What Everybody Ought To Know About Ketosis
Recently I wanted to explore the world of Ketosis. I thought I knew a little bit about ketosis, but after doing some research I soon realised how wrong I was. 3 months later, after reading numerous books, listening to countless podcasts and experimenting with various diets I know have a sound understanding of ketosis. This resource is built as a reference guide for those looking to explore the fascinating world of ketosis. It is a resource that I wish I had 3 months ago. As you will soon see, a lot of the content below is not mine, instead I have linked to referenced to experts who have a greater understanding of this topic than I ever will. I hope this helps and if there is something that I have missed please leave a comment below so that I can update this. Also, as this is a rather long document, I have split it into various sections. You can click the headline below to be sent straight to the section that interests you. For those that are really time poor I have created a useful ketosis cheat sheet guide. This guide covers all the essential information you should know about ketosis. It can be downloaded HERE. Alternatively, if you're looking for a natural and sustainable way to improve health and lose weight head to this page - What is Ketosis? What Are The Benefits from being in Ketosis? Isn’t Ketosis Dangerous? Ketoacidosis vs Ketosis What Is The Difference Between a Low Carb Diet and a Ketogenic Diet? Types of Ketosis: The Difference Between Nutritional, Therapeutic & MCT Ketogenic Diets Is The Ketogenic Diet Safe? Long Term Effects Thyroid and Ketosis - What You May Want To Know What is a Typical Diet/Macro Breakdown for a Ketogenic Diet? Do I Need to Eat Carbs? What do I Eat On a Ketogenic Diet? What Do I Avoid Eating on a Ketogenic Diet? Protein Consumption a Continue reading >>
Ketogenic Supplements Reviews Fast & Safe Keto Products For Weight Loss
Ketogenic supplements are taking the world by storm and the right product can steady the balance of fats that your body needs to get your body into that state of ketosis. Those of you who have tried this form of weight loss before are probably more than aware of how hard it can be to first get your body to adapt to such a dramatic change in your daily intake of food, let alone without the help of a single exogenous ketone supplement. And the situation isn’t made any easier if you use a poor quality ketosis supplement because the wrong product may actually do you more harm than good. Bad quality ketosis supplements, have proven to lead to side-effects such as constipation and increased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in men and women may also experience amenorrhea or other disruptions to the menstrual cycle. This is why it is really important to know what combination of compounds you are consuming, particularly while you are on this very strict diet, because the wrong balance can really mess with you in the long term. DO YOUR RESEARCH. I can't stress this point enough. This lifestyle change isn't for the faint hearted and you can't just wing it. It's a calculated exercise, which can lead to so many benefits. Check out the rest of this article so you can get up to speed, on how everything works and what powder or pill are actually out there and when you're finished go deeper and read our articles on the science behind this fascinating and our reviews on the best mix of exogenous ketone supplements out there in the market. Because without the knowledge and the right information, you'll never reach your goals and you may as well just keep eating that mash potato for dinner and club sandwich for lunch. Believe me, I stumbled onto this trend before it even blew up a Continue reading >>
Ketone Ester Effects On Metabolism And Transcription
Go to: PRODUCTION OF KETONE BODIES Ketone bodies are formed in the liver from free fatty acids released from adipose tissue. As the blood concentration of free fatty acids increases, concentration of blood ketone bodies is correspondingly increased (1, 2). Ketone bodies serve as a physiological respiratory substrate and are the physiological response to prolonged starvation in man (3, 4), where the blood level of ketones reaches 5–7 mM (5). If the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue exceeds the capacity of tissue to metabolize them, as occurs during insulin deficiency of type I diabetes or less commonly in the insulin resistance of type II diabetes, severe and potentially fatal diabetic ketoacidosis can occur, where blood ketone body levels can reach 20 mM or higher (2) resulting in a decrease in blood bicarbonate to almost 0 mM and blood pH to 6.9. Diabetic ketoacidosis, which is a pathological state, differs from the ketosis of prolonged starvation, which is a normal physiological state without known medical consequences. Elevation of blood ketones can however lead to elevation of blood uric acid, which can produce a gouty crisis. This can be prevented by feeding oral potassium citrate (6) Ketosis occurs during starvation in man. It occurs only with difficulty in species other than lactating cows where ketosis can occur due to the large requirement for lactose production in milk production. This form of ketosis can be treated by the administration of glucose. In this situation, ketosis occurs because of the competition for oxaloacetate, required for gluconeogenesis, where its shortage prevents acetyl-CoA in the liver from entering the Krebs cycle with a resultant increase in ketone body production (1). In vitro, ketone body production has been observed d Continue reading >>
What is ketosis? Ketosis is the physiological state where the concentration of ketone bodies in the blood is higher than normal. This is generally agreed to be at beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations greater than 0.5 mM. How to achieve ketosis? Ketosis occurs either as a result of increased fat oxidation, whilst fasting or following a strict ketosis diet plan (ENDOGENOUS ketosis), or after consuming a ketone supplement (EXOGENOUS ketosis). When in a state of ketosis the body can use ketones to provide a fuel for cellular respiration instead of its usual substrates: carbohydrate, fat or protein. Why does ketosis exist? Normally, the body breaks down carbohydrates, fat, and (sometimes) proteins to provide energy. When carbohydrate is consumed in the diet, some is used immediately to maintain blood glucose levels, and the rest is stored. The hormone that signals to cells to store carbohydrate is insulin. The liver stores carbohydrate as glycogen, this is broken down and released between meals to keep blood glucose levels constant. Muscles also store glycogen, when broken down this provides fuel for exercise. Most cells in the body can switch readily between using carbohydrates and fat as fuel. Fuel used depends on substrate availability, on the energy demands of the cell and other neural and hormonal signals. The brain is different as it is dependent on carbohydrates as a fuel source. This is because fats cannot easily cross the blood-brain barrier. The inability to make use of energy within fat poses a problem during periods where there is limited carbohydrate in the diet. If blood glucose levels fall to low, brain function declines. Relatively little energy is stored as carbohydrate (2,000 kCal) compared to fat (150,000 kCal). The body's store of carbohydrates runs Continue reading >>
In Which Situations Does Rain Occur?
Rain is the most important source water on the earth. There are 5 steps involved in the formation of rain- First is Evapotranspiration-It is basically a process by which water is transferred from the land to the atmosphere by evaporation from soil and other surfaces and by transpiration from plants. This process we get humidity or water vapor in the air. Second step is Upliftment and Cooling- If the water vapor condenses on the surface of earth, we get different phenomenons like fog,dew etc. In order to get rainfall it is necessary that water vapor gets higher in the atmosphere. The uplift meant of water vapor can be achieved by different mechanism like by mountains or by the Cold fronts pushing the warm front above in mid latitude area or the intensive warming of earth surface causes the upliftment in low latitude area. As the vapor gets higher it expands and that expansion is the reason behind the decrease of temperature. Third step is Condensation- the cooling alone can't led to formation of water droplets, we need to add one more ingredient before we could get water droplets and that ingredient is known as hygroscopic nuclei. They are basically microscopic particle like dust particle, salt particles, smoke, soot. The process of condensation starts around them. And after the condensation we get microscopic water droplets These droplets are so small that they remain suspended in the atmosphere. Forth step is Aggregation-This process is the least known process. Due to some less known mechanisms involving vapor pressure and others, the water droplets starts colliding with each other. It takes approximately 8 million of water droplets to form raindrop of 5 mm diameter. Final step is Precipitation-after the innumerable amount of collisions, we get drops that are big enoug Continue reading >>
The Beginners Guide To Ketosis: Investigating Low-carb, High-fat Eating
The only hard and fast rule of health is that health is personal and what works well for one person may not work for someone else. Aside from that rule, there are “frameworks” that seem to benefit large groups of people. One more level down from that are alternative strategies that benefit smaller groups. Ketosis is likely one of those alternative strategies that works well for certain, smaller groups of people. So, right off the bat I want you to understand that Ketosis might not be for everyone. I’m going to lay out the case for potential benefits of Ketosis. If it sounds interesting and beneficial to you, then consider trying it. (see our free cheat sheet to help you). What is Ketosis Ketosis occurs when liver glycogen gets depleted and the body burns fatty acids for fuel. The primary driver of this state is a very low carbohydrate intake. Often, it also requires a low protein, higher fat intake. You can also achieve a state of ketosis by not eating altogether. The creation of ketones is a byproduct of this metabolic state. Ketones are a source of fuel, just as glucose is a source of fuel. Ketones tend to have some added benefits, though. What role does Ketosis play in human health? Ketosis allows our bodies to function in the absence of carbohydrates, both physically and mentally. Instead of burning carbohydrates, or converting protein to glucose, the body burns ketones. This is pretty much a survival mechanism. It allows your body to function in a state of caloric deprivation. This is why ketosis often gets bad press (as it’s linked to “starvation”). Being a survival mechanism doesn’t make it invalid as a strategy, though. There can still be potential benefits to be had. Let’s cover a few of them… Ketosis and Accelerated Fat Loss Being in ketosis Continue reading >>
Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?
Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>
Metabolism And Ketosis
Dr. Eades, If the body tends to resort to gluconeogenesis for glucose during a short-term carbohydrate deficit, are those who inconsistently reduce carb intake only messing things up by not effecting full blown ketosis? If the body will still prefer glucose as main energy source unless forced otherwise for at least a few days, is it absolutely necessary to completely transform metabolism for minimal muscle loss? Also, if alcohol is broken down into ketones and acetaldehyde, technically couldn’t you continue to drink during your diet or would the resulting gluconeogenesis inhibition from alcohol lead to blood glucose problems on top of the ketotic metabolism? Would your liver ever just be overwhelmed by all that action? I’m still in high school so hypothetical, of course haha… Sorry, lots of questions but I’m always so curious. Thank you so much for taking the time to inform the public. You’re my hero! P.S. Random question…what’s the difference between beta and gamma hydroxybutyric acids? It’s crazy how simple orientation can be the difference between a ketone and date rape drug…biochem is so cool! P.P.S. You should definitely post the details of that inner mitochondrial membrane transport. I’m curious how much energy expenditure we’re talkin there.. Keep doin your thing! Your Fan, Trey No, I don’t think people are messing up if they don’t get into full-blown ketosis. For short term low-carb dieting, the body turns to glycogen. Gluconeogenesis kicks in fairly quickly, though, and uses dietary protein – assuming there is plenty – before turning to muscle tissue for glucose substrate. And you have the Cori cycle kicking in and all sorts of things to spare muscle, so I wouldn’t worry about it. And you can continue to drink while low-carbing. Continue reading >>
Fatty Acide Oxidation, Ketosis And Ketoacidosis
Sort Uptake of FA into mitochondria 1. Fatty acyl-CoA synthase fatty acid + ATP + CoA --> fatty acyl-CoA + ADP -location = outer mitochondrial membrane -fatty acyl-CoA cannot cross innner membrane of mito 2. Carnitine Palmitoyl transferase I (CPT I) Fatty acyl-coA + Carnitine --> fatty acyl-carnitine + CoA -fatty acyl-carnitine enters mito matrix through carnitine-fatty-acyl carnitine translocase 3. Carnitine Palmitoyl transferase II (CPT II) fatty acy carniitine + CoA --> fatty acyl-CoA + carnitine -carnitine returns to inter membrane space through carninitine fatty acyl carnitine translocase B-oxidation of FA's -Takes place in mitochondria -each round fatty acyl-CoA's are shortened by 2 Carbons releasing CoA -Oxidizing agents = NAD+ and FAD+ -Energy production = NADH + FADH2 = 25% of energy production, acetyl-CoA = 75% of energy production Reaction = fatty acyl coA + NAD+ + FAD+ --> fatty acyl-CoA + CoA + NADH + FADH2 Reguatlion of fatty acid oxidation 1. Insulin = ihibition, epinephrine = activation 2. Muscle cells = regulate concentration of FA transporters 3. Malonyl CoA = inhibits CPT I, inhibiting FA uptake -Note: liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase I synthesizes malonyl-coA in fed state, in muscle acetyl-CoA carboxylase II synthesizes malonyl-coA in fasting state or where there's high AMP (ATP inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase II) 4. PPAR-a --> increases B-oxidation by influencing transcription of enzymes involved -Note: Fibrates = a drug class that lowers triglyceride levels in blood by activating PPAR-a Diseases of FA oxidation -w/o FA oxidation in fasting state, body uses more glucose for energy production. THis glucose can only come from glycogenolysis b/c gluconeogenesis can only occur w/ the input of energy from FA oxidation. -Result = severe hypoglycemia in period Continue reading >>
Ketoacidosis (dka) Vs Ketosis What’s The Difference?
Although ketosis and ketoacidosis may sound the same, they are two distinct things. We are going to be talking about the difference between ketoacidosis and ketosis and what makes the two diverse from one another. In order to provide a good explanation of what these conditions are and how they affect the body, we must talk about their main common denominator, the ketones. These are organic compounds that the body will provide when it starts to burn stored fat instead of burning glucose or sugar when it requires energy. What is Ketoacidosis? DKA applies to diabetic ketoacidosis and is a complication of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis is a very dangerous condition that makes it difficult for your body to be able to produce a good level of insulin. Your levels of ketones can rise to very dangerous levels, which will also increase your blood sugar. The ketones create a very acidic environment inside your body, and the function of certain organs will be affected severely. It becomes a life-threatening situation when presented with high levels of ketones and excess blood sugar. Anyone not given proper treatment for DKA could end up in a coma and even die. The kidneys and liver are affected more than most other organs, and this can create a very serious health issue. Once a person develops what is known as diabetic ketoacidosis, they will show severe symptoms within as little as 24 hours. When a person has type one diabetes, they are in great danger of developing diabetic ketoacidosis. What is ketosis The best way to explain ketosis is to consider it a very mild form of ketoacidosis, and the truth is that this is not going to be harmful most of the time. In your lifestyle, if you’re on a ketogenic diet nutrition plan or any long-term low-carb diet, you might be experiencing ke Continue reading >>
Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: Understanding The Differences
Introduction to Ketosis vs Ketoacidosis Historically, ketosis has been one of the most vaguely defined and poorly understood concepts of the last century. There are different scenarios in which are body can be in a state of ketosis (including ketoacidosis). The most basic definition of ketosis is a general increase in blood levels of ketone bodies to 0.5 mmol or above. However, the reasons for the development of ketosis, the resultant levels of blood ketones, and the associated outcomes (health versus possible death) differ drastically between different situations of ketosis. Failure to understand the differences between various incidents of ketosis has led to the common misconceptions we have today that ultimately has made educating the masses on the ketogenic diet difficult. The single most important take home from this article should be that diabetic ketoacidosis is not the same as the ketosis experienced from a ketogenic diet. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Whenever I speak about ketogenic dieting, almost inevitably I am asked the question: “But shouldn’t you be worried about going into a state of ketoacidosis?” Ketoacidosis occurs when the formation ketone bodies are uncontrolled (15-25 mmol) and acidity in the blood increases (1). It is important to understand that our body regulates blood acid concentrations tightly. We typically measure blood acidity vs. alkalinity using the pH scale. If your blood’s pH is less than 7 it is acidic, and if greater it is basic, or alkaline. Our blood is usually slightly alkaline with a pH ranging from 7.35 to 7.45. Any deviation up or down from the norm by even the smallest amount can prove fatal! The most common form of ketoacidosis to occur is known as diabetic ketoacidosis. This usually occurs in type I diabetics but can also oc Continue reading >>
The Ketogenic Diet Part Two: Troubleshooting
Since writing about the ketogenic diet, I received a slew of inquiries on the “how-to’s,” and the process of keto-adaptation. I have also received emails from some who are having a hard time breaking into ketosis. There are numerous factors involved in the adaptation process and properly following the diet for success; however, I believe more research is needed to learn why some people become efficient fat burning machines and others struggle to keto-adapt and lose fat. I have learned a lot working with so many weight loss resistant individuals, and will attempt to bring more clarity to some of these difficult questions. Since each of our bodies is different, the diet needs to be fine-tuned to gain the greatest benefits, but there are conditions like perimenopause, hypothyroidism, and neurotoxicity that I have found will keep someone from adapting to an efficient fat burner. The complex topic remains an ongoing subject of interest for me and many of my clients, and following are some common questions I’ve been asked, as well as strategies I developed to help those who struggle to break through into fat burning machines. Some people confuse being in nutritional ketosis (NK) with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is very different. DKA is a serious condition affecting people with diabetes (mostly type 1), and occurs due to a massive shortage of insulin in the body that forces the body to burn fatty acids for energy and gives off a massive amount of the byproduct from the fat burning (ketones > than 10). The lack of insulin also leads to an increased release of glucose by the liver and dangerously high blood sugar levels, and can result in death. Conversely, NK is safe, produces normal levels of blood ketones from fat burning (.5 to 5), and can provide outstanding Continue reading >>
What Are The Situations In Which Earthquake Occurs?
Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake. When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little. They don't just slide smoothly; the rocks catch on each other. The rocks are still pushing against each other, but not moving. After a while, the rocks break because of all the pressure that's built up. When the rocks break, the earthquake occurs. During the earthquake and afterward, the plates or blocks of rock start moving, and they continue to move until they get stuck again. The spot underground where the rock breaks is called the focus of the earthquake. The place right above the focus (on top of the ground) is called the epicenter of the earthquake. Earthquake-like seismic waves can also be caused by explosions underground. These explosions may be set off to break rock while making tunnels for roads, railroads, subways, or mines. These explosions, however, don't cause very strong seismic waves. You may not even feel them. Sometimes seismic waves occur when the roof or walls of a mine collapse. These can sometimes be felt by people near the mine. The largest underground explosions, from tests of nuclear warheads (bombs), can create seismic waves very much like large earthquakes. This fact has been exploited as a means to enforce the global nuclear test ban, because no nuclear warhead can be detonated on earth without producing such seismic waves. Continue reading >>
Ketosis & Acidosis
Ketosis occurs when the fat in your body does not break down completely, producing ketones. It's a condition that can occur when you go on a low-carb diet and glycogen stores in your liver are depleted. When you have too much acid in your system, you can develop acidosis. The acid build-up can take place in your kidneys or lungs for a variety of reasons. The build-up of ketones can cause an imbalance that leads to excessive acid production. Video of the Day Diabetics may be prone to ketosis or acidosis when insulin levels drop below healthy levels or when ketones build up in the body due to uncontrolled insulin levels. Ketones are the byproduct produced when the body relies primarily on fat stores for energy. While short-term ketosis can help you lose weight, ketones that continue to build up in your blood and urine are poisonous and lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, also referred to as diabetic acidosis. The condition is a more common complication of Type 1 diabetes. In addition to low insulin levels, trauma, severe infection, a heart attack or surgery can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic acidosis requires immediate medical attention. As insulin levels drop, your body produces blood sugar by uncontrollably burning fat. Your body turns acidic as glucose begins to appear in your urine. As your body tries to find a balance, your breathing becomes deeper and quicker, leading to a temporary balance as you blow off excess carbon dioxide. Symptoms may start with confusion, thirst, fatigue and increased urination. You may become unconscious. As acidosis progresses, you can smell acetone on your breath. Symptoms usually appear quickly, so you should seek emergency treatment. A high fat and high protein diet that's low in carbohydrates can lead to ketosis. At the same time, Continue reading >>
Ketones And Ketosis
According to Owsley “The Bear” Stanley This is not a dedicated nor complete article, this page is an extract from Owsley’s correspondence with others. See this page for more info. A zero carb diet does NOT cause ketosis. The body rapidly adapts within a few weeks and begins consuming the ketones from fat metabolism. A fully keto-adapted body excretes no ketones in the urine. A metabolic by product, ‘ketone bodies’ are actually a special kind of carb, and they substitute for glucose at the structures which use it. They have the added advantage of making you feel good- and well fed. Ketone metabolism is not a ‘rapid response mechanism’. Full keto-adaptation takes several weeks, and until that has been done, a slowly reducing level of ketones will spill into the urine. Once adapted, the ketones are barely present in the urine, having been used by the body (in place of glucose). You will not show ketones in your urine if there are carbs in your diet, the ketones are reprocessed- into bodyfat. Your body ONLY burns FAT for muscular work, and it burns fat all the time, 24/7. Ketones do not appear in the urine until all carbs are stopped and then the ketones will disappear again in a few weeks as your body begins using them as glucose-replacement rather than converting them, as it does all carbohydrates, into bodyfat (from which they came). BOTH a keto-adapted and carb-eating person will show no ketones in the urine. SOME people have a problem with fat metabolism while insulin is present, and glucose being converted into bodyfat, but not everyone, which is why some (a few) people do not become fat or obese no matter what they eat. Those who have a problem find any effort very hard and may fall asleep until the fat storing process is over. Ketones are a valuable nu Continue reading >>