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Respiratory Acidosis Levels

Acid Base Disorders

Acid Base Disorders

Arterial blood gas analysis is used to determine the adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation, assess respiratory function and determine the acid–base balance. These data provide information regarding potential primary and compensatory processes that affect the body’s acid–base buffering system. Interpret the ABGs in a stepwise manner: Determine the adequacy of oxygenation (PaO2) Normal range: 80–100 mmHg (10.6–13.3 kPa) Determine pH status Normal pH range: 7.35–7.45 (H+ 35–45 nmol/L) pH <7.35: Acidosis is an abnormal process that increases the serum hydrogen ion concentration, lowers the pH and results in acidaemia. pH >7.45: Alkalosis is an abnormal process that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration and results in alkalaemia. Determine the respiratory component (PaCO2) Primary respiratory acidosis (hypoventilation) if pH <7.35 and HCO3– normal. Normal range: PaCO2 35–45 mmHg (4.7–6.0 kPa) PaCO2 >45 mmHg (> 6.0 kPa): Respiratory compensation for metabolic alkalosis if pH >7.45 and HCO3– (increased). PaCO2 <35 mmHg (4.7 kPa): Primary respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation) if pH >7.45 and HCO3– normal. Respiratory compensation for metabolic acidosis if pH <7.35 and HCO3– (decreased). Determine the metabolic component (HCO3–) Normal HCO3– range 22–26 mmol/L HCO3 <22 mmol/L: Primary metabolic acidosis if pH <7.35. Renal compensation for respiratory alkalosis if pH >7.45. HCO3 >26 mmol/L: Primary metabolic alkalosis if pH >7.45. Renal compensation for respiratory acidosis if pH <7.35. Additional definitions Osmolar Gap Use: Screening test for detecting abnormal low MW solutes (e.g. ethanol, methanol & ethylene glycol [Reference]) An elevated osmolar gap (>10) provides indirect evidence for the presence of an abnormal solute which is prese Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

What is respiratory acidosis? Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when the lungs can’t remove enough of the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity. This balance is measured on a pH scale from 0 to 14. Acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood falls below 7.35 (normal blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45). Respiratory acidosis is typically caused by an underlying disease or condition. This is also called respiratory failure or ventilatory failure. Normally, the lungs take in oxygen and exhale CO2. Oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. CO2 passes from the blood into the lungs. However, sometimes the lungs can’t remove enough CO2. This may be due to a decrease in respiratory rate or decrease in air movement due to an underlying condition such as: There are two forms of respiratory acidosis: acute and chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs quickly. It’s a medical emergency. Left untreated, symptoms will get progressively worse. It can become life-threatening. Chronic respiratory acidosis develops over time. It doesn’t cause symptoms. Instead, the body adapts to the increased acidity. For example, the kidneys produce more bicarbonate to help maintain balance. Chronic respiratory acidosis may not cause symptoms. Developing another illness may cause chronic respiratory acidosis to worsen and become acute respiratory acidosis. Initial signs of acute respiratory acidosis include: headache anxiety blurred vision restlessness confusion Without treatment, other symptoms may occur. These include: sleepiness or fatigue lethargy delirium or confusion shortness of breath coma The chronic form of Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is a medical emergency in which decreased ventilation (hypoventilation) increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and decreases the blood's pH (a condition generally called acidosis). Carbon dioxide is produced continuously as the body's cells respire, and this CO2 will accumulate rapidly if the lungs do not adequately expel it through alveolar ventilation. Alveolar hypoventilation thus leads to an increased PaCO2 (a condition called hypercapnia). The increase in PaCO2 in turn decreases the HCO3−/PaCO2 ratio and decreases pH. Terminology[edit] Acidosis refers to disorders that lower cell/tissue pH to < 7.35. Acidemia refers to an arterial pH < 7.36.[1] Types of respiratory acidosis[edit] Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range (over 6.3 kPa or 45 mm Hg) with an accompanying acidemia (pH <7.36). In chronic respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range, with a normal blood pH (7.35 to 7.45) or near-normal pH secondary to renal compensation and an elevated serum bicarbonate (HCO3− >30 mm Hg). Causes[edit] Acute[edit] Acute respiratory acidosis occurs when an abrupt failure of ventilation occurs. This failure in ventilation may be caused by depression of the central respiratory center by cerebral disease or drugs, inability to ventilate adequately due to neuromuscular disease (e.g., myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, muscular dystrophy), or airway obstruction related to asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. Chronic[edit] Chronic respiratory acidosis may be secondary to many disorders, including COPD. Hypoventilation Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

(Video) Overview of Acid-Base Maps and Compensatory Mechanisms By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincents Ascension Health, Birmingham Respiratory acidosis is primary increase in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2) with or without compensatory increase in bicarbonate (HCO3); pH is usually low but may be near normal. Cause is a decrease in respiratory rate and/or volume (hypoventilation), typically due to CNS, pulmonary, or iatrogenic conditions. Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic; the chronic form is asymptomatic, but the acute, or worsening, form causes headache, confusion, and drowsiness. Signs include tremor, myoclonic jerks, and asterixis. Diagnosis is clinical and with ABG and serum electrolyte measurements. The cause is treated; oxygen (O2) and mechanical ventilation are often required. Respiratory acidosis is carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation (hypercapnia) due to a decrease in respiratory rate and/or respiratory volume (hypoventilation). Causes of hypoventilation (discussed under Ventilatory Failure ) include Conditions that impair CNS respiratory drive Conditions that impair neuromuscular transmission and other conditions that cause muscular weakness Obstructive, restrictive, and parenchymal pulmonary disorders Hypoxia typically accompanies hypoventilation. Distinction is based on the degree of metabolic compensation; carbon dioxide is initially buffered inefficiently, but over 3 to 5 days the kidneys increase bicarbonate reabsorption significantly. Symptoms and signs depend on the rate and degree of Pco2 increase. CO2 rapidly diffuses across the blood-brain barrier. Symptoms and signs are a result of high CO2 concentrations and low pH in the CNS and any accompanying hypoxemia. Acute (or acutely wor Continue reading >>

4.5 Respiratory Acidosis - Compensation

4.5 Respiratory Acidosis - Compensation

Acid-Base Physiology 4.5.1 The compensatory response is a rise in the bicarbonate level This rise has an immediate component (due to a resetting of the physicochemical equilibrium point) which raises the bicarbonate slightly. Next is a slower component where a further rise in plasma bicarbonate due to enhanced renal retention of bicarbonate. The additional effect on plasma bicarbonate of the renal retention is what converts an "acute" respiratory acidsosis into a "chronic" respiratory acidosis. As can be seen by inspection of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (below), an increased [HCO3-] will counteract the effect (on the pH) of an increased pCO2 because it returns the value of the [HCO3]/0.03 pCO2 ratio towards normal. pH = pKa + log([HCO3]/0.03 pCO2) 4.5.2 Buffering in Acute Respiratory Acidosis The compensatory response to an acute respiratory acidosis is limited to buffering. By the law of mass action, the increased arterial pCO2 causes a shift to the right in the following reaction: CO2 + H2O <-> H2CO3 <-> H+ + HCO3- In the blood, this reaction occurs rapidly inside red blood cells because of the presence of carbonic anhydrase. The hydrogen ion produced is buffered by intracellular proteins and by phosphates. Consequently, in the red cell, the buffering is mostly by haemoglobin. This buffering by removal of hydrogen ion, pulls the reaction to the right resulting in an increased bicarbonate production. The bicarbonate exchanges for chloride ion across the erythrocyte membrane and the plasma bicarbonate level rises. In an acute acidosis, there is insufficient time for the kidneys to respond to the increased arterial pCO2 so this is the only cause of the increased plasma bicarbonate in this early phase. The increase in bicarbonate only partially returns the extracel Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is an abnormal clinical process that causes the arterial Pco2 to increase to greater than 40 mm Hg. Increased CO2 concentration in the blood may be secondary to increased CO2 production or decreased ventilation. Larry R. Engelking, in Textbook of Veterinary Physiological Chemistry (Third Edition) , 2015 Respiratory acidosis can arise from a break in any one of these links. For example, it can be caused from depression of the respiratory center through drugs or metabolic disease, or from limitations in chest wall expansion due to neuromuscular disorders or trauma (Table 90-1). It can also arise from pulmonary disease, card iog en ic pu lmon a ryedema, a spira tion of a foreign body or vomitus, pneumothorax and pleural space disease, or through mechanical hypoventilation. Unless there is a superimposed or secondary metabolic acidosis, the plasma anion gap will usually be normal in respiratory acidosis. Kamel S. Kamel MD, FRCPC, Mitchell L. Halperin MD, FRCPC, in Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Physiology (Fifth Edition) , 2017 Respiratory acidosis is characterized by an increased arterial blood PCO2 and H+ ion concentration. The major cause of respiratory acidosis is alveolar hypoventilation. The expected physiologic response is an increased . The increase in concentration of bicarbonate ions (HCO3) in plasma ( ) is tiny in patients with acute respiratory acidosis, but is much larger in patients with chronic respiratory acidosis. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation and is characterized by a low arterial blood PCO2 and H+ ion concentration. The expected physiologic response is a decrease in . As in respiratory acidosis, this response is modest in patients with acute respiratory alkalosis and much larger in patients with chronic respir Continue reading >>

26.5 Disorders Of Acid-base Balance Anatomy And Physiology

26.5 Disorders Of Acid-base Balance Anatomy And Physiology

Glycolic acid, and some oxalic and formic acids* The first three of the eight causes of metabolic acidosis listed are medical (or unusual physiological) conditions. Strenuous exercise can cause temporary metabolic acidosis due to the production of lactic acid. The last five causes result from the ingestion of specific substances. The active form of aspirin is its metabolite, sulfasalicylic acid. An overdose of aspirin causes acidosis due to the acidity of this metabolite. Metabolic acidosis can also result from uremia, which is the retention of urea and uric acid. Metabolic acidosis can also arise from diabetic ketoacidosis, wherein an excess of ketones is present in the blood. Other causes of metabolic acidosis are a decrease in the excretion of hydrogen ions, which inhibits the conservation of bicarbonate ions, and excessive loss of bicarbonate ions through the gastrointestinal tract due to diarrhea. Metabolic Alkalosis: Primary Bicarbonate Excess Metabolic alkalosis is the opposite of metabolic acidosis. It occurs when the blood is too alkaline (pH above 7.45) due to too much bicarbonate (called primary bicarbonate excess). A transient excess of bicarbonate in the blood can follow ingestion of excessive amounts of bicarbonate, citrate, or antacids for conditions such as stomach acid refluxknown as heartburn. Cushings disease, which is the chronic hypersecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) by the anterior pituitary gland, can cause chronic metabolic alkalosis. The oversecretion of ACTH results in elevated aldosterone levels and an increased loss of potassium by urinary excretion. Other causes of metabolic alkalosis include the loss of hydrochloric acid from the stomach through vomiting, potassium depletion due to the use of diuretics for hypertension, and Continue reading >>

Acid-base Disorders In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review

Acid-base Disorders In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review

Acid-Base Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review Department of Internal Medicine and Systemic Diseases, University of Catania, 95100 Catania, Italy Received 29 September 2011; Accepted 26 October 2011 Copyright 2012 Cosimo Marcello Bruno and Maria Valenti. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The authors describe the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to development of acidosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its deleterious effects on outcome and mortality rate. Renal compensatory adjustments consequent to acidosis are also described in detail with emphasis on differences between acute and chronic respiratory acidosis. Mixed acid-base disturbances due to comorbidity and side effects of some drugs in these patients are also examined, and practical considerations for a correct diagnosis are provided. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem. Its prevalence varies according to country, age, and sex. On the basis of epidemiologic data, the projection for 2020 indicates that COPD will be the third leading cause of death worldwide and the fifth leading cause of disability [ 1 ]. About 15% of COPD patients need admission to general hospital or intensive respiratory care unit for acute exacerbation, leading to greater use of medical resources and increased costs [ 2 5 ]. Even though the overall prognosis of COPD patients is lately improved, the mortality rate remains high, and, among others, acid-base disorders occurring in these subjects can affect the outcome. The aim of this pa Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the lung tissue (such as pulmonary fibrosis, which causes scarring and thickening of the lungs) Diseases of the chest (such as scoliosis) Diseases affecting the nerves and muscles that signal the lungs to inflate or deflate Drugs that suppress breathing (including powerful pain medicines, such as narcotics, and "downers," such as benzodiazepines), often when combined with alcohol Severe obesity, which restricts how much the lungs can expand Obstructive sleep apnea Chronic respiratory acidosis occurs over a long time. This leads to a stable situation, because the kidneys increase body chemicals, such as bicarbonate, that help restore the body's acid-base balance. Acute respiratory acidosis is a condition in which carbon dioxide builds up very quickly, before the kidneys can return the body to a state of balance. Some people with chronic respiratory acidosis get acute respiratory acidosis because an illness makes their condition worse. Continue reading >>

Overview Of Acid-base And Electrolyte Disorders

Overview Of Acid-base And Electrolyte Disorders

Overview of acid-base and electrolyte disorders Disorders of blood chemistry may be caused by dietary factors, underlying medical conditions, and medical treatments. Resulting imbalances include acidosis (pH <7.35), alkalosis (pH >7.45), and high or low levels of key electrolyte ions, including sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), chloride (Cl), hydrogen phosphate (HPO4), and hydrogen carbonate (HCO3). They may be acute or chronic, may occur with varying degrees of severity, and may not be sufficiently counteracted by the body's regulatory/compensatory mechanisms. Electrolyte balance is normally regulated by the hypothalamus, kidneys, and various hormones, including antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid hormone), and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Acid-base balance is linked to fluid and electrolyte balance, and is normally controlled and maintained by immediate buffer systems via the kidneys and the pulmonary system. [1] Berend K, de Vries AP, Gans RO. Physiological approach to assessment of acid-base disturbances. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1434-1445. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are accompanied by compensatory renal bicarbonate retention and loss, respectively; metabolic acidosis and alkalosis are accompanied by compensatory hyperventilation and hypoventilation, respectively. Mixed metabolic disorders can occur (e.g., diabetic ketoacidosis complicated by vomiting), and evaluation depends on clinical history and examination, assessment of anion gap, serum electrolytes, and arterial blood gases. These disorders can be effectively evaluated by a stepwise pathophysiologic approach. [1] Berend K, de Vries AP, Gans RO. Physiological approach to assessment of acid-base disturbances. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1434-1445. [2] Seifter JL. Continue reading >>

Using Abgs To Optimize Mechanical Ventilation

Using Abgs To Optimize Mechanical Ventilation

Using ABGs to optimize mechanical ventilation June 2013, Volume 43 Number 6 , p 46 - 52 This article has an associated Continuing Education component. AN ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS (ABG) analysis can tell you about the patient's oxygenation (via PaO2 and SaO2), acid-base balance, pulmonary function (through the PaCO2), and metabolic status. This article focuses on translating ABG information into clinical benefits, with three case studies that focus on using ABGs to manage mechanical ventilation. Endotracheal (ET) intubation and mechanical ventilation may be prescribed for patients who can't maintain adequate oxygenation or ventilation or who need airway protection. The goal of mechanical ventilation is to improve oxygenation and ventilation and to rest fatigued respiratory muscles. Mechanical ventilation is supportive therapy because it doesn't treat the causes of the illness and associated complications. However, ventilator support buys time for other therapeutic interventions to work and lets the body reestablish homeostasis. When using this lifesaving intervention, clinicians should take steps to avoid or minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), which will be discussed in detail later. Patients should be weaned from ventilatory support if their condition permits. A critically ill patient's clinical status can change rapidly and dramatically, and the need for ventilatory support in terms of oxygenation or minute ventilation can vary at different stages of the illness. ABG analysis is an indispensable diagnostic tool for monitoring the patient's condition and evaluating the response to interventions. By reviewing the patient's ABGs and clinical status, clinicians can adjust ventilator settings to improve oxygenation, ventilation, and acid-base balance, or wean the pat Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is an acid-base balance disturbance due to alveolar hypoventilation. Production of carbon dioxide occurs rapidly and failure of ventilation promptly increases the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). [ 1 ] The normal reference range for PaCO2 is 35-45 mm Hg. Alveolar hypoventilation leads to an increased PaCO2 (ie, hypercapnia). The increase in PaCO2, in turn, decreases the bicarbonate (HCO3)/PaCO2 ratio, thereby decreasing the pH. Hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis ensue when impairment in ventilation occurs and the removal of carbon dioxide by the respiratory system is less than the production of carbon dioxide in the tissues. Lung diseases that cause abnormalities in alveolar gas exchange do not typically result in alveolar hypoventilation. Often these diseases stimulate ventilation and hypocapnia due to reflex receptors and hypoxia. Hypercapnia typically occurs late in the disease process with severe pulmonary disease or when respiratory muscles fatigue. (See also Pediatric Respiratory Acidosis , Metabolic Acidosis , and Pediatric Metabolic Acidosis .) Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range (ie, >45 mm Hg) with an accompanying acidemia (ie, pH < 7.35). In chronic respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range, with a normal or near-normal pH secondary to renal compensation and an elevated serum bicarbonate levels (ie, >30 mEq/L). Acute respiratory acidosis is present when an abrupt failure of ventilation occurs. This failure in ventilation may result from depression of the central respiratory center by one or another of the following: Central nervous system disease or drug-induced r Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis Nclex Review Notes

Respiratory Acidosis Nclex Review Notes

Are you studying respiratory acidosis and need to know a mnemonic on how to remember the causes? This article will give you a clever mnemonic and simplify the signs and symptoms and nursing interventions on how to remember respiratory acidosis for nursing lecture exams and NCLEX. In addition, you will learn how to differentiate respiratory acidosis from respiratory alkalosis. Don’t forget to take the respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis quiz. This article will cover: Sequence of normal breathing Patho of respiratory acidosis Causes of respiratory acidosis Signs and symptoms of respiratory acidosis Nursing interventions for respiratory acidosis Lecture on Respiratory Acidosis Respiratory Acidosis What’s involved:…let’s look at normal breathing: Oxygen enters through the mouth or nose down through the Pharynx into the Larynx (the throat) then into the Trachea and the Bronchus (right and left) which branches into the bronchioles and ends in alveoli sac *The alveolar sacs are where gas exchange takes place (oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the membrane). The oxygen enters into your blood stream and CARBON DIOXIDE CO2 is exhaled through your nose or mouth. The diaphragm also plays a role in allowing lungs into inflate and deflate. Note: if there is any problem with the patient breathing rate (too slow), alveolar sacs (damaged), or diaphragm (weak) the patient can experience respiratory acidosis. *Main cause of respiratory acidosis is bradypnea (slow respiratory rate <12 bpm which causes CO2 to build-up in the lungs) When this happens the following lab values are affected: Blood pH decreases (<7.35) Carbon dioxide levels increase (>45) **To compensate for this the Kidneys start to conserve bicarbonate (HCO3) to hopefully increase the blood’s pH bac Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment

Respiratory Acidosis: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment

Respiratory acidosis develops when air exhaled out of the lungs does not adequately exchange the carbon dioxide formed in the body for the inhaled oxygen in air. There are many conditions or situations that may lead to this. One of the conditions that can reduce the ability to adequately exhale carbon dioxide (CO2) is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD. CO2 that is not exhaled can shift the normal balance of acids and bases in the body toward acidic. The CO2 mixes with water in the body to form carbonic acid. With chronic respiratory acidosis, the body partially makes up for the retained CO2 and maintains acid-base balance near normal. The body's main response is an increase in excretion of carbonic acid and retention of bicarbonate base in the kidneys. Medical treatment for chronic respiratory acidosis is mainly treatment of the underlying illness which has hindered breathing. Treatment may also be applied to improve breathing directly. Respiratory acidosis can also be acute rather than chronic, developing suddenly from respiratory failure. Emergency medical treatment is required for acute respiratory acidosis to: Regain healthful respiration Restore acid-base balance Treat the causes of the respiratory failure Here are some key points about respiratory acidosis. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Respiratory acidosis develops when decreased breathing fails to get rid of CO2 formed in the body adequately The pH of blood, as a measure of acid-base balance, is maintained near normal in chronic respiratory acidosis by compensating responses in the body mainly in the kidney Acute respiratory acidosis requires emergency treatment Tipping acid-base balance to acidosis When acid levels in the body are in balance with the base levels in t Continue reading >>

Blood Gas Analysis--insight Into The Acid-base Status Of The Patient

Blood Gas Analysis--insight Into The Acid-base Status Of The Patient

Acid-Base Physiology Buffers H+ A- HCO3- CO2 Buffers H+ A- CO2 Cells Blood Kidney Lungs Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Status in Critical Illness Blood Gas Analysis--Insight into the Acid-Base status of the Patient The blood gas consists of pH-negative log of the Hydrogen ion concentration: -log[H+]. (also, pH=pK+log [HCO3]/ 0.03 x pCO2). The pH is always a product of two components, respiratory and metabolic, and the metabolic component is judged, calculated, or computed by allowing for the effect of the pCO2, ie, any change in the pH unexplained by the pCO2 indicates a metabolic abnormality. CO +H 0ºº H CO ººHCO + H2 2 2 3 3 - + CO2 and water form carbonic acid or H2CO3, which is in equilibrium with bicarbonate (HCO3-)and hydrogen ions (H+). A change in the concentration of the reactants on either side of the equation affects the subsequent direction of the reaction. For example, an increase in CO2 will result in increased carbonic acid formation (H2CO3) which leads to an increase in both HCO3- and H+ (\pH). Normally, at pH 7.4, a ratio of one part carbonic acid to twenty parts bicarbonate is present in the extracellular fluid [HCO3-/H2CO3]=20. A change in the ratio will affect the pH of the fluid. If both components change (ie, with chronic compensation), the pH may be normal, but the other components will not. pCO -partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Hypoventilation or hyperventilation (ie, minute2 ventilation--tidal volume x respitatory rate--imperfectly matched to physiologic demands) will lead to elevation or depression, respectively, in the pCO2. V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) mismatch does not usually lead to abnormalities in PCO2 because of the linear nature of the CO2 elimination curve (ie, good lung units can make up for bad lung units). Diffus Continue reading >>

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