, are used as coenzymes Vitamins Include copper, iron, and sodium Minerals Which of the oxidative phases does not require oxygen Glycolysis Which phases do require oxygen Krebs cycle and the electron In which form is chemical energy transferred from the first two phases to the third phase in the form of hydrogen atoms bearing high energy electrons which of the phases produces the largest amount of ATP the electron transport chain Which phase combines energetic H atoms with molecular oxygen The electron trasport chain When you eat food that contains carbohydrates, you break down the carbohydrates into a monosaccharide called? glucose If you don’t use this monosaccharide, your body can store it in the live Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort Feasting eating in excess of energy needs metabolism favors fat formation - dietary fat to body fat is most direct and efficient conversion (carbohydrate and protein have other roles to fulfill before) fuel mix - depends on diet; carbohydrate and protein intakes influence fuel mix; increases in carbohydrate and protein intakes DISPLACE fat in the diet (more carbohydrate/protein and less fat) increase fat eaten DOES NOT enhance fat breakdown - does not respond to dietary fat intake! Transition from Feasting to Fasting after a meal (2-3 hours), glucose, glycerol, fatty acids used as needed, stored - fasting state draws on these stores (glycogen and fat are released/broken down) energy needed all the time! (sleeping) basal metabolism - cell's work to maintain life processes; 2/3 energy a person expends per day fasting (choice) vs. starving (no choice) - body cannot distinguish difference between them, forced to draw on reserves of carbohydrate and fat Fasting carbohydrate, fat, protein all eventually used as energy begins with release of glucose from liver's glycogen stores, fatty acids from adipose cells breakdown and acetyl CoA produced - Krebs cycle to produce energy (ATP) decrease blood glucose levels serve as signal - promotes further fat breakdown; release of amino acids from muscles Fatty Acids as Fuel good for now, but glucose is needed brain, nervous system, and RBC - primary source brain/nerve cells consume 1/2 total glucose used/day (50%) 1/4 of energy body uses at rest spent by brain RBC completely dependent on glucose, brain/nerve cells prefer glucose for energy Protein to the Rescue amino acids yielding pyruvate (to make glucose); breakdown of body proteins; amino acids that canoot make glucose used for energy by other cells; expensive way to make glucos Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids[1] during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,[2], alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy.[3] In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids).[1] They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting)[1]. When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>

Multiple Choice Questions- Lipid Metabolism (revision)- Set-2

Multiple Choice Questions- Lipid Metabolism (revision)- Set-2

1. Which of the following are the ketone bodies? a) Acetyl co A and Propionyl co A b) Lecithin and Lysolecithin c) Acetoacetate and Betahydroxy butyrate d) Pyruvate and lactate e) Succinyl co A and succinate 2. The enzyme ‘Thiolase’ catalyzes the conversion of- a) 2 Acetyl co A to Acetoacetyl co A b) Acetyl co A to Malonyl co A c) Fatty acid to Fatty Acyl co A d) Succinyl co A to succinate e) Propionyl co A to D- Methyl malonyl co A 3. In contrast to secondary bile salts, which of the following is characteristic of primary bile salts? a) Are hydroxylated at carbon 7 b) Have an oxidized side chain c) Form co A derivatives d) Can be conjugated to Glycine or Taurine e) Are reabsorbed in the intestine 4. Which of the following statements best describes the fatty acid synthase complex? a) Is a dimer of dissimilar subunits b) is composed of 7 different proteins c) Dissociates in to eight different proteins d) Catalyzes 8 different enzymatic steps e) Is composed of covalently linked enzymes 5. The end product of fatty acid synthesis in mammals is – a) Arachidonic acid b) Linoleic acid c) Stearic acid d) Palmitic acid e) Erucic acid 6. Which enzyme often mal functions in diseases associated with the symptoms of high blood triglyceride levels and Steatorrhea? a) Phospholipase D b) Lipoprotein lipase c) Thiokinase d) Acetyl co A carboxylase e) Pancreatic lipase 7. Which enzyme is an allosteric regulator of another enzyme on the list ? a) Acetyl co A carboxylase b) Pancreatic lipase c) Carnitine acyl transferase-1 d) Acetyl transacylase e) Keto acyl synthase 8. A new-born has severe respiratory problems. Over the next few days it is observed that the baby has severe muscle problems, demonstrates little development, and has neurological problems. A liver biopsy reveals a very Continue reading >>

Metabolism

Metabolism

Sort cell membrane (outer double layer of phospholipid membrane that contains receptors for hormones and other regulatory compounds) cytoplasm (filled with cytosol, a jelly like substance that has organelles, including mitochondria,a floating in it) nucleus (with genetic info in the DNA of chromosomes and site of RNA synthesis) 3 major parts of a cell Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 6-7

Nutrition Exam 6-7

Sort the _________________ structure of proteins occurs as long polypeptide chains twist and fold into a variety of complex tangled shapes (aa side groups attracted to water = hydrophilic) (aa side groups repel water = hydrophilic) tertiary structure when polypeptides enter the small intestine, several pancreatic and intestinal _______________ hydrolyze them further into short peptide chains. the _______________ enzymes on the membrane surfaces of the intestinal cells split most of the dipeptides and tripeptides into single single amino acids 1. proteases 2. peptidase the instructions for making every protein in a person's body are transmitted by way of the genetic information received at conception. this body of knowledge which is filed by _____________ within the nucleus of every cell, never leaves the nucleus DNA in the 1st step, known as ______________ , a stretch of DNA is used as a template to make messenger RNA. messenger RNA then carries the code across the nuclear membrane into the body of the cell, where it seeks out and attaches itself to one of the ribosome transcription an error in the amino acid sequence results in an altered protein--sometimes with dramatic consequences. the protein hemoglobin offers one example of such a genetic variation. in a person with _____________________, 2 of hemoglobins four polypeptide chains have the normal sequence of amino acids, but the other 2 chains do not--they have etc... sickle-cell anemia "protein turnover" and _______________ go hand in hand. in healthy adults, protein synthesis balances with degradation, and protein intake from food balances with nitrogen excretion in the urine feces, and sweat. when the nitrogen intake equals nitrogen output, the person ins in nitrogen equilibrium, or zero _________________ nitroge Continue reading >>

Exam 3 Quizlet Flashcards Preview

Exam 3 Quizlet Flashcards Preview

- Diffusible: moves in and out of cells - Low cell density, gradient favors movement (AI) out - High cell density, gradient favors movement (AI) in and genes are activated - LuxR: protein, transcription factor, binds autoinducer to the promoter region of the operon - When the LuxR binds to the promoter region of the operon, then the luciferase enzyme can get made and genes are activated - Benefit: protective niche (Vibrio), squid (protection from predators) O2, CO2, and H2S are absorbed through the gill plume and transported to the blood cells of the trophosome (packed with bacteria). H2S is bound to the worm's hemoglobin and carried to the endosymbiont bacteria. The bacteria oxidize the H2S and use some of the released energy to fix CO2, in the calvin cycle. Some of the reduced carbon compounds synthesized by the endosymbiont are translocated to the animal's tissues - Sexual: zygospores - Asexual: sporangiospores - Requires compatible strains of opposite mating types. When the 2 mating strains are close, each produces a different hormone, called a pheromone, that causes their hyphae to form projections called progamtangia; these mature into gametangia. After fusion of the gametangia, the nuclei of the 2 gametes fuse, forming a zygote. The zygote then develops a thick, rough, black coat and becomes a dormant zygospore. Meiosis often occurs at the time of germination; the zygospore then splits open and produces a hypha that bears an asexual sporangium to begin the cycle again - Most commonly found in marine plankton - Nutrition: photoautotrophy, heterotrophy, and mixotrophy - Some are responsible for the phosphorescence seen in seawater - Each cell bears 2 distinctively placed flagella: cause the cell to spin as it is propelled forward - Have alveolar sacs lying just und Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7

Nutrition Ch. 7

Front Back .Wirisformula{ margin:0 !important; padding:0 !important; vertical-align:top !important;} Metabolism The sum total of all the chemcial reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends energy from food. Example: Nutrients provide the body with FUEL and follows them through a series of reactions that release energy from their chemical bonds. As the bonds break, they release energy in a controlled version of the process by which wood burns in a fire. Energy metabolism All of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from food Anabolism Small compounds joined together to make largers ones; energy must be used in order to do this Ana = up Catabolism Larger compounds BROKEN down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED kata = down Coupled reactions Energy released from the breakdown of a large compounds is used to drive other reactions ATP Adenosine triphosphate; energy currency of the body -- produced when large compounds are broken down ATP is used to make large compounds from smaller ones. Ribosomes Cellular machinery used to make proteins Mitochondria Where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain Coenzyme Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures. co = with Cofactor The general term for substances that facilitate enzyme action is cofactors; they include both organic coenzymes such as vitamins and inorganic substances such as minerals Enzymes Protein catalysts - proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process Metalloenzyme Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their stru Continue reading >>

Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism

Sort Electron Transport Chain The electron transport chain is the final pathway in energy metabolism that transports electrons from hydrogen to oxygen and captures the energy released in the bonds of ATP (respiratory chain). The electron transport chain captures energy in the high-energy bonds of ATP. The electron transport chain consists of a series of proteins that serve as electron "carriers." These carriers are mounted in sequence on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electron carriers pass the electrons down until they reach oxygen. Oxygen accepts the electrons and combines with hydrogen atoms to form water. Oxygen must be available for energy metabolism. As electrons are passed from carrier to carrier, hydrogen ions are pumped across the membrane to the outer compartment of the mitochondria. The rush of hydrogen ions back into the inner compartment powers the synthesis of ATP (energy is captured in the bonds of ATP). The ATP leaves the mitochondria and enters the cytoplasm, where it can be used for energy. Anaerobic When the body needs energy quickly, pyruvate is converted to lactate. The breakdown of glucose-to-pyruvate-to-lactate proceeds without oxygen-it is anaerobic. This anaerobic pathway yields energy quickly, but it cannot be sustained for long. Coenzymes carry the hydrogens from glucose breakdown to the electron transport chain. If the electron transport chain is unable to accept the hydrogens, as may occur when cells lack sufficient mitochondria or in the absence of oxygen, pyruvate can accept the hydrogens. By accepting the hydrogens, pyruvate becomes lactate, and the coenzymes are freed to return to glycolysis to pick up more hydrogens. In this way, glucose can continue provided energy anaerobically for a while. One possible fate of the lactat Continue reading >>

Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Sort What is the difference between energy and metabolism? Energy metabolism? Energy is the capacity to do work - heat, mechanical, electrical, CHEMICAL Metabolism is how the body uses food to meet its needs - specifically, it is the sum total of all chemical reactions in the living cells of the body - energy metabolism includes all reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from food What are the two types of metabolic reactions in the body? Anabolic/Anabolism - building body compounds (requires energy) - ex. glucose + glucose = glycogen - ex. glycerol + fatty acid = triglycerides - ex. amino acid + amino acid = protein Catabolic/Catabolism - breaking down body compounds (releases energy) - ex. glycogen -> glucose - ex. triglycerides -> glycerol + fatty acid - ex. protein -> amino acids What is ATP? How is it formed? (adenosine triphosphate) It is a molecule made up of three phosphate groups that has high energy bonds (so it provides lots of energy when it is broken down) - it is what provides energy for any reaction or cell activity in the body It is formed from the breakdown of glucose (glycolysis), fatty acids, and amino acids Its negative charge makes it vulnerable to hydrolysis What is the idea of coupled reactions? The body makes ATP in coupled reactions. Energy (ATP) is needed to facilitate the reactions that make more ATP. So the body uses ATP to make ATP 1.) ATP is broken down, which provides energy for a variety of functions in the body - when ATP is broken down, it loses a phosphate group and becomes ADP 2.) Energy is required to add a phosphate group to ADP to make ATP (uses ATP from food to do this) This system is about 50% efficient, and the rest is lost as heat How does digestion break things down into smaller units? Carbs -> glucose (and Continue reading >>

How To Reduce Lactic Acid Build Up In Muscles

How To Reduce Lactic Acid Build Up In Muscles

Reader Approved Three Parts:Understanding Lactic AcidReducing Lactic Acid During a WorkoutReducing Lactic Acid Through Your DietCommunity Q&A Lactic acid is released into the muscles when they have used up their normal energy stores but still have intense energy needs. Small amounts of lactic acid operate as a temporary energy source, thus helping you avoid fatigue during a workout. However, a buildup of lactic acid during a workout can create burning sensations in the muscles that can slow down or halt your athletic activity. For this reason, it may be desirable to reduce lactic acid build up in the muscles. This wikiHow will show you how to do this. 1 Understand that lactic acid does not cause muscle soreness after a workout. Lactic acid is often wrongly accused of being responsible for the post-workout muscle soreness experienced 1 to 3 days after a hard workout. However, new research shows that lactic acid (which operates as a temporary fuel source during intense physical activity) washes out of the system within an hour of the end of a workout, so it cannot be responsible for the pain felt days later. The latest theory suggests that this muscle pain -- also known as delayed onset muscle soreness or DOMS -- is the result of damage to the muscle cells during intense exercise. This causes inflammation, swelling and tenderness as the muscles repair themselves.[1] In order to reduce muscle soreness after a workout, it is necessary to do a proper warm up before exercising. This wakes up the muscles and prepares them for physical activity. It is also important to avoid pushing yourself past your physical limit and to build up your workouts gradually instead. 2 Understand that lactic acid causes the burning sensation during a workout. On the other hand, built-up lactic aci Continue reading >>

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