Saline Infusion Metabolic Acidosis Usmle

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Get the full First Aid program on our website by clicking on the following link This program was created in partnership with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Visit our website: https://www.sikana.tv/en to discover dozens of free, online video programs on a whole range of essential topics: Health, Food, DIY, Micro-Entrepreneurship, Sport, Living Together and many more To help us translate the videos: https://factory.sikana.tv/ Translation - Adam.Mian

Renal (usmle First Aid)

primitive kidney, degenerates after 4 weeks interim kidney in 1st trimester, contributes to male GU system permanent structure, appears 5th week, nephrogenesis continues derived from caudal mesonephric duct, gives rise to ureter, pelvises, calyces, collecting ducts Metanephric mesenchyme/blastema characteristics/function interaction with ureteric bud induces glomerulus-DCT formation effects of aberrant interaction between ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme when is the ureteric bud fully canalized? last to canalize, most common site of obstruction oligohydramnios causes fetal compression, pulmonary hypoplasia Potter sequence (syndrome) clinical presentation low set ears, retrognathia, flat nose, pulmonary hypoplasia, renal failure Potter sequence (syndrome) etiology (risk factors) ARPKD, obstructive uropathy, b/l renal agenesis, chronic placental insufficiency fusion of inferior poles of kidneys during ascention from pelvis, trapped under IMA ureteric bud bifurcationb efore it enters metanephric blastema, creastes bifid ureter VUR, ureteral obstruction, recurrent UTIs posterior ruetthra membrane remnant in males hydronephrosis, dilated/thick walled bladder, bladder outlet obst Continue reading >>

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  1. yogipete

    I've wanted a ketonix for a while but am not going to fork over hundreds of dollars. So I followed some advice and got myself a cheap breathalyzer on ebay. Apparently they don't distinguish between alcohol and acetone.
    Now I can measure easily whether or not I am in ketosis anytime I suspect I may have dropped out. The ketostix stopped working for me a long time ago as my body is very well adapted and I don't excrete a lot of measurable ketones.The breathalyzer is not much good for finding your millimoler value of ketones, but then again, by all accounts neither is a ketonix itself. The breathalyzer cost me $12 and you can get them cheaper. In fact, it's only the cheaper ones that work. You can get these breathalyzers as cheap as a few dollars.
    Here's the one I used below

    That reading above is while fully sober... * I swear * Only trouble is it beeps like crazy when it detects 0.05% or over (the legal alcohol driving limit in australia). I'm sure other models wouldn't beep.

    1 Reply

    Ketone meter
    Breath Meter
    Not seeing many results after ~1-2 month
    Keto Strips - No Ketones!
    Testing ketones

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  2. BillJay

    Thanks @yogipete ! This is both interesting and worrisome at the same time!

    I may get a cheap one myself, but in the meantime I'd love to see if others can replicate your results.

  3. yogipete

    My pleasure.

    I might also add that the reading is consistent regardless of my method of blowing etc... which is a problem that haunts the ketonix. I've done a few baseline tests on my partnerr who always blows 0 (she's currently non-keto) while I generally blow between .04 and .05 (but in any one moment of the day the reading is always identical regardless of my personal clumsiness in using the meter). I'm looking forward to testing some more non-keto friends.

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Handwritten video lecture on Pathogenesis, pathophysiology, signs, symptoms and treatment of Diabetes Insipidus for USMLE Step 1 and USMLE Step 2. Diabetes Insidipus is defined as low ADH which can be due to decrease production of ADH (central) or decrease response to ADH (Nephrogenic) PHYSIOLOGY OF ADH SECRETION High osmolality of the plasma activates osmoreceptors which causes production and release of ADH in hypothalamus. ADH is subsequently stored in posterior pituitary until release. ADH acts on the principal cells of the collecting ducts of the kidney. After entering the cell it activates release of aquaporin in the lumen side of the collecting ducts. This causes reabsorption of water due to high osmolality of the medulla. When the water is reabsorbed ADH leads to increase urine osmolality. CENTRAL DIABETES INSIPIDUS Decrease production of ADH by the Hypothalamus or pituitary leads to central diabetes insipidus. Neurosurgery - pituitary surgery Trauma - leads to Central Diabetes Insipidus leading to three stages, polyuria, SIADH phase and permanent diabetes insipidus Tumor, inparticular langerhan cell histiocytosis can cause diabetes insipidus and congenital syndrome such as

Usmle Step 3 Nephrology

Mechanism of Elevation of BUN in Prerenal Azotemia Low volume status increases ADH. ADH increases urea absorption at the collecting duct. There is a urea transporter that brings urea in. ADH increases the activity of the urea transporter. is entirely based on the underlying cause. Postrenal Azotemia (Obstructive Uropathy) X-tics - will give an elevated BUN-to-creatinine ratio of > 15:1, similar to that seen in prerenal azotemia Intrarenal causes of renal failure result in the following: BUN-to-creatinine ratio closer to 10:1 Best initial test for Allergic interstitial nephritis urinalysis (UA) that shows white cells. However, the UA is not capable of distinguishing between neutrophils and eosinophils. Wright stain or Hansel's stain of the urine that will show eosinophils. This is more sensitive than either the blood eosinophil level or an elevated IgE level. Urinalysis showing dipstick positive for large amounts of blood with no cells seen on the microscopic examination -- K+ level (hyperK+):K+ goes up from any cellular destruction, such as from a tumor lysis, hemolysis, or rhabdomyolysis. -- Ca++ level (hypocalcemia): Damaged muscle binds increased amounts of Ca++. Hyperphosphate Continue reading >>

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  1. cuteblonde

    can the menstrual cycle affect weight loss and ketosis? i've been doing atkins for three and a half weeks now. i lost 7 pounds after the first 2 weeks but during the third week (week of period) i gained 2 pounds back. could this be water retention even though i'm downing tons of water or hormone fluctuation? also, all this time i've been in ketosis with my strips turning dark purple. well the past 2 days (right after starting my period) i've suddenly been knocked out of ketosis. i've only added some macadamia nuts (one serving's worth at 4 carbs) and herbal tea. the tea is celestial seasonings and has 0 carbs, calories, etc. and no caffiene. but i had been consuming these 2 things for a week before suddenly my strips stopped turning purple. monday night they were dark purple and tuesday night they were barely pink. so what's the deal with this? i have never consumed more than 25 carbs on any day. i'm not focusing so much on my weight anymore. instead i like to have evidence that i'm in ketosis by having purple strips. so since they are barely pink all of a sudden does that mean i've suddenly stopped burning fat? i'm not going to stop because i feel better, but it is frustrating.

  2. Skamito

    Okay... first of all, YES! Hormones and menses can and will affect what the scale and probably also what the ketosis testing says. Don't let water retention bum you out. It is not fat gained and will pass. Just keep drinking that water and you should be fine.
    As for the ketosis strips, my best advice (though perhaps hasty) is don't use them. They are infamously unreliable and I don't trust em as far as I can throw em. Here are some things that can affect them:
    -Exposed to air
    -Exposed to steam
    -Dietary fat
    -Water intake
    -Expulsion of ketones through breath, sweat as opposed to urine
    -Just plain defective
    That being said, pink is actually better than dark purple. Purple can mean you are dehydrated. Pink still indicates the presence of ketones, but they are diluted. That's good! Drink that water.
    Are you noticing the other feelings of ketosis? Distinct breath, dimished appetite, etc. are also ways of determing the fat burning state.
    Hope that helps a bit. The tea and macadamia nuts are fine additions and if you're not going above 25g of carbs a day, I assure you that you are in ketosis and will see results.
    I wish you good luck. I'm sure you will do well. :)

  3. cuteblonde

    well that does make me feel a lot better. it's easy to get hung up on one thing like ketone strips, weight, inches, etc. i do feel better and look better so that's what is truly important.

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From: http://qbank.org http://qbank.org/thread-25008.html For correct answer and thousands of free high quality MCQs and videos join our members for free

Usmle Step 2: Electrolytes Part 2 Qbank (6 -> 27) Flashcards - Cram.com

How to treat lithium-induced nephrogenic DI? salt restriction and discontinuation of lithium severe polyuria, mild hypernatremia, urine osmolality may be lower than the elevated serum osmolality chronic compensated respiratory alkalois due to stimulatory effect of progesterone on the medullary respiratory center used to calculated the expected PCO2 during respiratory compensation for a primary metabolic acidosis mixed metabolic and respiratory acidosis lab values -decreased HCO3 to indicate primary metabolic acidosis -inappropriately nl PaCO2 indicates a primary respiratory acidosis (can be proven using Winter's formula -> PaCO2 should be lower than actual PaCO2) primary polydipsia -> nothing wrong with ADH anion gap metabolic acidosis + osmolar gap acidosis calcium oxalate crystals viewed on U/A -> rectangular envelope-shaped crystals serum osmolality (calculated) = 2Na + glucose/18 + BUN/2.8 primary metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation type A: poor oxygen delivery to tissues 2/2 CO poisoning and circulatory failure (shock) quickest way to correct hyperkalemia + other ways calcium gluconate: cardiac membrane stabilization bicarb/beta 2 agonist: drive K into cells In c Continue reading >>

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  1. Santosh Anand

    Insulin plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) enter your cells, thus providing them energy. When your cells don't get the glucose they need for energy, your body begins to burn fat for energy, which produces ketones. Ketones are acidic and so when they build up in the blood, they make the blood more acidic, leading to the condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
    Now, in type-1 diabetes, there is no insulin production whereas in type-2, there is impairment of insulin production. Thus why Type-2 diabetic people hardly get DKA.
    Note: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious condition that might lead to diabetic coma or even death.

  2. Lucas Verhelst

    In order for the cells in your body to access the glucose in your bloodstream so they can use it as energy they need insulin. Insulin acts like a key, opennin the cell door to allow the entry of glucose. Type 1 diabetics produce no insulin and need to inject it, thus the amount of insulin they have is strictly limited. Once they run out of insulin the glucose remains in the blood stream. If this occurs over a long period of time their blood glucose levels will rise due to the release of glucose from the liver. High blood sugar levels causes ketoacidosis which leads to coma and death.

  3. Keith Phillips

    Although type 2 diabetics suffer from insulin resistance, the condition rarely has an absolute negative effect on the bodies ability to convert glucose to usable energy. Type 1 diabetics have little or no ability to produce insulin. With the exception of neural cells, the rest of the body which without insulin is experiencing starvation, will consume its own tissues. (this is how people have endured periods of famine). This process however produces by products that eventually overwhelm the body's ability to process toxins.

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