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Stages Of Keto Adaptation

Keto Adapted Or Adaption On A Ketogenic Diet

Keto Adapted Or Adaption On A Ketogenic Diet

Keto adaption is the initial stage of a Ketogenic Diet; its primary purpose is to turn your bodies metabolism around from using glucose as fuel to using fats through fat oxidization and the production of ketone bodies. The end goal; being keto adapted. Ketone bodies are produced through a process called ketogenesis which happens when your body is depleted of glycogen. What is Ketogenesis Ketogenesis and glucose depletion is achieved by limiting carbohydrate intake, moderating your protein consumption and consuming high amounts of healthy fats. You can work out your ketogenic diet macronutrients with this Keto Calculator. Good nutritional planning is essential in the keto adaption process; you should plan each day’s meals and snacks and make sure that they fit in with your macros. Ensure adequate consumption of electrolytes, vitamins and green cruciferous vegetables to stave off keto flu and other symptoms for which you can read more about here. How to tell if you’re Keto Adapted There are a few telltale signs that you’re in ketosis or keto adapted they are: A rapid loss of weight for which most will be the flushing of water from the water retention that excess carbohydrates are responsible for. Ketone Breath – This is caused from a ketone body called acetone, smells a little like nail polish or sometimes a bit fruity, its easily combated with decent oral hygiene. We recommend some xylitol gum or sugar free mints Initially, you’ll be urinating often, again this is the result of flushing of your system and is a really good thing. Drink plenty of water and ensure you get essential electrolytes such as sodium (salt), chloride, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, and bicarbonate. These are easily supplemented with extra salt, green vegetables, bone broths, an Continue reading >>

What Is Fat Adapted?

What Is Fat Adapted?

Being “in ketosis” and being “fat adapted” are two different things. Being in ketosis simply refers to a state in which your body is producing ketones. Most people can get into ketosis fairly quickly but it takes longer to become fat adapted. Fat adapted, also referred to as keto adapted, is the state in which your body is accustomed to using fat as its primary source of fuel. Our bodies are always using a combination of glucose and fat for energy, but in someone who is a “sugar burner” (using carbs as the primary source of energy), the body will turn to glucose first. Once you’re fat adapted, the body no longer looks for energy from glucose because it now knows it can burn fat. When you first start a keto diet, your body will burn through its glycogen stores (glucose stored in the body). This is what causes the rapid weight loss experienced in the beginning stages of a keto diet: each gram of glycogen is stored with 3 to 4 grams of water, so all of this water gets flushed out of the body as the glycogen stores are used up. But don’t be discouraged if people tell you you’re “just” losing water weight! All of this is necessary for your body to become fat adapted and to start experiencing the benefits that come along with it. It typically takes about 2 to 3 weeks to become fully fat adapted. If you’ve just started a ketogenic diet and you feel like it isn’t working, give it some time. You may notice some signs of fat adaptation fairly quickly, but it may take a while to really experience all of the benefits of your new diet. In the beginning, urine ketone strips can tell you if your body is producing ketones, but these are less effective over time, as your body begins to use ketones more efficiently and excretes less of them. Testing your blood f Continue reading >>

What Is The Keto Flu Or Low Carb Flu And What To Do About It?

What Is The Keto Flu Or Low Carb Flu And What To Do About It?

Keto flu symptoms, mitigation and getting over excess carbohydrates Any major dietary or lifestyle change has the potential to cause discomfort or lets face it, even mess you up for a bit. This is sometimes referred to as a ‘flu’. It’s the most common time during which people will quit their dietary or lifestyle shift as many simply feel they are unable to function without significant carbohydrates and snacking throughout day. Here we’ll discuss the major downside to starting a ketogenic diet or a low carb one, and how to minimize the discomfort often accompanying this adaptation period. Like most people you’ve probably spent 20 – 60 years feeding your body a significant amount of carbohydrates and much of them from poorly chosen overly processed sources. Your cells, organs, central nervous system and brain have all adapted to it through hormonal and metabolic responses normally running in the background. Switching fuel sources, like eating less carbs and more fat, is likely to throw your body and brain for a loop. To be clear, the “keto flu” label is a bit of a misnomer. It’s more akin to carbohydrate withdrawal symptoms resulting from a shifting hormonal states and imbalanced electrolyte adjustments that are along for the ride. Regardless, this buzz term is in the general consciousness now so we might as well keep using it for now. Before diving into the details, keep in mind that the following four books should teach you nearly everything you need to know about low carb and ketogenic diets, including how to handle the keto flu. The rest of the relevant science is dispersed amongst hundreds if not thousands of papers only a search away on PubMed. If you want to ask questions about it or be part of our community please visit Ask BreakNutrition. Sympto Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

Getting Started On Lchf – Part 2: Fat Adaptation

Getting Started On Lchf – Part 2: Fat Adaptation

In Part 1 of this four part series, we talked about how to kick start a LCHF lifestyle; what to eat and what not to eat. See “Getting started on LCHF – Part 1: Clean out day”. In Part 2 we will look at how best to navigate the (sometimes difficult but hopefully brief) fat adaptation phase. Becoming fat adapted, or a fat burning machine as I call it, is necessary to see the full benefits of a low carb high fat whole food diet. What is “fat adapted”? When you have settled into a low carb high fat diet for a while, most people will describe a switch over in the way they access and use carbs and fat as fuel in their body. We call this being “fat adapted” or, more technically correct, becoming “metabolically flexible”. This is the ability to switch in and out of nutritional ketosis depending on whether carbohydrate is available or not. A metabolically flexible individual can be a carb burner OR a fat burner. Many, including me, would describe this as the normal or default physiological state for humans. Mark Sisson wrote a nice post about this a while back. I would say the major benefits are: Burning less carbohydrate and more fat, both at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Less glycolysis means less oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, and less glycated end products. That’s all good and means a better immune system and better health. It also means that fat is more easily burned as the primary fuel source. Missing meals and occasional opportunistic fasting is easy to do. If you miss a meal for whatever reason, or they serve up inedible processed rubbish at a function you’re at, as a fat adapted individual you won’t miss a beat. You will be burning fat as a primary fuel source because insulin is kept lower across the day. The appetite a Continue reading >>

The Keto Adaptation Process

The Keto Adaptation Process

So, what is the keto adaptation process? Minimal consumption of carbohydrate (< 50 grams/day) for an extended period of time results in a phenomenon called keto adaptation. Keto adaptation denotes an altered metabolism in which fat becomes the predominant energy source, consequently, shifting the body from a state of fat storage to fat oxidation (1). The biochemical modifications essential to transition from a “glucocentric” (reliance on glucose for fuel) to an “adipocentric” (reliance on fatty acids and ketone bodies for fuel) metabolism require carbohydrate restriction for several weeks to months (2). Two common approaches to become keto-adapted include sustained consumption of a very low-carbohydrate/high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) or an extended period of fasting. Low Insulin / High Glucagon Surges of glucose enter the bloodstream after consumption and digestion of dietary carbohydrates. To prevent glucose from reaching high/toxic levels in the circulation, the pancreas releases insulin, a hormone that signals tissues to store excess glucose in the form of glycogen or leads to storage of fat in adipose tissue (body fat). On the other hand, restriction of carbohydrate intake results in limited exogenous glucose availability (i.e., dietary glucose) and as a result, blood glucose levels must be maintained endogenously (inside your own body). For example, unlike a mixed diet (moderate to high carbohydrate), a study demonstrated that individuals who adapted to a KD for 12 weeks showed no increase in blood glucose or insulin following a meal (3). Therefore, consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet such as the KD would not raise blood glucose levels directly. During dietary carbohydrate restriction, the pancreas releases another hormone known as glucagon in response t Continue reading >>

Ketosis Vs Keto-adapted

Ketosis Vs Keto-adapted

As you might know already, I started a Facebook group called Ketogenic Success as a positive, success-oriented community of like-minded folks who are on their own keto journey. Well, the group is growing every day (almost 15k members as of right now), which is awesome. Because the group is growing so fast, new folks will frequently ask the same questions. There’s nothing wrong with that. Asking questions is how we all learn and grow. So I wanted to take some time to address one of the most common questions we see in the group: What’s the difference between being in ketosis and being keto-adapted? It’s easy to see why this is such a confusing topic, and it’s not made easier by the common misconceptions (and just plain errors) that seem to abound. First, let’s address the subject of ketosis. Ketosis is a situation where your body is producing ketones. There are three ketone bodies: acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Ketones are produced hepatically (which is a fancy way of saying “by the liver”) as a product of breaking down fatty acids. But there’s a bit of a problem with this simple definition of ketosis. You see, your liver is constantly breaking down fatty acids, and therefore creating ketones, but it would be difficult to say that you’re in ketosis. That’s because the level of ketones isn’t high enough to be considered ketosis. So, having ketones in your body doesn’t necessarily mean you’re in ketosis. Okay. Cool. Cool, cool, cool. But, hey…so…wait a sec. Is there, like, a level of ketones that DOES mean you’re in ketosis? Well…yes. Yes, there is. Dr. Stephen Phinney is the grandmaster of ketogenic research (along with Dr. Jeff Volek), and he’s the person who coined the term “nutritional ketosis.” Before Phi Continue reading >>

Fasting Ketosis Symptoms: Common Side Effects

Fasting Ketosis Symptoms: Common Side Effects

Ketosis is one of the natural, physiological effects of the body when fasting. When we’re eating a ketogenic diet or have gone on an extended period of time without food, our bodies will enter ketosis. This is because the body no longer has glucose available and begins breaking down the body’s fatty tissues for energy. With the ketogenic diet, we’re inducing ketosis by “starving” the body of carbohydrates so that it must turn to fat burning, which has many benefits. Simply fasting by not eating any food can have the same effect. Many people on the ketogenic diet will incorporate fasting to speed up ketosis and also reap the benefits of fasting on keto. Whether you’re eating a ketogenic diet, simply fasting, or combining the two, your body is entering ketosis. Since the symptoms can be similar, this article covers the common fasting ketosis symptoms, as well as how to deal with them. Fasting Ketosis Symptoms It’s important to note that most of these symptoms are temporary as your body is getting adapted to being in ketosis and can be remedied by the tips we cover below. Ketosis Flu If you’re using fasting as a way to get into (or get back into) ketosis, you might experience what’s commonly known as the “keto flu” as the body adapts to fat burning. The keto flu typically includes symptoms like: Water Flushing As your body burns through its glucose and stored glycogen during a fast, a lot of water is released. Your kidneys will also excrete more sodium as insulin drops. This is why people who start low-carb often experience a big initial loss of water weight and reduced bloating. Fatigue With the loss of excess water, the body also flushes out electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and magnesium. This can cause you to feel lightheaded and fatigued more Continue reading >>

Does The Ketogenic Diet Cause Muscle Cramps?

Does The Ketogenic Diet Cause Muscle Cramps?

Short Answer: It certainly can if you don’t have a well-formulated Ketogenic diet. One of the more common complaints I hear from people new to the ketogenic diet is muscle cramps, especially in the legs at night. Just as a personal aside, I got the occasional leg cramp before I went keto but never had one after I started losing weight so it is entirely possible to avoid them. Causes of Muscle Cramps The most common causes of muscle cramps are dehydration and low electrolytes. Guess what you are very prone to in the transition stage of a ketogenic diet. That’s right, dehydration and low electrolytes. When you start weaning yourself off the sugar and grains, your body begins to burn off its sugar stored in the form of glycogen. While a certain amount of that sugar is stored in the liver, the majority is stored in water in the muscles. As the body burns off sugar, it dumps the extra water the glycogen is stored in. This is why it is not uncommon to pee a lot during the early stages of keto adaptation. As that water leaves the body, it takes with it electrolytes like potassium and sodium. This gives you the double-whammy of being low on both water and salts which can result in muscle cramping. How to Fix Muscle Cramps So what do you do? Well it’s a pretty easy fix. Drink more water and eat more salt. I would recommend against the highly processed salt like Morton’s that most of us use and spring for a more natural salt. My personal favorite is Redmond’s Real Salt. If you would like to see more reasons why you should up your salt intake, click here. For more reasons why you should drink more water, click here, The reason why these problems will sometimes happen is people tend to get a hold of the low-carb part of the diet and miss the other components that make for Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Ketosis:

Symptoms Of Ketosis:

If you are considering the ketogenic diet or have already started down this carb-free road, you may wonder what you can expect. Here’s the thing. Ketosis looks different for everyone, but I will share many of the most common symptoms with you today. If something other than what’s listed here is happening to you, just do a quick Google search for that symptom and keto. You should be able to find what you’re looking for! The Early Signs: The early signs of ketosis vary from person to person. The biggest impact on how quickly you notice the symptoms of ketosis will have a lot to do with how you ate before you started the diet. If your diet was very high carb, you might get hit pretty quickly and furiously with what we like to call the “Keto Flu.” This can last anywhere from 3 days to a week or more. Once your body has adapted to burning ketones for energy instead of glucose, you’ll be golden so don’t give up! Here’s what you can expect within the first 2-3 days of starting the Ketogenic Diet: Fatigue & Weakness (lack of concentration) Headaches Metallic taste or sweet taste in your mouth (I experienced this, and it tasted like blood in my mouth) Lightheaded / Dizzy upon standing Heightened Thirst Hunger / Sweet or Carb Cravings Dry Mouth possibly paired with “Keto Breath.” Stomach Discomfort / Mild Nausea / Cramping Trouble Sleeping or Staying Asleep (early waking) Water weight loss (perhaps an excessive loss of weight within the first two weeks) Frequent Urination Allergies or cold like symptoms may flair up For the ladies: Period issues: You may experience a longer, shorter, earlier, later period because of Keto. Seriously it causes all of that. Each woman is different, and I have experienced every one of those issues with my period since starting ket Continue reading >>

Difference Between Keto And Fat Adaptation

Difference Between Keto And Fat Adaptation

What is the difference between Ketosis and Ketoacidosis, Keto adaption and Fat adaption and something I refer to as metabolic flexibility? So let’s start with the difference between Ketosis and Ketoacidosis. Wikipedia says Ketosis is a metabolic state in which most of the body’s energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides most of the energy. Dr Peter Attia of Eating Acedemy says – Ketosis is a state, achieved through significant reduction of carbohydrate intake (typically to less than 50 grams per day), at which point the body makes a fundamental change from relying on glycogen as its main source of energy to relying on fat as the primary source of energy. In particular, the brain shifts from being entirely dependent on glucose, to being primarily dependent on beta-hydroxybutyrate – a so-called “ketone body.” Ketone bodies are chemical structures made by the liver (also somewhat in the kidney) out of fatty acids, primarily. Ketosis is simply the mechanism in which the body begins to burn fat for fuel by producing ketones in the liver rather than glucose. This happens when carbohydrate/glucose is removed from the diet and the body begins to produce ketones, this is ketosis. Ketoacidosis is typically a state that occurs in T1 diabetics and is a combination of high ketones and high BG, although it can happen in other situations including alcoholics. The cause is extremely elevated ketone levels of say 15 mmol or higher and high levels of Blood Glucose. That said there is need for concern should your ketones get above say 10 mmol. Basically what happenes, the body fails to manage or regulate ketone production causing uncontrolled ketosis. It happens when the individuals BG levels are e Continue reading >>

Conclusion: Transitioning From Keto-adaptation To A Fat Burning State

Conclusion: Transitioning From Keto-adaptation To A Fat Burning State

Something additional to consider about the Weight Loss phase because it takes two weeks to go through the majority of ones keto-adaptive transformation to burning fat instead of carbs (sugars) for fuel, those who stick consistently to a low-carb (< 60 gram per day), ketogenic diet will feel consistently well. On the other hand, those who bounce back and forth between carb restriction and carb consumption will struggle more as their bodies repeatedly go through the cycle of fatigue associated with the early stage of keto-adaptation to a low-carb state. One final point on the Maintenance phase maintenance will present a different picture as each individual needs to determine a safe personal level of carbohydrate tolerance; that threshold below which they can sustain their losses and stay lean. For most patients at JumpstartMD, that will still require carbohydrate restriction but typically at a level closer to 100-150 grams per day rather than the 50-60 grams per day they followed in the Weight Loss phase. That said, for those who are more carb sensitive and either gain weight more readily in response to carbohydrates or have health risks (low HDL, high triglycerides, pre-diabetes or diabetes) associated with carbohydrate intake, we would consider greater carbohydrate restriction in the Maintenance phase closer to that 50-60 grams per day. Continue reading >>

Are You Keto-adapted?

Are You Keto-adapted?

Keto-adaptation (also sometimes called "fat-adaptation") is the process the body goes through on a ketogenic diet as it changes from using primarily glucose for energy to using primarily fat for energy. The "keto" part refers to ketones, which are water-soluble molecules that the liver makes when metabolizing fats, particularly when carbohydrate intake is low. Ketones can be used for energy by most tissues in our bodies, including the brain (which cannot use fatty acids directly). Our bodies are always using a mix of fat and glucose for energy, but in a non-keto-adapted state, the body reaches for glucose first, since only low amounts of ketones are normally generated during fat metabolism and these are preferred by other tissues such as the heart. Since the brain cannot use fat, it is dependent on glucose when we are in a non-keto-adapted state. Because of this, when we go on a low-carb diet we can sometimes experience what I call "carb crash" or is sometimes referred to as "the Atkins flu" when our bodies run out of glycogen stores (this is the main way our bodies store glucose). It is when the glycogen stores get low that the body begins the process of keto-adaptation. A Brief History Some of the first rigorous research looking at keto-adaptation was in the 1980s when researcher Dr. Stephen Phinney studied various groups of people on ketogenic diets. One of the studies was of highly trained bicycle racers. At first, the performance of the cyclists declined on the diet, but soon the decline began to reverse, until by the end (4 weeks) they were able to accomplish the same amount of cycling that they had at the beginning, but with noticeably less fatigue. This decline and recovery were dubbed "keto-adaptation". In the years since we have learned that many athletes on k Continue reading >>

A Comprehensive Beginner's Guide

A Comprehensive Beginner's Guide

What is a Keto Diet? A keto diet is well known for being a low carb diet, where the body produces ketones in the liver to be used as energy. It’s referred to as many different names – ketogenic diet, low carb diet, low carb high fat (LCHF), etc. When you eat something high in carbs, your body will produce glucose and insulin. Glucose is the easiest molecule for your body to convert and use as energy so that it will be chosen over any other energy source. Insulin is produced to process the glucose in your bloodstream by taking it around the body. Since the glucose is being used as a primary energy, your fats are not needed and are therefore stored. Typically on a normal, higher carbohydrate diet, the body will use glucose as the main form of energy. By lowering the intake of carbs, the body is induced into a state known as ketosis. Ketosis is a natural process the body initiates to help us survive when food intake is low. During this state, we produce ketones, which are produced from the breakdown of fats in the liver. The end goal of a properly maintained keto diet is to force your body into this metabolic state. We don’t do this through starvation of calories but starvation of carbohydrates. Our bodies are incredibly adaptive to what you put into it – when you overload it with fats and take away carbohydrates, it will begin to burn ketones as the primary energy source. Optimal ketone levels offer many health, weight loss, physical and mental performance benefits. Make keto simple and easy by checking out our 30 Day Meal Plan. Get meal plans, shopping lists, and much more with our Keto Academy Program. Looking for Something Specific? There are numerous benefits that come with being on keto: from weight loss and increased energy levels to therapeutic medical appl Continue reading >>

Clinical Science Metabolic Characteristics Of Keto-adapted Ultra-endurance Runners

Clinical Science Metabolic Characteristics Of Keto-adapted Ultra-endurance Runners

Abstract Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n = 10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat = 59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n = 10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months). Peak fat oxidation was 2.3-fold higher in the LC group (1.54 ± 0.18 vs 0.67 ± 0.14 g/min; P = 0.000) and it occurred at a higher percentage of VO2max (70.3 ± 6.3 vs 54.9 ± 7.8%; P = 0.000). Mean fat oxidation during submaximal exercise was 59% higher in the LC group (1.21 ± 0.02 vs 0.76 ± 0.11 g/min; P = 0.000) corresponding to a greater relative contribution of fat (88 ± 2 vs 56 ± 8%; P = 0.000). Despite these marked differences in fuel use between LC and HC athletes, there were no significant differences in resting muscle glycogen and the level of depletion after 180 min of running (− 64% from pre-exercise) and 120 min of recovery (− 36% from pre-exercise). Compared to highly trained ultra-endurance athletes consuming an HC diet, long-term keto-adaptation results in extraordinarily high rates of fat oxidation, whereas muscle glycogen utilization and repletion patterns during and after a 3 hour run are similar. Fig. 1. Experimental protocol to determine metabolic responses to submaximal exercise. Download high-res image (192KB) Download full-size image Fig. 2. Individual peak fat oxidation rates (A) and the exercise intensity elici Continue reading >>

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