In this video I discuss what are hormones, and how do hormones work. I also cover the types of hormones, water soluble hormones, and fat soluble hormones, what is glucagon, as well as the functions of hormones. Transcript (partial with notes) What are hormones, and what do hormones do? Hormones are messengers that are released mainly by glands, and they travel in the bloodstream through all parts of the body to targeted cells. Hormones then tell these cells what to do. How do hormones work? Types of hormones. Water soluble hormones bind to receptors on the surface of cells, and the message is delivered, and the cell does its duty. Fat soluble hormones actually enter cells and bind to receptors once inside. Again, message is delivered and the cell does its duty. What do hormones do? What is glucagon? For example glucagon is a hormone produced by the pancreas. After we eat, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose. The liver sends some of this glucose into the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. The cells use glucose as energy. The liver takes any extra glucose and stores it as glycogen, or as fat. As this glucose in the bloodstream gets used up by the cells, the liver needs to release more, and this is where glucagon comes in. The pancreas releases glucagon hormones which attach to receptors on liver cells. Glucagon tells the liver cells, we need more glucose, and the liver cells convert the stored glycogen into glucose, and releases it to keep those hungry cells fed. Functions of hormones. There are many different hormones in the body that have many different functions. There are hormones that help with blood pressure regulation, development of white blood cells, in response to stress, regulation of water retention in the kidneys, and I could go on and on and on, but I think you get the picture, they are kind of important in the body.
The ketonebodies, acetoacetate (AcAc), acetone and 3--hydroxybutyrate acid (3HB), arecatabolic products of free fatty acids, produced in the absence ofcarbohydrates or insulin.1 Quantitativeassay of 3HB measurement in blood is a more precise marker of insulindeficiency than urine dipstick detection of AcAc, as blood levels of 3HBincrease rapidly in the case of sudden insulin deficiency, while urinaryexcretion of AcAc is delayed as it is dependent on glomerular filtration andtherefore on renal function and degree of hydration. The measurement of AcAc inurine is a semi-quantitative assay and the result can be influenced by thepresence of certain food and drugs.2 Thus, measurement of 3HB in blood can be used for diagnosis andmonitoring of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).1 Positiveurine ketone readings are found in up to 30% of first morning urine samplesfrom pregnant women (with or without diabetes) during starvation and after hypoglycemia.1Indeed, ketonuria is not uncommon in normal pregnancy.3 After anovernight fast, maternal ketone body concentrations are about threefold greaterin pregnant than in non-pregnant women.4 However, it is unclear ifstarvation ketosis is associated with decr
Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis
Acute Starvation In Pregnancy: A Cause Of Severe Metabolic Acidosis
We report a case of starvation-induced metabolic ketoacidosis in a previously healthy 29-year-old, nulliparous woman at 32 weeks of gestation. She was admitted to hospital with mild preeclampsia associated with persistent nausea and vomiting that progressed to severe preeclampsia requiring urgent control of hypertension before caesarean delivery. Prolonged and severe vomiting limited oral caloric intake and led to starvation ketoacidosis, characterised by ketonuria and a raised anion gap metabolic acidosis that required intensive care support. Despite significant metabolic derangement the patient appeared clinically well. Intravascular volume was replenished. Fluid restriction used as part of our preeclampsia treatment regimen delayed the therapeutic administration of sufficient dextrose, which rapidly corrected her metabolic derangement when commenced after delivery. Electrolyte supplementation was given to prevent re-feeding syndrome. Both mother and baby were discharged without sequelae. Do you want to read the rest of this article? ... Among the 10 reported nondiabetic starvation ketoacidosis cases, only 3 patients experienced reversal of severe a
What is CONGENITAL DISORDER? What does CONGENITAL DISORDER mean? CONGENITAL DISORDER meaning - CONGENITAL DISORDER definition - CONGENITAL DISORDER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. A congenital disorder, also known as a congenital disease, deformity, birth defect, or anomaly, is a condition existing at or before birth regardless of cause. Of these disorders, those characterized by structural deformities are termed "congenital anomalies" and involve defects in a developing fetus. Birth defects vary widely in cause and symptoms. Any substance that causes birth defects is known as a teratogen. Some disorders can be detected before birth through prenatal diagnosis (screening). Birth defects may be the result of genetic or environmental factors. This includes errors of morphogenesis, infection, epigenetic modifications on a parental germline, or a chromosomal abnormality. The outcome of the disorder will depend on complex interactions between the pre-natal deficit and the post-natal environment. Animal studies indicate that the mother's (and likely the father's) diet, vitamin intake, and glucose levels prior to ovulation and conception have long-term effects on fetal growth and adolescent and adult disease. Animal studies have shown that paternal exposures prior to conception and during pregnancy result in increased risk of certain birth defects and cancers. This research suggests that paternal food deprivation, germ line mutations, alcohol use, chemical mutagens, age, smoking habits and epigenetic alterations can affect birth outcomes. However, the relationship between offspring health and paternal exposures, age, and lifestyle are still relatively weak. This is likely because paternal exposures and their effects on the fetus are studied far less extensively than maternal exposures. Birth defects are present in about 3% of newborns in USA. Congenital anomalies resulted in about 632,000 deaths per year in 2013 down from 751,000 in 1990. The type with the greatest numbers of deaths are congenital heart disease (323,000), followed by neural tube defects (69,000).
Life-threatening Ketoacidosis In A Pregnant Woman With Psychotic Disorder
Obesity is an increasingly common problem in pregnancy. It poses a number of challenges for physicians caring for pregnant women. One of the biggest issues is that of increased insulin resistance. This is evidenced by the increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and the number of women requiring oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin during pregnancy. Pregnancy is also a time at which mental health may deteriorate, and psychiatric disorders are an important cause of maternal death in the UK.1 Newer classes of antipsychotics, in particular the ‘atypical’ or second-generation antipsychotics, are increasingly being used. Olanzapine, a commonly used atypical antipsychotic, is known to be associated with significant metabolic disturbances in the non-pregnant population, in particular weight gain and type 2 diabetes mellitus.2,3 Of concern is also the reported association of olanzapine use and unheralded diabetic ketoacidosis, which has been fatal in a number of cases.4 Ketoacidosis is most commonly seen in pregnancy in the setting of diabetes mellitus, but a number of cases of ketoacidosis with euglycaemia have also been reported following short periods of starvati
Summarized from Frise C, Mackillop L, Joash K et al. Starvation ketoacidosis in pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol 2012. Available online ahead of publication at: Arterial blood gas analysis in cases of metabolic acidosis reveals primary decrease in pH and bicarbonate, and secondary (compensatory) reduction in pCO2. The most common cause of metabolic acidosis is increased production of endogenous metabolic acids, either lactic acid, in which case th ...
To the Editor: It is believed that low-carbohydrate diets work best in reducing weight when producing ketosis.1 We report on a 51-year-old white woman who does not have diabetes but had ketoacidosis while consuming a “no-carbohydrate” diet. There was no family history of diabetes, and she was not currently taking any medications. While adhering to a regimen of carbohydrate restriction, she reached a stable weight of 59.1 kg, a decrease from 7 ...
We are pleased to present the winning entry from the March 2017 OAA Cases & Controversies meeting… Harrison J, Churchill S, Stacey M, Collis R Department of Anaesthetics, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff Introduction Acid-Base disturbances in pregnancy can have significant consequences for mother and fetus. Metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap has a number of causes, including lactic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis and toxic ingestion. ...
UPDATE!! (9/20/2017) I have a new post that explains how and why the body produces ketones, It will help you understand much better the difference between burning fat and having a fat-based metabolism, versus being "in ketosis." It's very long, but I think it's worth reading if you'd really like to understand this -- and if you want to stop freaking out about your ketone levels. (If you click over to that post and want to read only the section th ...
If you’re a pregnant woman, probably one of the last things you want to hear is that you have gestational diabetes. Your thoughts might range from, “What did I do to cause this?” to “Will my baby be OK?” First, keep in mind that it’s perfectly normal to feel scared and worried. Second, while gestational diabetes (GDM) is indeed serious, remember that, with proper management, you can have a healthy baby. Once you’re diagnosed If you ...