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Ruminal Acidosis In Goats

Battling Bloat

Battling Bloat

Baking soda isn’t a magical cure-all for goats. Anyone with a hobby goat will invariably be told to feed it baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) at some point. It’s promoted as a cure for everything from bloat to urinary stones. Most of the time, this advice is misplaced. Let’s discuss what the function of baking soda is and what it does and doesn’t do. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a biochemical that buffers the rumen. What this simply means is that it keeps the rumen pH stable. This is important because the microbes that digest hay thrive in a pH of 6.0-6.8 while grain-digesting microbes thrive at a pH of 5.5-6.0 so we need to keep rumen pH within a narrow window for rumen health. Also, pH directly affects the ability to absorb certain nutrients. So, yes, sodium bicarbonate is very beneficial. But what most people don’t realize is that the ruminant animal produces its own sodium bicarbonate in the saliva without being fed baking soda. During the act of cud chewing, copious amounts of bicarbonate are transferred into the rumen. Goats fed long-stem forages (grazing pastures or receiving hay) will produce more saliva (and thus bicarbonate) than goats fed grains or finely ground hay that don’t require cud chewing. Since goats rarely have an issue with rumen pH being too high, we will focus on the issues occuring when it drops too low. This condition is called acidosis. When rumen pH drops, a vicious cycle begins. As the pH drops, the grain-digesting microbes thrive while the fiber-digesting microbes do poorly. One of the by-products of grain digestion is lactic acid. So the more grain these microbes digest, the more acid is produced and the lower pH goes. Eventually, the pH drops so low the microbes die and the rumen stops contracting. Rumen contractions normally Continue reading >>

Acidosis

Acidosis

Acidosis is also known as toxic indigestion. It occurs when a high proportion of concentrate (carbohydrates) is fed in the ration, either acutely or chronically. Signs: Signs may include depression, lack of appetite, bloat, lack of rumination, staggering, diarrhea or lack of manure, muscle twitching, and teeth grinding. Severe rumen acidosis can be accompanied by systemic and often fatal acidosis. Respiratory distress, shock, cardiovascular collapse, coma, seizures and death occur in severe cases. Treatment: Administer 2 to 3 ounces of sodium bicarbonate by mouth, which will help neutralize acid in the rumen. Magnesium hydroxide or magnesium oxide can also be used to neutralize rumen acid. Encourage consumption of long-stemmed grass hay and water. Many animals with acidosis will require IV fluids to survive. Antibiotics will help prevent secondary bacterial overgrowth with undesirable organisms. Thiamin treatment is recommended because polioencephalomalacia is a potential sequela. Anti-inflammatories will help prevent toxicity and founder. Probiotics should be administered to replace the beneficial rumen organisms that have been killed due to low rumen pH. If a goat is showing clinical signs of this disease, a veterinarian should be called to administer proper treatment due to the seriousness of the illness, complicated treatment and number of possible severe complications. Control/Prevention: Control consists of gradual introduction of goats to grain. If goats are being fed a high-concentrate diet, distribute grain over three or more meals per day, at 2 to 3 pounds per meal. Feed whole grains instead of finely-ground grains and dry grain instead of wet. Feed roughage before grain, first thing in the morning. Supplement with bicarbonate of soda or calcium carbonate and Continue reading >>

Nutrition Of Dairy Herds Part 2 - Sub Acute Ruminal Acidosis (sara)

Nutrition Of Dairy Herds Part 2 - Sub Acute Ruminal Acidosis (sara)

Introduction As the milk yields of cattle have increased over recent years, the energy density required to sustain production has also had to increase. Cows are ruminants, and have evolved towards the slow bacterial breakdown of relatively indigestible forages as a means of sustaining themselves. It comes as no surprise that when a palatable, rapidly fermentable feed is introduced to an ill-prepared rumen environment that the delicate balance of the rumen environment may be easily upset. Definition and causes Inadequate chopping or mixing of straw promotes ration sorting, which may precipitate sub-acute ruminal acidosis. SARA is best described as a transient decrease in rumen pH, towards acid away from neutral. It differs from acute acidosis in that the rumen is normally able to 'recover' without outside intervention and is unlikely to bring about immediate critical illness. This does not mean it is a disease without economic consequence; the financial impact of SARA on a herd can be substantial, yet these losses are often insidious and frequently go un-noticed. SARA occurs when organic acids, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and lactic acid, are produced by the rapid breakdown of feeds that overwhelm the natural buffering capacity of the rumen. These acids are normally removed via the finger-like papillae that line the rumen wall, or are neutralised by bicarbonate, which is naturally present in abundance in bovine saliva. The length and absorptive capacity of ruminal papillae increases with exposure to starch / 'concentrate' diets, but they take 4-6 weeks to adapt. This is why increasing the concentrate portion of the diet should always be done slowly, and why SARA is more frequently identified in post-calving transition cows. Consequences of SARA 1. Lowered dry mat Continue reading >>

Sub-acute Rumen Acidosis And Physically Effective Fiber

Sub-acute Rumen Acidosis And Physically Effective Fiber

Understanding physically effective fiber and measuring it accurately can help avoid sub-acute ruminal acidosis and its negative impacts. The dairy cow is an amazing animal because of her ability to achieve high levels of feed intake relative to body size while maintaining the ruminal environment within certain physiological limits. These limits are required to be maintained to provide a favorable symbiotic relationship between the ruminant host and ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant should provide the microorganisms an environment limited in oxygen, neutral to slightly acidic pH, constant temperature, periodic influx of water and digestible organic matter, constant removal or absorption of end products and indigestible matter, and an average retention time greater than microbial generation time. The feeding systems necessary in modern dairy cattle production and behavior of the animal have made it increasingly difficult to provide a ruminal environment that stays within all of these narrow constraints. The enormous energy requirements of high producing cattle require dairy farmers to feed rations of increasing dry matter intakes and levels of concentrate feeds. One of the problems associated with this incorporating higher energy feedstuffs is an increased susceptibility to ruminal acidosis. Ruminal acidosis is a condition where ruminal pH falls below a certain physiological range. There are two distinct types of ruminal acidosis. The first, more severe, condition is referred to as acute ruminal acidosis and it is generally defined as such when ruminal pH drops below 5.0. The second, less severe and more common, condition is referred to as subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), and it is generally defined as a condition when ruminal pH falls in the range of 5.0 to 5.5 for g Continue reading >>

Grain Overload, Acidosis, Or Grain Poisoning In Stock

Grain Overload, Acidosis, Or Grain Poisoning In Stock

What is grain overload? Grain overload (acidosis, grain poisoning) occurs when cattle, sheep or goats eat large amounts of grain. The grain releases carbohydrate into the animal's rumen and this rapidly ferments rather than being digested normally. Bacteria in the rumen produce lactic acid, resulting in acidosis, slowing of the gut, dehydration and often death. What causes grain overload? Wheat and barley are the most common causes of grain overload, but it occasionally occurs with oats and lupins. Crushing or cracking of grain by a hammermill increases the likelihood of grain overload, because these processes result in quicker release of carbohydrates. Cases are often seen when: stock are suddenly grain fed without being gradually introduced to the grain or pellets there is a sudden change in feeding regimen or in the grains being fed stock graze newly harvested paddocks (where there may be spilled grain or unharvested areas) stock get unplanned access to grain or pellets, such as around silos. Which classes of stock are affected? Cattle sheep and goats of any age can be affected if they eat more grain than they can digest normally. Signs of grain overload: depressed appearance lying down diarrhoea dehydration and thirst bloating (of the left side of the abdomen) staggery or tender gait and 'sawhorse' stance deaths. What are the treatments for grain overload? Consult a veterinarian for a treatment plan, as treatment will vary according to the severity of the disease. Treatments include intravenous fluids, drenching with bicarbonate solution or milk of magnesia, intraruminal antibiotic injections, thiamine or steroid injections, and surgery for very valuable animals. Following grain overload, the rumen lining takes up to six weeks to repair, so recovering animals will s Continue reading >>

Ruminal Acidosis In Feedlot: From Aetiology To Prevention

Ruminal Acidosis In Feedlot: From Aetiology To Prevention

The Scientific World Journal Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 702572, 8 pages Department of Animal Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, 27002 Lugo, Spain Academic Editor: Ingo Nolte Copyright © 2014 Joaquín Hernández et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebio Continue reading >>

Grain Overload In Ruminants

Grain Overload In Ruminants

Grain overload is an acute disease of ruminants that is characterized by rumen hypomotility to atony, dehydration, acidemia, diarrhea, depression, incoordination, collapse, and in severe cases, death. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The disease is most common in cattle that accidentally gain access to large quantities of readily digestible carbohydrates, particularly grain. Grain overload also is common in feedlot cattle when they are introduced to heavy grain diets too quickly. Wheat, barley, and corn are the most readily digestible grains; oats are less digestible. Less common causes include engorgement with apples, grapes, bread, batter’s dough, sugar beets, potatoes, mangels, or sour wet brewer’s grain that was incompletely fermented in the brewery. The amount of feed required to produce acute illness depends on the kind of grain, previous experience of the animal with that grain, the nutritional status and condition of the animal, and the nature of the ruminal microflora. Adult cattle accustomed to heavy grain diets may consume 30–45 lb (15–20 kg) of grain and develop only moderate illness, whereas others may become acutely ill and die after eating 20 lb (10 kg) of grain. Ingestion of toxic amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates is followed within 2–6 hr by a change in the microbial population in the rumen. The number of gram-positive bacteria (such as Streptococcus bovis) increases markedly, which results in the production of large quantities of lactic acid. The rumen pH falls to ≤5, which destroys protozoa, cellulolytic organisms, and lactate-utilizing organisms, and impairs rumen motility. The low pH allows the lactobacilli to utilize the carbohydrate and to produce excessive quantities of lactic acid. The superimposition of lactic acid and its salts Continue reading >>

Long-term Effects Of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (sara) On Milk Quality And Hepatic Gene Expression In Lactating Goats Fed A High-concentrate Diet

Long-term Effects Of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (sara) On Milk Quality And Hepatic Gene Expression In Lactating Goats Fed A High-concentrate Diet

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Long-Term Effects of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) on Milk Quality and Hepatic Gene Expression in Lactating Goats Fed a High-Concentrate Diet Affiliation Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation College of Animal Sciences and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation Institute of Small Animal Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Continue reading >>

Induction Of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Affects The Ruminal Microbiome And Epithelium

Induction Of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Affects The Ruminal Microbiome And Epithelium

1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA 2Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada 3Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada 4Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) negatively impacts the dairy industry by decreasing dry matter intake, milk production, profitability, and increasing culling rate and death loss. Six ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated incomplete Latin square design to determine the effects of SARA induction on the ruminal microbiome and epithelium. Experimental periods were 10 days with days 1–3 for ad libitum intake of control diet, followed by 50% feed restriction on day 4, and ad libitum access on day 5 to the basal diet or the basal diet with an additional 10% of a 50:50 wheat/barley pellet. Based on subsequent ruminal pH, cows were grouped (SARA grouping; SG) as Non-SARA or SARA based on time <5.6 pH (0 and 3.4 h, respectively). Ruminal samples were collected on days 1 and 6 of each period prior to feeding and separated into liquid and solid fractions. Microbial DNA was extracted for bacterial analysis using 16S rRNA gene paired-end sequencing on the MiSeq Illumina platform and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ruminal epithelium biopsies were taken on days 1 and 6 before feeding. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine gene expression in rumen epithelium. Bray–Curtis similarity indicated samples within the liquid fraction separated by day and coincided with an increased relative abundance of genera Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus on day 6 (P < 0.06). Although Firmicutes was the predominant phyla in the solid fraction, a Continue reading >>

Sub-acute Ruminal Acidosis (sara) In Dairy Cows

Sub-acute Ruminal Acidosis (sara) In Dairy Cows

414 T. Mutsvangwa - Research Associate/University of Guelph; T. Wright - Acting Dairy Cattle Nutritionist/OMAFRA Table of Contents Introduction Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA), also known as chronic or sub-clinical acidosis, is a well-recognized digestive disorder that is an increasing health problem in most dairy herds. Results from field studies indicate a high prevalence of SARA in high-producing dairy herds as producers respond to the demands for increased milk production with higher grain, lower fibre diets that maximize energy intake during early lactation. Dairy herds experiencing SARA will have a decreased efficiency of milk production, impaired cow health and high rates of involuntary culling. The economic cost associated with SARA can be staggering. It is estimated that SARA costs the North American dairy industry between $500 million and $1 billion (U.S.) annually, with the costs per affected cow estimated at $1.12 (U.S.) per day. The challenge for dairy farmers and dairy nutritionists is to implement feeding management and husbandry practices that prevent or reduce the incidence of SARA, even in high-producing dairy herds where higher levels of concentrate are fed to maximize energy intake. What is SARA? SARA is a disorder of ruminal fermentation that is characterized by extended periods of depressed ruminal pH below 5.5-5.6. Ruminal fluid pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of ruminal contents. A lower pH means higher acidity. For optimum ruminal fermentation and fibre digestion, ruminal pH should lie between 6.0 and 6.4, although, even in healthy cows, ruminal pH will fluctuate below this level for short periods during the day. This drop in ruminal pH is a result of the breakdown of dietary carbohydrates (e.g. starch), particularly from cereal g Continue reading >>

Metabolic Disorders Of Small Ruminants (proceedings)

Metabolic Disorders Of Small Ruminants (proceedings)

123Next Hypocalcemia Multiple physiologic mechanisms act in concert to maintain the concentration of ionized calcium in the extracellular fluid (ECF) within a very tightly-regulated range. Hypocalcemia most commonly occurs when the physiologic demand for calcium for fetal bone growth or milk production exceeds the dietary supply of calcium and overwhelms the homeostatic systems aimed at maintaining adequate ionized calcium in the ECF. While diets limited in calcium are often ingested by ruminants on range pastures during gestation, dams in such populations can often maintain normocalcemia by mobilization of bone mineral. Bone mineral mobilization occurs under conditions of bone exposure to parathyroid hormone (PTH) in conjunction with the active form of vitamin D. Adequate magnesium concentration in the ECF is necessary to enable optimal release of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid gland.1 Adequate dietary levels of vitamin D are necessary for optimal calcium absorption from the gut and maximal calcium mobilization from bone, in conjunction with PTH. Given that the efficiency of bone mineral mobilization appears to decrease with age in other species, older sheep and goats may be more prone to clinical disease. Hypocalcemia may contribute to the development of severe pregnancy toxemia through impairment of endogenous glucose production.2 Pregnant ewes, particularly those with multiple fetuses, have a relatively large fetoplacental mass and smaller udder than do dairy cattle. This phenomenon is the logical basis for the contention that hypocalcemia tends to occur more often in late gestation than at the onset of lactation in sheep.3 The author has intervened in three flock-wide outbreaks of hypocalcemia that occurred during shearing of late-pregnant range ewes. It Continue reading >>

Ruminal Acidosis

Ruminal Acidosis

Goats cannot tolerate dramatic changes in their feed regimen. Unfortunately, too many breeders do not understand this, and goats are dying unnecessarily. I can best describe Ruminal Acidosis by providing an example. Four goats (a buck, two does, and a buckling) were delivered to Onion Creek Ranch in Buda, Texas by a woman who had purchased them but could no longer keep them. She had run out of sacked goat feed, and believing that they would be stressed in a strange place and not likely to eat, she fed them a five-gallon bucket of shelled corn. The four goats arrived on a Sunday morning. On Monday morning, they were all four quite ill with diarrhea and the dehydration which accompanies diarrhea. The nursing doe was immobile on the ground in a sea of messy feces. Unable to stand, she was near death. I sprang into action immediately, giving her Lactated Ringers Solution sub-cutaneously and ReSorb oral drench to try to rehydrate her. To calm her gut (and drop her fever, which was high), Banamine was administered (vet prescription). Whenever fever is present, either infection or inflammation exists, so Naxcel (vet prescription) was also given to the doe. I could have used Primor (vet prescription) in lieu of Naxcel; it is a great "gut" antibiotic. Knowing that IV fluids and feeding were essential, I promptly called my vet. I had done all I could on my own. Her kid was about seven weeks old, so he could eat on his own, and the other two adults were not nearly so ill. "Eve" remained at the veterinary hospital from Monday until Saturday, hooked up to an IV and in Intensive Care. The vet gave "Eve" repeated doses of Magna-Lax to clear her system of the corn. Magna-Lax is the veterinarian equivalent of Milk of Magnesia. Always keep it on hand for Ruminal Acidosis or bloat/overeat Continue reading >>

Ruminal Acidosis And The Rapid Onset Of Ruminal Parakeratosis In A Mature Dairy Cow: A Case Report

Ruminal Acidosis And The Rapid Onset Of Ruminal Parakeratosis In A Mature Dairy Cow: A Case Report

Abstract A mature dairy cow was transitioned from a high forage (100% forage) to a high-grain (79% grain) diet over seven days. Continuous ruminal pH recordings were utilized to diagnose the severity of ruminal acidosis. Additionally, blood and rumen papillae biopsies were collected to describe the structural and functional adaptations of the rumen epithelium. On the final day of the grain challenge, the daily mean ruminal pH was 5.41 ± 0.09 with a minimum of 4.89 and a maximum of 6.31. Ruminal pH was under 5.0 for 130 minutes (2.17 hours) which is characterized as the acute form of ruminal acidosis in cattle. The grain challenge increased blood beta-hydroxybutyrate by 1.8 times and rumen papillae mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase by 1.6 times. Ultrastructural and histological adaptations of the rumen epithelium were imaged by scanning electron and light microscopy. Rumen papillae from the high grain diet displayed extensive sloughing of the stratum corneum and compromised cell adhesion as large gaps were apparent between cells throughout the strata. This case report represents a rare documentation of how the rumen epithelium alters its function and structure during the initial stage of acute acidosis. Background In response to the demands for increased feed conversion, cattle, sheep and goat producers rely on rapidly fermentable (high - grain) diets to maximize energy intake. Ruminants fed high - grain diets are at a greater risk of developing ruminal or metabolic acidosis, which may severely compromise gastrointestinal function, feed conversion, and the health and welfare of the animal. The clinical manifestations of this disease in cattle include depressed feed intake and milk production, laminitis, liver abscesses, diarrhea and exten Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Contents Industry Background Management Nutrition Animal Health Breeding Fibre Production Fibre Marketing Meat Production and Marketing Pasture and Weed Control Economic Analysis Tanning Skins ketosis in goats The diseases pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis can cause severe problems in goats. While the diseases are clinically different and occur during different stages of pregnancy and lactation, the basis of the disorder is essentially the same: a decrease in blood sugar levels and an increase in ketones. In ruminants, glucose is synthesised mainly from propionic acid (a volatile fatty acid produced in the rumen) and from amino acids. The amount of glucose that is absorbed directly depends on how much dietary carbohydrate escapes rumen fermentation and is digested in the small intestine. This form of glucose uptake varies with different feeds as well as their treatment. Ruminants can use products from rumen fermentation, such as volatile fatty acids, for most of their energy requirements. However, the nervous system, kidneys, mammary gland and foetus have a direct requirement for glucose. During periods of peak glucose requirement (late pregnancy and early lactation) problems may arise due to a glucose deficiency. The incidence of pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis varies with the two main types of goats. In dairy goats with a genetic potential for high milk production, ketosis may be a potential problem; in non-milch goats (Angora, Cashmere and meat) pregnancy toxaemia is more common. PREGNANCY TOXAEMIA Main causes The most important cause of pregnancy toxaemia is a decline in the plane of nutrition during the last six to eight weeks of pregnancy. This places the pregnant female in a difficult situation because the developing foetus imposes an unremitting drain on available m Continue reading >>

Ruminal Lactic Acidosis In Sheep And Goats.

Ruminal Lactic Acidosis In Sheep And Goats.

Abstract The clinical findings in 37 sheep and goats with acute ruminal lactic acidosis included a disturbed general condition characterised by anorexia, apathy, teeth grinding and muscle twitching, ruminal stasis, and the excretion of soupy or watery faeces. The ruminal fluid of affected animals was milky, had a sour odour and a low pH. There was a predominance of Gram-positive bacteria in smears of ruminal fluid. In comparison with 10 control animals, the rumen fluid of 23 sheep with ruminal lactic acidosis had higher lactic acid and lower volatile fatty acid concentrations. In addition, the affected animals often had haemoconcentration and metabolic acidosis. Treatment included single or repeated transfer of ruminal fluid from healthy cows and, depending on the severity, the administration of antacids, yeast and chlortetracycline, and the intravenous infusion of isotonic sodium chloride and 5 per cent sodium bicarbonate solutions. Of the 37 treated sheep and goats, four died within 24 hours, and three others were euthanased after one, two and three days because their condition rapidly deteriorated. Thirty animals were discharged one to nine days after treatment. Twenty-nine of them (78.4 per cent) recovered completely but one was euthanased later. Continue reading >>

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