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Synthesis Of Glucose From Fat

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What is GLUCONEOGENESIS? What does GLUCONEOGENESIS mean? GLUCONEOGENESIS meaning - GLUCONEOGENESIS definition - GLUCONEOGENESIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol (although not fatty acids); and from other steps in metabolism they include pyruvate and lactate. Gluconeogenesis is one of several main mechanisms used by humans and many other animals to maintain blood glucose levels, avoiding low levels (hypoglycemia). Other means include the degradation of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and fatty acid catabolism. Gluconeogenesis is a ubiquitous process, present in plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. In vertebrates, gluconeogenesis takes place mainly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in t

Gluconeogenesis | Definition Of Gluconeogenesis By Medical Dictionary

Gluconeogenesis | definition of gluconeogenesis by Medical dictionary the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and glycerol. It occurs primarily in the liver and kidneys whenever the supply of carbohydrates is insufficient to meet the body's energy needs. Gluconeogenesis is stimulated by cortisol and other glucocorticoids and by the thyroid hormone thyroxine. Formerly called glyconeogenesis. /gluconeogenesis/ (glooko-neo-jen-sis) the synthesis of glucose from molecules that are not carbohydrates, such as amino and fatty acids. The formation of glucose, especially by the liver, from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and the glycerol portion of fats. gluconeogenetic (--j-ntk) adj. the formation of glucose from glycerol and proteins rather than from carbohydrates. Also called glyconeogenesis . The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate moleculeseg, amino acids, lactic acid The formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, especially from AMINO ACIDS from protein. GLUCOCORTICOID hormones stimulate gluconeogenesis. the process by which PYRUVIC ACID (pyruvate) is converted to GLUCOSE . This is not the exact reversal of GLYCOLYSIS . T Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. manohman

    Why can't fat be converted into Glucose?

    So the reason cited is that beta oxidation/metabolism of fats leads to formation of acetyl coa, a 2 carbon molecule, and that because of that it cannot be converted back into glucose.
    Why exactly is that the case?
    If Glucogenic amino acids can be converted into citric acid cycle intermediates and then turn back into glucose via gluconeogensis, then why cant Fatty Acids which yield Acetyl Coa. Can't you just have Acetyl Coa enter the citric acid cycle and produce the same intermediates that the glucogenic amino acids creat?

  2. Czarcasm

    manohman said: ↑
    So the reason cited is that beta oxidation/metabolism of fats leads to formation of acetyl coa, a 2 carbon molecule, and that because of that it cannot be converted back into glucose.
    Why exactly is that the case?
    If Glucogenic amino acids can be converted into citric acid cycle intermediates and then turn back into glucose via gluconeogensis, then why cant Fatty Acids which yield Acetyl Coa. Can't you just have Acetyl Coa enter the citric acid cycle and produce the same intermediates that the glucogenic amino acids creat?
    Click to expand... Both glucose and fatty acids can be stored in the body as either glycogen for glucose (stored mainly in the liver or skeletal cells) or for FA's, as triacylglycerides (stored in adipose cells). We cannot store excess protein. It's either used to make other proteins, or flushed out of the body if in excess; that's generally the case but we try to make use of some of that energy instead of throwing it all away.
    When a person is deprived of nutrition for a period of time and glycogen stores are depleted, the body will immediately seek out alternative energy sources. Fats (stored for use) are the first priority over protein (which requires the breakdown of tissues such as muscle). We can mobilize these FA's to the liver and convert them to Acetyl-CoA to be used in the TCA cycle and generate much needed energy. On the contrary, when a person eats in excess (a fatty meal high in protein), it's more efficient to store fatty acids as TAG's over glycogen simply because glycogen is extremely hydrophilic and attracts excess water weight; fatty acids are largely stored anhydrously and so you essentially get more bang for your buck. This is evolutionary significant and why birds are able to stay light weight but fly for periods at a time, or why bears are able to hibernate for months at a time. Proteins on the other hand may be used anabolically to build up active tissues (such as when your working out those muscles), unless you live a sedentary lifestyle (less anabolism and therefore, less use of the proteins). As part of the excretion process, protein must be broken down to urea to avoid toxic ammonia and in doing so, the Liver can extract some of that usable energy for storage as glycogen.
    Also, it is worth noting that it is indeed possible to convert FA's to glucose but the pathway can be a little complex and so in terms of energy storage, is not very efficient. The process involves converting Acetyl-CoA to Acetone (transported out of mitochondria to cytosol) where it's converted to Pyruvate which can then be used in the Gluconeogenesis pathway to make Glucose and eventually stored as Glycogen. Have a look for yourself if your interested: http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002116.g003/originalimage (and this excludes the whole glycogenesis pathway, which hasn't even begun yet).
    TLDR: it's because proteins have no ability to be stored in the body, but we can convert them to glycogen for storage during the breakdown process for excretion. Also, in terms of energy, it's a more efficient process than converting FA's to glycogen for storage.

  3. soccerman93

    This is where biochem comes in handy. Czarcasm gives a really good in depth answer, but a simpler approach is to count carbons. The first step of gluconeogenesis(formation of glucose) requires pyruvate, a 3 carbon molecule. Acetyl Co-A is a 2 carbon molecule, and most animals lack the enzymes (malate synthase and isocitrate lyase) required to convert acetyl co-A into a 3 carbon molecule suitable for the gluconeogenesis pathway. The ketogenic pathway is not efficient, as czarcasm pointed out. While acetyl co-A can indeed be used to form citric acid intermediates, these intermediates will be used in forming ATP, not glucose. Fatty acid oxidation does not yield suitable amounts of pyruvate, which is required for gluconeogenesis. This is part of why losing weight is fairly difficult for those that are overweight, we can't efficiently directly convert fat to glucose, which we need a fairly constant supply of. Sorry, that got a little long-winded

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Don t let diabetes control your life. Beetroot, avocado, sweet potatoes added in your diet to control diabetes helps to control blood sugar levels. Avocado, sweet potatoes, beetroot has a low glycemic index, low-calorie, are rich in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants and its can be a way to control your diabetes with diet. Here is how I make a tasty low sugar, low-calorie salad with sweet potatoes, avocado and beetroot. Thank you for watching & please subscribe my channel for more: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyBZ... For business & opportunities, please email: [email protected] Other videos about diabetes, diabetes control, blood sugar control: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVu81... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqBs0... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0RIxc... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6SyQ... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rlio3... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CKP3V... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gGhcR... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHolr... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jKFJ0... https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

What Is Gluconeogenesis? How Does Does It Control Blood Sugars?

What is gluconeogenesis? How does does it control blood sugars? by breaknutrition | Sep 12, 2017 | Ketogenic Diets | 9 comments Step into the low-carb world and soon enough youll hear the term GlucoNeoGenesis. GNG for short, is your bodys ability to construct glucose, a kind of sugar, out of molecules that arent glucose. It does this to ensure that, if you dont eat any carbs, the cells in your body that need glucose will still get enough of it. Its one reason why humans are so good at fasting or delaying death from starvation for weeks or months. We can meet our own need for glucose by producing it ourselves. What do I mean by cells in your body that need glucose? I mean a reliance on glucose to accomplish its basic physiological tasks over a long time maybe a lifetime. You then might ask, but is there a difference when meeting your glucose needs with GNG versus by eating carbs? Fair question. You could also ask although no one seems to is it better to meet your glucose needs through GNG than by eating carbs? Also a fair question I think but one people will most likely scoff at. These questions deserve more space than Im according them here, so theyll have to be wrestled with in a Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. manohman

    Why can't fat be converted into Glucose?

    So the reason cited is that beta oxidation/metabolism of fats leads to formation of acetyl coa, a 2 carbon molecule, and that because of that it cannot be converted back into glucose.
    Why exactly is that the case?
    If Glucogenic amino acids can be converted into citric acid cycle intermediates and then turn back into glucose via gluconeogensis, then why cant Fatty Acids which yield Acetyl Coa. Can't you just have Acetyl Coa enter the citric acid cycle and produce the same intermediates that the glucogenic amino acids creat?

  2. Czarcasm

    manohman said: ↑
    So the reason cited is that beta oxidation/metabolism of fats leads to formation of acetyl coa, a 2 carbon molecule, and that because of that it cannot be converted back into glucose.
    Why exactly is that the case?
    If Glucogenic amino acids can be converted into citric acid cycle intermediates and then turn back into glucose via gluconeogensis, then why cant Fatty Acids which yield Acetyl Coa. Can't you just have Acetyl Coa enter the citric acid cycle and produce the same intermediates that the glucogenic amino acids creat?
    Click to expand... Both glucose and fatty acids can be stored in the body as either glycogen for glucose (stored mainly in the liver or skeletal cells) or for FA's, as triacylglycerides (stored in adipose cells). We cannot store excess protein. It's either used to make other proteins, or flushed out of the body if in excess; that's generally the case but we try to make use of some of that energy instead of throwing it all away.
    When a person is deprived of nutrition for a period of time and glycogen stores are depleted, the body will immediately seek out alternative energy sources. Fats (stored for use) are the first priority over protein (which requires the breakdown of tissues such as muscle). We can mobilize these FA's to the liver and convert them to Acetyl-CoA to be used in the TCA cycle and generate much needed energy. On the contrary, when a person eats in excess (a fatty meal high in protein), it's more efficient to store fatty acids as TAG's over glycogen simply because glycogen is extremely hydrophilic and attracts excess water weight; fatty acids are largely stored anhydrously and so you essentially get more bang for your buck. This is evolutionary significant and why birds are able to stay light weight but fly for periods at a time, or why bears are able to hibernate for months at a time. Proteins on the other hand may be used anabolically to build up active tissues (such as when your working out those muscles), unless you live a sedentary lifestyle (less anabolism and therefore, less use of the proteins). As part of the excretion process, protein must be broken down to urea to avoid toxic ammonia and in doing so, the Liver can extract some of that usable energy for storage as glycogen.
    Also, it is worth noting that it is indeed possible to convert FA's to glucose but the pathway can be a little complex and so in terms of energy storage, is not very efficient. The process involves converting Acetyl-CoA to Acetone (transported out of mitochondria to cytosol) where it's converted to Pyruvate which can then be used in the Gluconeogenesis pathway to make Glucose and eventually stored as Glycogen. Have a look for yourself if your interested: http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002116.g003/originalimage (and this excludes the whole glycogenesis pathway, which hasn't even begun yet).
    TLDR: it's because proteins have no ability to be stored in the body, but we can convert them to glycogen for storage during the breakdown process for excretion. Also, in terms of energy, it's a more efficient process than converting FA's to glycogen for storage.

  3. soccerman93

    This is where biochem comes in handy. Czarcasm gives a really good in depth answer, but a simpler approach is to count carbons. The first step of gluconeogenesis(formation of glucose) requires pyruvate, a 3 carbon molecule. Acetyl Co-A is a 2 carbon molecule, and most animals lack the enzymes (malate synthase and isocitrate lyase) required to convert acetyl co-A into a 3 carbon molecule suitable for the gluconeogenesis pathway. The ketogenic pathway is not efficient, as czarcasm pointed out. While acetyl co-A can indeed be used to form citric acid intermediates, these intermediates will be used in forming ATP, not glucose. Fatty acid oxidation does not yield suitable amounts of pyruvate, which is required for gluconeogenesis. This is part of why losing weight is fairly difficult for those that are overweight, we can't efficiently directly convert fat to glucose, which we need a fairly constant supply of. Sorry, that got a little long-winded

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Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases. This process takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. Most of the acetyl-CoA which is converted into fatty acids is derived from carbohydrates via the glycolytic pathway. The glycolytic pathway also provides the glycerol with which three fatty acids can combine (by means of ester bonds) to form triglycerides (also known as "triacylglycerols", to distinguish them from fatty "acids" - or simply as "fat"), the final product of the lipogenic process. When only two fatty acids combine with glycerol and the third alcohol group is phosphorylated with a group such as phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid is formed. Phospholipids form the bulk of the lipid bilayers that make up cell membranes and surround the organelles within the cells (e.g. the cell nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus etc.) Source : Wikipedia

Biosynthesis Of Fat

Glucose is both stored energy for living things and the precursor to other biomolecules. Respiration is an enzyme catalyzed process that releases energy to the cells. From an energy standpoint, it is identical to the combustion reaction of glucose and it releases 6 equivalents of carbon dioxide and 6 equivalents of water for every equivalent of glucose. In biosynthetic reactions, the glucose is broken down into 2, three-carbon pieces. One equivalent of carbon dioxide is lost for every one of the 3-carbon units. Four carbons of the original six-carbon glucose molecule are used in the synthesis of fatty acids. It's a complicated process and we won't go over the whole thing in detail but let's look at the first step. That is the base-catalyzed isomerization of glucose to fructose. As you can see, the first step is a base (basic site in a protein) removes a proton from C2 of the glucose molecule. The pair of electrons from the former C-H bond migrate to form a C-C pi bond and another pair of electrons (from the C=O group) migrates to the carbonyl oxygen. The oxygen anion is basic and abstracts a proton from water. As a new C-O double bond forms on C2, the proton from the C2 hydroxy gr Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. manohman

    Why can't fat be converted into Glucose?

    So the reason cited is that beta oxidation/metabolism of fats leads to formation of acetyl coa, a 2 carbon molecule, and that because of that it cannot be converted back into glucose.
    Why exactly is that the case?
    If Glucogenic amino acids can be converted into citric acid cycle intermediates and then turn back into glucose via gluconeogensis, then why cant Fatty Acids which yield Acetyl Coa. Can't you just have Acetyl Coa enter the citric acid cycle and produce the same intermediates that the glucogenic amino acids creat?

  2. Czarcasm

    manohman said: ↑
    So the reason cited is that beta oxidation/metabolism of fats leads to formation of acetyl coa, a 2 carbon molecule, and that because of that it cannot be converted back into glucose.
    Why exactly is that the case?
    If Glucogenic amino acids can be converted into citric acid cycle intermediates and then turn back into glucose via gluconeogensis, then why cant Fatty Acids which yield Acetyl Coa. Can't you just have Acetyl Coa enter the citric acid cycle and produce the same intermediates that the glucogenic amino acids creat?
    Click to expand... Both glucose and fatty acids can be stored in the body as either glycogen for glucose (stored mainly in the liver or skeletal cells) or for FA's, as triacylglycerides (stored in adipose cells). We cannot store excess protein. It's either used to make other proteins, or flushed out of the body if in excess; that's generally the case but we try to make use of some of that energy instead of throwing it all away.
    When a person is deprived of nutrition for a period of time and glycogen stores are depleted, the body will immediately seek out alternative energy sources. Fats (stored for use) are the first priority over protein (which requires the breakdown of tissues such as muscle). We can mobilize these FA's to the liver and convert them to Acetyl-CoA to be used in the TCA cycle and generate much needed energy. On the contrary, when a person eats in excess (a fatty meal high in protein), it's more efficient to store fatty acids as TAG's over glycogen simply because glycogen is extremely hydrophilic and attracts excess water weight; fatty acids are largely stored anhydrously and so you essentially get more bang for your buck. This is evolutionary significant and why birds are able to stay light weight but fly for periods at a time, or why bears are able to hibernate for months at a time. Proteins on the other hand may be used anabolically to build up active tissues (such as when your working out those muscles), unless you live a sedentary lifestyle (less anabolism and therefore, less use of the proteins). As part of the excretion process, protein must be broken down to urea to avoid toxic ammonia and in doing so, the Liver can extract some of that usable energy for storage as glycogen.
    Also, it is worth noting that it is indeed possible to convert FA's to glucose but the pathway can be a little complex and so in terms of energy storage, is not very efficient. The process involves converting Acetyl-CoA to Acetone (transported out of mitochondria to cytosol) where it's converted to Pyruvate which can then be used in the Gluconeogenesis pathway to make Glucose and eventually stored as Glycogen. Have a look for yourself if your interested: http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002116.g003/originalimage (and this excludes the whole glycogenesis pathway, which hasn't even begun yet).
    TLDR: it's because proteins have no ability to be stored in the body, but we can convert them to glycogen for storage during the breakdown process for excretion. Also, in terms of energy, it's a more efficient process than converting FA's to glycogen for storage.

  3. soccerman93

    This is where biochem comes in handy. Czarcasm gives a really good in depth answer, but a simpler approach is to count carbons. The first step of gluconeogenesis(formation of glucose) requires pyruvate, a 3 carbon molecule. Acetyl Co-A is a 2 carbon molecule, and most animals lack the enzymes (malate synthase and isocitrate lyase) required to convert acetyl co-A into a 3 carbon molecule suitable for the gluconeogenesis pathway. The ketogenic pathway is not efficient, as czarcasm pointed out. While acetyl co-A can indeed be used to form citric acid intermediates, these intermediates will be used in forming ATP, not glucose. Fatty acid oxidation does not yield suitable amounts of pyruvate, which is required for gluconeogenesis. This is part of why losing weight is fairly difficult for those that are overweight, we can't efficiently directly convert fat to glucose, which we need a fairly constant supply of. Sorry, that got a little long-winded

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