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Respiratory Acidosis Compensation Formula

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Acid-base Disorders

Content currently under development Acid-base disorders are a group of conditions characterized by changes in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) or bicarbonate (HCO3-), which lead to changes in the arterial blood pH. These conditions can be categorized as acidoses or alkaloses and have a respiratory or metabolic origin, depending on the cause of the imbalance. Diagnosis is made by arterial blood gas (ABG) interpretation. In the setting of metabolic acidosis, calculation of the anion gap is an important resource to narrow down the possible causes and reach a precise diagnosis. Treatment is based on identifying the underlying cause. Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. puppydfh

    ketosis sore throat

    I've had this awful sore throat all of last week and still today. It never occurred to me to be ketosis related until I started really thinking about it and looked it up.
    I start out in the morning sorta fine and by late afternoon to early evening it gets so bad like I'm swallowing Razer blades. I've been taking Advil and it takes the edge off but never find completely.
    Is this really really really a side effect of ketosis and how on earth could it be? My throat also dries up making me cough my head off and at times my throat feels like it is going to close up and is quite scary.
    I'm drinking allot of water but not going to the bathroom much more then normal. Seriously the pain is bad I was going to go to my clinic Monday.
    So any feedback on this would be greatly appreciated and when will it go away ? I had the taste of metal in my mouth today btw and I have filings so thought one was leaking and a few days ago my hubby said I had an awful odor on my breath that he never smelled before but of course didn't say anything till now when he was reading all these side effects. I still don't get any change on ketostix for all this other stuff.

  2. Patdart

    Keto breath is frequently reported. Don't know anything about the throat, so maybe see a doctor about it.

  3. Aaron1963

    I'm usually quite sensitive to getting a sore throat if I catch a cold or such. I've been feeling a very minor sore throat for the past 5 days now, though being it's so minor compared to normally being much worse if I'm sick, I haven't really worried about it. Along with it, when I first wake up, my mouth/throat is very dry. I haven't had the issue before, at least not regularly. It's at that point when I wake up with the dry throat/mouth that I can smell the ketones on my breath. I take a few gulps of my saliva out of habit to clear the dryness, and with that it's usually enough to eliminate the strong ketone smell until I have my breakfast, after which I never notice the smell at all. Hadn't really thought about my dry mouth / sore throat being related to ketosis, except this morning I did think that my dry mouth was making the ketones on my breath more noticeable. But having ketones in my throat/mouth I guess would make some sense for why I'm getting this effect, being it's likely just some simple chemical reaction. Certainly not annoying enough in my case though to do anything about it, other than I've also been drinking more water than normal, and as you, not needing to urinate any more than usual because of it. I have no cough related to it at all.

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Respiratory acidosis #sign and symptoms of Respiratory acidosis Respiratory acidosis ABGs Analyse https://youtu.be/L5MWy1iHacI Plz share n subscribe my chanel is a condition that occurs when the lungs cant remove enough of the Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity. This balance is measured on a pH scale from 0 to 14. Acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood falls below 7.35 (normal blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45).Rinku Chaudhary NSG officer AMU ALIGARH https://www.facebook.com/rinkutch/ Respiratory acidosis is typically caused by an underlying disease or condition. This is also called respiratory failure or ventilatory failure. Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 Normally, the lungs take in oxygen and exhale CO2. Oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. CO2 passes from the blood into the lungs. However, sometimes the lungs cant remove enough CO2. This may be due to a decrease in respiratory rate or decrease in air movement due to an underlying condition such as: asthma COPD pneumonia sleep apnea TYPES Forms of respiratory acidosis There are two forms of respiratory acidosis: acute and chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs quickly. Its a medical emergency. Left untreated, symptoms will get progressively worse. It can become life-threatening. Chronic respiratory acidosis develops over time. It doesnt cause symptoms. Instead, the body adapts to the increased acidity. For example, the kidneys produce more bicarbonate to help maintain balance. Chronic respiratory acidosis may not cause symptoms. Developing another illness may cause chronic respiratory acidosis to worsen and become acute respiratory acidosis. SYMPTOMS Symptoms of respiratory acidosis Initial signs of acute respiratory acidosis include: headache anxiety blurred vision restlessness confusion Without treatment, other symptoms may occur. These include: https://www.healthline.com/health/res... sleepiness or fatigue lethargy delirium or confusion shortness of breath coma The chronic form of respiratory acidosis doesnt typically cause any noticeable symptoms. Signs are subtle and nonspecific and may include: memory loss sleep disturbances personality changes CAUSES Common causes of respiratory acidosis The lungs and the kidneys are the major organs that help regulate your bloods pH. The lungs remove acid by exhaling CO2, and the kidneys excrete acids through the urine. The kidneys also regulate your bloods concentration of bicarbonate (a base). Respiratory acidosis is usually caused by a lung disease or condition that affects normal breathing or impairs the lungs ability to remove CO2. Some common causes of the chronic form are: asthma chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) acute pulmonary edema severe obesity (which can interfere with expansion of the lungs) neuromuscular disorders (such as multiple sclerosis or muscular dystrophy) scoliosis Some common causes of the acute form are: lung disorders (COPD, emphysema, asthma, pneumonia) conditions that affect the rate of breathing muscle weakness that affects breathing or taking a deep breath obstructed airways (due to choking or other causes) sedative overdose cardiac arrest DIAGNOSIS How is respiratory acidosis diagnosed? The goal of diagnostic tests for respiratory acidosis is to look for any pH imbalance, to determine the severity of the imbalance, and to determine the condition causing the imbalance. Several tools can help doctors diagnose respiratory acidosis. Blood gas measurement Blood gas is a series of tests used to measure oxygen and CO2 in the blood. A healthcare provider will take a sample of blood from your artery. High levels of CO2 can indicate acidosis.

Rules For Respiratory Acid-base Disorders

Rule 1 : The 1 for 10 Rule for Acute Respiratory Acidosis * For every 10 mmHg increase in pCO2 (above 40 mmHg) Comment:The increase in CO2 shifts the equilibrium between CO2 and HCO3 to result in an acute increase in HCO3. This is a simple physicochemical event and occurs almost immediately. Example: A patient with an acute respiratory acidosis (pCO2 60mmHg) has an actual [HCO3] of 31mmol/l. The expected [HCO3] for this acute elevation of pCO2 is 24 + 2 = 26mmol/l. The actual measured value is higher than this indicating that a metabolic alkalosis must also be present. Rule 2 : The 4 for 10 Rule for Chronic Respiratory Acidosis The [HCO3] will increase by 4 mmol/l for every 10 mmHg elevation in pCO2 above 40mmHg. Expected [HCO3] = 24 + 4 { (Actual pCO2 - 40) / 10} Comment: With chronic acidosis, the kidneys respond by retaining HCO3, that is, renal compensation occurs. This takes a few days to reach its maximal value. Example: A patient with a chronic respiratory acidosis (pCO2 60mmHg) has an actual [HCO3] of 31mmol/l. The expected [HCO3] for this chronic elevation of pCO2 is 24 + 8 = 32mmol/l. The actual measured value is extremely close to this so renal compensation is maximal a Continue reading >>

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  1. joyfulloser

    This is an excerpt from a Personal Trainer on why weekly cheat meals help break plateaus and keep our metabolic engine revving.
    When you are dieting and in a submaintenance level for a prolonged time your metabolism, thyroid production, and leptin levels down regulate and this is usually when weight stalls or there is performace issues during training. The first thing people do on plateaus is reduce calories which actually makes things worse and causes your body to start storing fat to survive and you damage your metabolic rate as well. So when you cheat (calorie spike) it up-regulates your leptin horomone , which controls thyroid, test levels and GH. This basically jacks everything up and your body starts burning fuel more efficiently again.
    The thing is you shouldn't do this more than once every 7 days to make sure you need it and it works. This is very general as you really need to know how to read your body's bio-feedback to determine if a calorie spike is needed. Don't cheat just to cheat.
    I DO personally find that after a good cheat meal (approx 16-17 ounces of take out Jamaican curried chix, rice & peas, steamed cabbage...my favorite cheat), that I do usually drop a few lbs when I'm on a stall/slow down phase.
    How bout you? Do you have cheat meals? Cheat day? Discuss.

  2. BarristerGirl

    I have consciously decided to go off plan to break a plateau/stall. Oddly, I find that if I take the whole day off and eat whatever I want, I will definitely have a few lb drop on the scale over the next week, whereas if I just had a few bites of off plan food (I'm doing MediFast) the scale would stall for days.
    My most recent break was three days over Thanksgiving...longer than I had anticipated and the longest cheat than I've ever done. I gained 6-7 lbs, but have managed to lose 15 pounds in the two weeks that have followed. My first month of dieting I only lost 16, so this has really shocked and dumbfounded me.
    The obvious implication of cheating, especially when you experience a woosh after, is that it will develop binge/yo-yo eating habits. It's something I'm very conscious of, so I've spaced my cheat days out...usually one day every 6-8 weeks. I don't want to lose all this weight to end up in a cycle of binge-ing and restricting calories to lose every few days.

  3. rainbowsmiles

    i SURE DO WISH i had known this the 1st time around...part of the reason i gave up after losing 68 pounds was the 4 weeks of losing NOTHING even though i was cutting more and more out of my intake...
    this time around...i am so thankful for you sharing this!!!
    i will be READY now!!
    thanks

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Made during my first semester at medical school and in response to an online request, this video walks you through the basics of understanding the compensation of acids and bases in the body. ABG Cards for Quick Reference: https://amzn.to/2MGvjfU EKG Cards for Quick Reference: https://amzn.to/2Krefht Acid-base, Fluids and Electrolytes Made Ridiculously Simple: https://amzn.to/2KB3bug

Assessment Of Compensation In Acute Respiratory Acidosis - Deranged Physiology

Assessment of Compensation in Acute Respiratory Acidosis Mechanisms and classification of metabolic acidosis This chapter is concerned with the changes in pH and serum bicarbonate which result from acute fluctuations in dissolved CO2, as a consequence of acute changes in ventilation. It is a more detailed look at the wayCO2interacts with the human body fluid, and the resulting changes which develop in theserum bicarbonate concentration and pH. The discussion which follows builds upon and benefits from someof thebackground knowledgeoffered in otherchapters: Let us consider the favoured model of acute respiratory acidosis, the patient who has stopped breathing. Conventional wisdom dictates that so long as the oxygen supply continues to mass-transfer its way into the patient, then the patient will continue to produce CO2, and as a result of this metabolic activity the PaCO2will rise at a rate of around 3mmHg every minute. This technique of "apnoeic anaesthesia" is well known to anaesthetists, and has enjoyed a fluctuating level of interest since the sixties. With a high PEEP and a sufficient attention to detail one may go through the entire hour-long case without any breaths being ta Continue reading >>

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  1. Comment

    Source(s): Raspberry Ketone Free Trial : http://RaspberryKetone.oruty.com/?SNnC

  2. Ricci

    Hi there QTKTUK
    If you’re diabetes is controlled through insulin or tablets you are entitled to free prescriptions (this does not apply to just diet controlled diabetics) visit http://www.ppa.org.uk/ppa/medex.htm to claim an exemption certificate, you can still claim even if you work. In the mean time go to your GPs and ask them to prescribe you the ketone test strips, don’t wait for the certificate to come through the post. Also you can get the optium xceed blood glucose monitor which also measures your ketone levels through a drop of blood (the same way you would test your sugar levels) this is a more accurate way of testing for ketones.
    If you are developing ketones through dieting you are not eating enough carbohydrates, don’t be mislead by any fad diets as these just give a short term solution to your problem. Ketosis is very serious and if it is not treated right it will lead to Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in which the symptoms are often linked with high blood sugars, i.e. Increase in thirst, increase urination, tiredness, confusion, possible loss of consciousness. The symptoms of acidosis are: fast deep breathing, the smell of acetone (similar to pear drops) on your breath, nausea and vomiting and lack or no energy at all. To combat ketones you must consume carbohydrates and drink plenty of water. Don’t take any chances; if you feel like your condition is getting worse go to your local A&E or GPs straight away.
    If you need help or advice with any diabetic issues (even dieting) visit the website below, it is run by diabetics and is one of the best diabetic sites I have ever seen. Take care.

  3. nert

    If (and I am being presumptuous here) this is diet related and you want to know if your body is going through ketosis, lick the back of your hand, let it dry and sniff it. If it smells foul, then ketosis is occurring (or you've just not cleaned your teeth ;) And your local pharmacy should have test strips for not a lot of money...

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