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Ruminal Acidosis In Cattle Ppt

Long-term Effects Of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (sara) On Milk Quality And Hepatic Gene Expression In Lactating Goats Fed A High-concentrate Diet

Long-term Effects Of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (sara) On Milk Quality And Hepatic Gene Expression In Lactating Goats Fed A High-concentrate Diet

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Long-Term Effects of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) on Milk Quality and Hepatic Gene Expression in Lactating Goats Fed a High-Concentrate Diet Affiliation Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation College of Animal Sciences and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Affiliation Institute of Small Animal Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Continue reading >>

Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response Via Nf-b Pathway

Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response Via Nf-b Pathway

Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-B Pathway Sun X.a Yuan X.b Chen L.c Wang T.a Wang Z.a Sun G.b Li X.a Li X.a Liu G.a aKey Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China bCollege of Animal Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia National University, Tongliao, China cHeilongjiang Institute of Veterinary Science, Qiqihar, China Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xian Road, Changchun, 130062, Jilin, (China) Tel. +86 0431 87836160, E-Mail [email protected] / [email protected] Background/Aims: Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. Methods: Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-B inhibitor) cultured in different pH medium (pH 7.2 or 5.5). qRT-PCR, Western-blotting, ELISA and immunocytofluorescence were used to evaluate whether histamine activated the NF-B pathway and inflammatory cytokines. Results: The results showed that histamine significantly increased the activity of IKK and the phosphorylation levels of IB , as well as upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-B p65 in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in neutral (pH=7.2) and acidic (pH=5.5) medium. Furthermore, histamine treatment also signifi Continue reading >>

Sub-acute Ruminal Acidosis (sara) In Dairy Cows

Sub-acute Ruminal Acidosis (sara) In Dairy Cows

414 T. Mutsvangwa - Research Associate/University of Guelph; T. Wright - Acting Dairy Cattle Nutritionist/OMAFRA Table of Contents Introduction Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA), also known as chronic or sub-clinical acidosis, is a well-recognized digestive disorder that is an increasing health problem in most dairy herds. Results from field studies indicate a high prevalence of SARA in high-producing dairy herds as producers respond to the demands for increased milk production with higher grain, lower fibre diets that maximize energy intake during early lactation. Dairy herds experiencing SARA will have a decreased efficiency of milk production, impaired cow health and high rates of involuntary culling. The economic cost associated with SARA can be staggering. It is estimated that SARA costs the North American dairy industry between $500 million and $1 billion (U.S.) annually, with the costs per affected cow estimated at $1.12 (U.S.) per day. The challenge for dairy farmers and dairy nutritionists is to implement feeding management and husbandry practices that prevent or reduce the incidence of SARA, even in high-producing dairy herds where higher levels of concentrate are fed to maximize energy intake. What is SARA? SARA is a disorder of ruminal fermentation that is characterized by extended periods of depressed ruminal pH below 5.5-5.6. Ruminal fluid pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of ruminal contents. A lower pH means higher acidity. For optimum ruminal fermentation and fibre digestion, ruminal pH should lie between 6.0 and 6.4, although, even in healthy cows, ruminal pH will fluctuate below this level for short periods during the day. This drop in ruminal pH is a result of the breakdown of dietary carbohydrates (e.g. starch), particularly from cereal g Continue reading >>

Subacute Ruminal Acidosis

Subacute Ruminal Acidosis

(Chronic ruminal acidosis, Subclinical ruminal acidosis) By Ingrid Lorenz, DMV, DMVH, DECBHM, Lecturer in Bovine Medicine, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin Ruminant animals are adapted to digest and metabolize predominantly forage diets; however, growth rates and milk production are increased substantially when ruminants consume high-grain diets. One consequence of feeding excessive amounts of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates in conjunction with inadequate fiber to ruminants is subacute ruminal acidosis, which is characterized by periods of low ruminal pH that resolve without treatment and is rarely diagnosed. Dairy cows, feedlot cattle, and feedlot sheep are at risk of developing this condition. Ruminal pH fluctuates considerably during a 24hr period (typically between 0.51 pH units) and is determined by the dynamic balance between the intake of fermentable carbohydrates, buffering capacity of the rumen, and rate of acid absorption from the rumen. In general, subacute ruminal acidosis is caused by ingestion of diets high in rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and/or deficient in physically active fiber. Subacute ruminal acidosis is most commonly defined as repeatedly occurring prolonged periods of depression of the ruminal pH to values between 5.6 and 5.2. The low ruminal pH is caused by excessive accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) without persistent lactic acid accumulation and is restored to normal by the animals own physiologic responses. The ability of the rumen to rapidly absorb organic acids contributes greatly to the stability of ruminal pH. It is rarely difficult for peripheral tissues to utilize VFAs already absorbed from the rumen; however, absorption of these VFAs from the rumen can be an importa Continue reading >>

Acidosis In Cattle: A Review.

Acidosis In Cattle: A Review.

Abstract Acute and chronic acidosis, conditions that follow ingestion of excessive amounts of readily fermented carbohydrate, are prominent production problems for ruminants fed diets rich in concentrate. Often occurring during adaptation to concentrate-rich diets in feedyards, chronic acidosis may continue during the feeding period. With acute acidosis, ruminal acidity and osmolality increase markedly as acids and glucose accumulate; these can damage the ruminal and intestinal wall, decrease blood pH, and cause dehydration that proves fatal. Laminitis, polioencephalomalacia, and liver abscesses often accompany acidosis. Even after animals recover from a bout of acidosis, nutrient absorption may be retarded. With chronic acidosis, feed intake typically is reduced but variable, and performance is depressed, probably due to hypertonicity of digesta. Acidosis control measures include feed additives that inhibit microbial strains that produce lactate, that stimulate activity of lactate-using bacteria or starch-engulfing ruminal protozoa, and that reduce meal size. Inoculation with microbial strains capable of preventing glucose or lactate accumulation or metabolizing lactate at a low pH should help prevent acidosis. Feeding higher amounts of dietary roughage, processing grains less thoroughly, and limiting the quantity of feed should reduce the incidence of acidosis, but these practices often depress performance and economic efficiency. Continued research concerning grain processing, dietary cation-anion balance, narrow-spectrum antibiotics, glucose or lactate utilizing microbes, and feeding management (limit or program feeding) should yield new methods for reducing the incidence of acute and chronic acidosis. Continue reading >>

Dairy Cattle Management Ppt

Dairy Cattle Management Ppt

(Youself, 1985) Heat stress happens in animals when there is Dairy Herd Management Cows will come into heat 3 8 weeks after calving and every 21 days after. 2. PowerPoint Presentation Choose one of the following subcategories to view in-depth articles and fact sheets about dairy calf and dairy heifer management. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits dis- Milk and Dairy Beef . Smith, DVM, MS, DABVP (FOOD ANIMAL) University of Pennsylvania non-cooled management systems, Accurate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows is complicated, because the responses of cows to heat stress, The High Plains Dairy Conference does not support one product over another management have received much attention of cows. Ppt. Drug Residue Prevention. University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange Bulletins AgResearch 3-1954 Pasture Management for Dairy Cattle Requires good management practices Dairy Cattle Nutrition and Feeding Page 489 3) (200-kg) dairy calves (4-12 months of age)a,b Common Metabolic Diseases of Cattle: Ketosis, and management of these high-producing cows In dairy cows, Treatment of anovulatory/anoestrus conditions in cattle. 6 89. When starting a dairy farm, consider the following issues: Nutrition and feeding management in dairy cattle Hanoi 2009 Second edition Practical manual for small scale dairy farmers in Vietnam Composed and Published by Distributed by This second edition of the Guide to Good Dairy Farming Practice has been management system. Introduction Applied welfare issues in dairy cattle Management procedures Dehorning Dairy cattle are also Video in PPT; Greeting Cards; Referral; MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN DAIRY COWS 73 The main objective of the Herd Health and Production Management System is to implement an integrative p Continue reading >>

Grain Overload In Ruminants

Grain Overload In Ruminants

(Lactic acidosis, Carbohydrate engorgement, Rumenitis) By Peter D. Constable, BVSc (Hons), MS, PhD, DACVIM, Dean, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois Grain overload is an acute disease of ruminants that is characterized by rumen hypomotility to atony, dehydration, acidemia, diarrhea, depression, incoordination, collapse, and in severe cases, death. The disease is most common in cattle that accidentally gain access to large quantities of readily digestible carbohydrates, particularly grain. Grain overload also is common in feedlot cattle when they are introduced to heavy grain diets too quickly. Wheat, barley, and corn are the most readily digestible grains; oats are less digestible. Less common causes include engorgement with apples, grapes, bread, batters dough, sugar beets, potatoes, mangels, or sour wet brewers grain that was incompletely fermented in the brewery. The amount of feed required to produce acute illness depends on the kind of grain, previous experience of the animal with that grain, the nutritional status and condition of the animal, and the nature of the ruminal microflora. Adult cattle accustomed to heavy grain diets may consume 3045 lb (1520 kg) of grain and develop only moderate illness, whereas others may become acutely ill and die after eating 20 lb (10 kg) of grain. Ingestion of toxic amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates is followed within 26 hr by a change in the microbial population in the rumen. The number of gram-positive bacteria (such as Streptococcus bovis) increases markedly, which results in the production of large quantities of lactic acid. The rumen pH falls to 5, which destroys protozoa, cellulolytic organisms, and lactate-utilizing organisms, and impairs rumen motility. The low pH allows the lactobacilli to Continue reading >>

Rumen Acidosis - The Cattle Site

Rumen Acidosis - The Cattle Site

Managing disease can be a frustrating proposition. This Guide can help you identify which disease is damaging your cattle. Rumen acidosis is a metabolic disease of cattle. Like most metabolic diseases it is important to remember that for every cow that shows clinical signs, there will be several more which are affected sub-clinically. Acidosis is said to occur when the pH of the rumen falls to less than 5.5 (normal is 6.5 to 7.0). In many cases the pH can fall even lower. The fall in pH has two effects. Firstly, the rumen stops moving, becoming atonic. This depresses appetite and production. Secondly, the change in acidity changes the rumen flora, with acid-producing bacteria taking over. They produce more acid, making the acidosis worse. The increased acid is then absorbed through the rumen wall, causing metabolic acidosis, which in severe cases can lead to shock and death. The primary cause of acidosis is feeding a high level of rapidly digestible carbohydrate, such as barley and other cereals. Acute acidosis, often resulting in death, is most commonly seen in ‘barley beef’ animals where cattle have obtained access to excess feed. In dairy cattle, a milder form, sub-acute acidosis, is seen as a result of feeding increased concentrates compared to forage. Acute acidosis often results in death, although illness and liver abscesses may be seen before hand. Cattle may become depressed, go off feed, have an elevated heart rate or diarrhea. Because subacute ruminal acidosis is not detected at the time of depressed ruminal pH, there is no specific treatment for it. Secondary conditions may be treated as needed. The key to prevention is reducing the amount of readily fermentable carbohydrate consumed at each meal. This requires both good diet formulation (proper balance Continue reading >>

New Developments In Understanding Ruminal Acidosis In Dairy Cows

New Developments In Understanding Ruminal Acidosis In Dairy Cows

Summary Maximizing milk production without incurring ruminal acidosis is a challenge for most dairy producers. Feeding a highly fermentable diet provides energy precursors needed for high milk production, but the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) increases. Ruminal acidosis is characterized by periodic episodes of suboptimal rumen pH, which depresses fiber digestion and possibly milk production. Preventing SARA requires careful management of rumen fermentation. Key strategies that help reduce the risk of acidosis are adaptation of the rumen environment to changes in diet composition, formulation of diets with slow rate of ruminal carbohydrate digestion, and increased intake of physically effective fiber. New research developments are improving our understanding of the factors that put cows at risk of developing SARA and how this risk can be managed. Please check this link first if you are interested in organic or specialty dairy production. Introduction There is increasing concern about the prevalence of SARA in dairy cows, and several excellent reviews have been published (e.g., Krause and Oetzel, 2006; Enemark, 2008). Subacute ruminal acidosis is an increasing problem for the dairy industry, even in well-managed, high-yielding dairy herds. The reality is that some occurrence of SARA is inevitable in most high-producing dairy cows, given their high level of dry matter intake (DMI) and the high proportion of grain included in lactation diets. It is crucial to develop an understanding of the factors that put cows at risk of developing SARA and how feeding and management practices can help minimize this risk. Defining Ruminal Acidosis Ruminal acidosis in cattle can be defined as acute or subacute. During acute ruminal acidosis, the pH in the rumen drastically drops Continue reading >>

Acute And Subacute Ruminal Acidosis

Acute And Subacute Ruminal Acidosis

“Acidosis is the most important nutritional problem that feedlots face daily and is a major challenge for dairies as well.” Both the dairy and feedlot industries have continued to move to the use of more grains in their feeding programs. Relatively cheap grains have provided an excellent and economical energy source. But this has also resulted in an increasing problem with acidosis. It can appear in a variety of situations and with different clinical signs. “... grains are subject to microbial fermentation in the rumino-reticulum part of the stomach complex. ... The microbial fermentation of starches contained in grains can proceed too rapidly causing the rumen to become acidotic. The severity of the acidosis may range from mild to life threatening.” “Acidosis is not one disease, but rather a continuum of degrees of acidosis.” Some of the problems that have been associated with acidosis include: founder polioencephalomalacia (PEM) ruminitis hoof problems (laminitis, sole ulcers, sole abscess, etc.) poor immune function sudden death syndrome reduced feed intake reduced absorption liver abscesses grain bloat clostridial infections transient diarrhea (light colored with sweet/sour odor) high un-explained death loss (or cull rates) milk fat depression and poor milk production lameness moderate rumen distention, doughy content and weak contractions lung hemorrhages 1,2,3 Acidosis is difficult to measure in cattle and subacute acidosis is an even more insidious problem and more difficult to diagnose. It may not be possible to eliminate all acidosis and still maintain economic production, but it must at least be managed and controlled. Acute acidosis occurs with rapid grain overload and may result in the death of the animal, severe illness, liver abscesses, etc. If Continue reading >>

Ruminal Acidosis In Beef Cattle: The Current Microbiological And Nutritional Outlook1,2

Ruminal Acidosis In Beef Cattle: The Current Microbiological And Nutritional Outlook1,2

Abstract Ruminal acidosis continues to be a common ruminal digestive disorder in beef cattle and can lead to marked reductions in cattle performance. Ruminal acidosis or increased accumulation of organic acids in the rumen reflects imbalance between microbial production, microbial utilization, and ruminal absorption of organic acids. The severity of acidosis, generally related to the amount, frequency, and duration of grain feeding, varies from acute acidosis due to lactic acid accumulation, to subacute acidosis due to accumulation of volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Ruminal microbial changes associated with acidosis are reflective of increased availability of fermentable substrates and subsequent accumulation of organic acids. Microbial changes in the rumen associated with acute acidosis have been well documented. Microbial changes in subacute acidosis resemble those observed during adaptation to grain feeding and have not been well documented. The decrease in ciliated protozoal population is a common feature of both forms of acidosis and may be a good microbial indicator of an acidotic rumen. Other microbial factors, such as endotoxin and histamine, are thought to contribute to the systemic effects of acidosis. Various models have been developed to assess the effects of variation in feed intake, dietary roughage amount and source, dietary grain amount and processing, step-up regimen, dietary addition of fibrous byproducts, and feed additives. Models have been developed to study effects of management considerations on acidosis in cattle previously adapted to grain-based diets. Although these models have provided useful information related to ruminal acidosis, many are inadequate for detecting responses to treatment due to inadequate replication, low feed intakes by t Continue reading >>

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