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Respiratory Acidosis Formula

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Acid Base Evaluation

Use the measured total CO2 from venous blood as HCO3 anion gap is an artifact because some anions are not measured gap is mainly due to unmeasured proteins, phosphates and sulfates Normal anion gap is 8-12 meq/L (Varies from Lab to Lab) useful in identifying mixed acidbase disorders in single acidbase disorder the difference between anion gap and the change in total CO2 should be negligible in other words change in total CO2 (Normal total CO2-observed total CO2) should be equal to anion gap. Excess bicarbonate gap suggests metabolic alkalosis Decrease in the gap suggests metabolic acidosis Respiratory compensation for Metabolic acid basedisturbance You can use the following crude formula 0.1 change in pH 10 mm change of PaCO2. If all else is well the PaCO2 should be the same as decimal values of pH i.e. for a pH of 7.28, the CO2 levels would be 28 mm Hg. Acidosis increases respiratory drive, alveolar ventilation and gets rid of Carbonic acid. Respiratory system can never completely compensate for a metabolic defect. Respiratory compensation attempts to maintain pH in a reasonable range. It is unusual to see CO2 retention (I don't agree with Books and others) Compensation is never Continue reading >>

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  1. keto_does_it_4_me

    hey guys! Ok, I've been almost a year on this boat, and so far, so good, keto makes me happy (check out my flair).
    The reminder: I got kidney stones over the week-end. ouch. They say it's the worst pain a human can endure, on par with some/most births. I love you more mom!
    I have never been a heavy water drinker, all my life. I raised it a bit on keto, but not enough. I would reach 2 liters (64 oz) about half the days, 25% between 1 and 2 liters, 25% less than a liter. Not good, I know. Results: 3-4 stones of 2-4 mm diameter. So, following an ambulance ride and a leg paralysis, the docs took care of this, let's be thankful, learn form it and move on.
    I also recently discovered I was low on electrolytes, as I was feeling very weak when doing high intensity exercise. I discovered (on /r/keto, of course) that adding a bit of potassium salt (no salt "salt") and sodium (regular table salt), would bring back my stamina, and it did!
    I did some more reaserch around here and found those to be interesting: ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5
    And as per Lyle McDonald:
    Sodium: 3-5 grams in addition to the sodium which occurs in food
    Potassium: 1 gram in addition to the 1-1.5 grams of potassium which occur in food
    Magnesium: 300 mg "The Ketogenic Diet", page 79.
    And as per /u/yaterspen:
    With healthy kidneys, a daily potassium supplement of up to 1500mg to 3000mg is probably safe, but may irritate your GI lining. Try subdividing it into smaller doses (500mg has been suggested) spread throughout the day taken after food and with a lot of water to reduce irritation. Make sure you're getting enough magnesium, which helps your body absorb potassium.
    In those references, we also learn that excess sodium increases calcium excretion, which is conducive to stones. As well, we learn that potassium and sodium metabolisms are linked, as well as potassium and magnesium. And that drinking a lot of water flushes electrolytes, prevents stones formation, and that eating alkaline food dissolves calcium stones.
    I'll make sure to follow those recommendations...
    tl;dr 1-Don't drink enough, risk of kidney stones. 2- Wow, the human body is really a fine tuned machine!
    And finally, any of you care to share your experience with balancing your electrolytes? Thanks in advance!
    edit: kind reminder from /u/darthluiggi: RTFM ( FAQ)

  2. oryantge

    *Goes to get a huge glass of water...

  3. Shootermcgv

    Yep... Kidney stones are one of my biggest fears I think most guys can relate when you think about it.

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Respiratory acidosis #sign and symptoms of Respiratory acidosis Respiratory acidosis ABGs Analyse https://youtu.be/L5MWy1iHacI Plz share n subscribe my chanel is a condition that occurs when the lungs cant remove enough of the Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity. This balance is measured on a pH scale from 0 to 14. Acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood falls below 7.35 (normal blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45).Rinku Chaudhary NSG officer AMU ALIGARH https://www.facebook.com/rinkutch/ Respiratory acidosis is typically caused by an underlying disease or condition. This is also called respiratory failure or ventilatory failure. Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 Normally, the lungs take in oxygen and exhale CO2. Oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. CO2 passes from the blood into the lungs. However, sometimes the lungs cant remove enough CO2. This may be due to a decrease in respiratory rate or decrease in air movement due to an underlying condition such as: asth

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is an acid-base balance disturbance due to alveolar hypoventilation. Production of carbon dioxide occurs rapidly and failure of ventilation promptly increases the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). [ 1 ] The normal reference range for PaCO2 is 35-45 mm Hg. Alveolar hypoventilation leads to an increased PaCO2 (ie, hypercapnia). The increase in PaCO2, in turn, decreases the bicarbonate (HCO3)/PaCO2 ratio, thereby decreasing the pH. Hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis ensue when impairment in ventilation occurs and the removal of carbon dioxide by the respiratory system is less than the production of carbon dioxide in the tissues. Lung diseases that cause abnormalities in alveolar gas exchange do not typically result in alveolar hypoventilation. Often these diseases stimulate ventilation and hypocapnia due to reflex receptors and hypoxia. Hypercapnia typically occurs late in the disease process with severe pulmonary disease or when respiratory muscles fatigue. (See also Pediatric Respiratory Acidosis , Metabolic Acidosis , and Pediatric Metabolic Acidosis .) Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 Continue reading >>

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  1. Phoenix/Rising

    How do I gain maximum muscle on keto?

    I know that keto is usually considered a fat loss diet, but the fact is that I just plain feel better following a keto diet. Seems like carbs (even low GI ones) really upset my digestive system. Not to be overly graphic, but honestly, it just gives me gas and the runs haha!
    So I've decided that I want to add muscle mass and strength, but I want to stay on a (mostly) ketogenic diet because I just feel better with it. I've heard about three approaches to this:
    - Targeted Ketogenic Diet
    - Cyclical Ketongenic Diet
    - Timed Carbohydrate Diet
    I've heard "TCD" is kind of like "TKD" on "steroids" (some other thread I can't find now) but I have no idea how to work with it. I do understand that in general I need to have carbohydrates before my lifting workout and after, but I'm not sure how to calculate how many, especially given the fact that I'll need an *excess* of calories to spur muscle growth. Not only that, but with that much protein (aiming at about ~250g/day), I'm concerned I'll be knocked out of ketosis.
    So, a few questions:
    - TKD vs. CKD - which leads to better muscle gains?
    - Is TCD realistic, how do you execute it properly (links that I may have missed appreciated) and will I gain as much or more than TKD or CKD on it?
    - Can a properly executed ketogenic mass building diet put on as much muscle as a "standard" bodybuilding diet?
    Now, one more twist.
    I also practice Krav Maga (martial art) twice a week. It's a very intense workout that gets my heart rate way up there for about an hour. Using a heart rate monitor, I once found that my average calorie burn in one of these classes is about 800-1200 calories (no I'm not kidding). My concern is that any gains I'll be making while lifting would be negated by too aerobically an intense workout. Should I just "carb up" prior to these classes (perhaps with some fruit?) and a little after to prevent muscle loss?
    Final question: since my gut doesn't get along so well with bread, pasta, potatoes, etc., (and I hate sweet potatoes, they make me gag, sorry!), is there a good supplement you can recommend instead?
    Thanks in advance

  2. Ozeren44

    I had to look up the "Timed Carb Dieting", but I believe I get the idea.
    You basically stay really low in carbs just like a SKD would under 25g a day with one exception. After a workout, you pound in that 60-100g of carbs to refuel your supply of glycogen. Theoretically, with that high of a spike in carbs, insulin will spike and will funnel all those carbs to the muscles. After the carbs, take your protein right after just like a normal PWO shake. Again, with insulin spiked, all that protein will be funneled to the muscles to repair and aid in recovery.
    There is very little difference between the TKD and TCD. The only difference is that TKD approach actually puts around 30-50g carbs about 30 minutes before the workout. This is because when you are on a keto diet your muscle glycogen is naturally lower than say a normal diet at its base rate. Normal diet is around 100-110 mmol. Ketogenic diets keep you at around 70 mmol. TKD basically gives you just enough glycogen to workout and then consume a protein shake after for recovery.
    Either way may work, but it will take some testing to see how your body reacts. Test it and tell us how it goes on either. Take not of how to feel prior to the workout and how you feel about 1 hour after the workout.
    You can try for more liquid carbs for upset stomach problems. Many have reported that it does not upset their stomach nearly as much. Use primarily dextrose or some other really fast carb. For those really intense workouts I would definitely ingest a little carb as it is an extended high intensity workout.
    Only thing you can do is test it out to see how your body reacts to it.

  3. andymant

    Hi Pheonix
    My advise is as follows:
    Both CKD and TKD will result in muscle gains if executed correctly. If your weekly calories and the same on either of these diets then you will have the same gains. However, it has been mooted on these forums that CKD can result in more weight being put on and by that i need more fat as well as muscle. I believe it is because its harder to monitor that TKD so easier to go overboard on a carb up period. On Reddit there is a guy called Darthluigi who has been bulking on TKD for several years and he is huge and around 6% BF, I believe that TKD will give more steadier/leaner gains IMO
    I believe that a TCD diet will result is more weight gain but a large proportion of that will be fat as well. I would stick to TKD
    Yes any diet will add muscle mass as long as your protein is right, just make sure you eat at a surplus. If you want to minimalise fat gains eat 200-300 cals above maintenance, if you arent worried about fat gain just eat everything in site ;-)
    If you burn that many calories in a session then just eat 800-1200 calories more, i wouldnt carb up for that just eat more keto food to compensate and take your 50g of TKD carbs pre-workout that day rather than splitting it. I would avoid fruit as this will not go to your muscles, it will go to your liver and replenish glycogen there
    Finally in terms of carbs i would use pure Dextrose, you can get this from most health stores or online, i would take 15-25g pre work out with some protein and the same after on weight days and all pre on your Krav Maga days
    Good luck

    Originally Posted by Phoenix/Rising
    I know that keto is usually considered a fat loss diet, but the fact is that I just plain feel better following a keto diet. Seems like carbs (even low GI ones) really upset my digestive system. Not to be overly graphic, but honestly, it just gives me gas and the runs haha!
    So I've decided that I want to add muscle mass and strength, but I want to stay on a (mostly) ketogenic diet because I just feel better with it. I've heard about three approaches to this:
    - Targeted Ketogenic Diet
    - Cyclical Ketongenic Diet
    - Timed Carbohydrate Diet
    I've heard "TCD" is kind of like "TKD" on "steroids" (some other thread I can't find now) but I have no idea how to work with it. I do understand that in general I need to have carbohydrates before my lifting workout and after, but I'm not sure how to calculate how many, especially given the fact that I'll need an *excess* of calories to spur muscle growth. Not only that, but with that much protein (aiming at about ~250g/day), I'm concerned I'll be knocked out of ketosis.
    So, a few questions:
    - TKD vs. CKD - which leads to better muscle gains?
    - Is TCD realistic, how do you execute it properly (links that I may have missed appreciated) and will I gain as much or more than TKD or CKD on it?
    - Can a properly executed ketogenic mass building diet put on as much muscle as a "standard" bodybuilding diet?
    Now, one more twist.
    I also practice Krav Maga (martial art) twice a week. It's a very intense workout that gets my heart rate way up there for about an hour. Using a heart rate monitor, I once found that my average calorie burn in one of these classes is about 800-1200 calories (no I'm not kidding). My concern is that any gains I'll be making while lifting would be negated by too aerobically an intense workout. Should I just "carb up" prior to these classes (perhaps with some fruit?) and a little after to prevent muscle loss?
    Final question: since my gut doesn't get along so well with bread, pasta, potatoes, etc., (and I hate sweet potatoes, they make me gag, sorry!), is there a good supplement you can recommend instead?
    Thanks in advance

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A short hand-drawn tutorial to explain the basic mechanisms behind simple respiratory acidosis/alkalosis, and the compensatory mechanisms that can be used to correct them

Rules For Respiratory Acid-base Disorders

Rule 1 : The 1 for 10 Rule for Acute Respiratory Acidosis * For every 10 mmHg increase in pCO2 (above 40 mmHg) Comment:The increase in CO2 shifts the equilibrium between CO2 and HCO3 to result in an acute increase in HCO3. This is a simple physicochemical event and occurs almost immediately. Example: A patient with an acute respiratory acidosis (pCO2 60mmHg) has an actual [HCO3] of 31mmol/l. The expected [HCO3] for this acute elevation of pCO2 is 24 + 2 = 26mmol/l. The actual measured value is higher than this indicating that a metabolic alkalosis must also be present. Rule 2 : The 4 for 10 Rule for Chronic Respiratory Acidosis The [HCO3] will increase by 4 mmol/l for every 10 mmHg elevation in pCO2 above 40mmHg. Expected [HCO3] = 24 + 4 { (Actual pCO2 - 40) / 10} Comment: With chronic acidosis, the kidneys respond by retaining HCO3, that is, renal compensation occurs. This takes a few days to reach its maximal value. Example: A patient with a chronic respiratory acidosis (pCO2 60mmHg) has an actual [HCO3] of 31mmol/l. The expected [HCO3] for this chronic elevation of pCO2 is 24 + 8 = 32mmol/l. The actual measured value is extremely close to this so renal compensation is maximal a Continue reading >>

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  1. AMZMD

    The human body is in a constant process of maintaining equilibrium. The byproducts of burning fat for energy (ketones) are deposited in the blood for excretion. As the ketones build up in your system, the pH of your blood drops and you become acidotic. As stated above, your body is trying to maintain equilibrium, so it will do certain things to eliminate as much acid from your system as possible, as quickly as possible. One way is to vomit, which dumps huge amounts of H+ instantly. Other reactions are increased respirations to eliminate CO2, as well as dumping the ketones and H+ out through your urine.
    As a side note, the dumping of H+ through urine causes the retention of potassium and you become hyperkalemic (aka "too-much-potassium-emia"). This inhibits myocardial function and can put you into cardiac arrest. This is why extreme no-carb diets are a very bad thing!
    Hope that helps!

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