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Respiratory Acidosis Compensation Calculator

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Deciphering Acid-base Disorders

Derangements in acid-base status are commonly discovered on routine emergency department evaluation and often suggest the presence of severe underlying disease. Many acute conditions can disrupt homeostatic mechanisms used to buffer and excrete acid, and these changes may necessitate immediate intervention. When you discover a patient with an abnormal pH, what is your approach to the diagnosis? Large amounts of fixed and volatile acid are produced as normal byproducts of cellular metabolism. In addition to excretion of these byproducts via the lungs and kidneys, physiologic pH is maintained using carbon dioxide and bicarbonate as buffers. The balance of serum PCO2 and HCO3 directly impact pH, and disruption of this ratio results in primary acidemia or alkalemia, depending on the direction of the change. Notably, acidemia and alkalemia describe changes in serum pH, whereas acidosis and alkalosis refer to the clinical conditions underlying those changes. These conditions can be either metabolic or respiratory in etiology, leading to 4 categories of primary acid-base disorders. In response to this primary change, compensatory mechanisms attempt to drive the pH toward normal by keepin Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. hskrmom

    Nathan's home tonight with a 102 temperature, a raging sinus infection, and is averaging between 400 and 500. Ugh! I am trying to stay on top of this poor kid's highs because I know it just makes him feel worse.
    I had him check ketones, and it was negative. I was very surprised. I then thought to check the bottle. Says it expired June, 2006. I must have given my new bottle of Ketostix to the school nurse by mistake. Do you really think they expire?
    Melody

  2. Extraordinary Machine

    Absolutely. I think that a year expired probably means they're not good.
    Sorry. :( Hope you find some soon.

  3. hskrmom

    Well, allrighty then. I guess off to Walgreens I go (again). Thank you for the quick reply!
    Melody

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Click Here: http://restingmetabolicratecalculator... Calculating RMR to Lose Weight If you are interested in long lasting weight loss then there are some things you will need to know about your body. One of the most important parts of losing weight is knowing how many daily calories your body burns. Many people spend time counting the calories that they take in, but don't bother to figure out how many calories they are burning. This balance between energy taken in and energy burned is the key factor to losing weight and keeping it off. Most people understand the Energy In side of the equation but it is also important to understand the Energy Out side of the Energy Balance equation. The first step to losing weight and keeping it off is understanding your RMR. What is RMR? RMR is the amount of calories your body burns each day. Since you will need to burn more calories than you take in to lose weight, it is vital to understand how to calculate this number. First, let's look at the three ways our bodies burn calories, which is known as the Total Daily Energy Expenditure or TDEE: 1. Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR): All humans need to burn a certain amount of calories just to stay alive and maintain proper body functions. This number depends largely on the size of the person and how quickly their body's metabolism works. 2. Thermic Effect of Food (TEF): This is the amount of calories it takes to metabolize food. It usually makes up about ten percent of the total caloric burn in a given day. This number doesn't vary. 3. Voluntary Physical Activity Level (PAL): This is the part of caloric burn that you can control. If you are really interested in losing weight and keeping it off then PAL is the most important and controllable factor. People that do not exercise regularly usually have a PAL that is 55% above their RMR. Getting PAL higher is the best way to lose weight. The RMR Equation The first thing you will need to do to calculate your caloric burn is to estimate your RMR. By knowing your RMR you can calculate your TDEE, which is a good first step to losing weight. For example, if we know that RMR is around 1,600 calories a day then we can predict that TDEE will be around 2,480 calories per day. First we need to calculate your RMR. It is important to note that we are making predictions, which should be close but are not exact. This first calculation will help you build a weight loss program. Men calculate RMR with the following equation: (9.99 x weight (kg)) + (6.25 x height (cm)) -- (4.92 x age) + 5=RMR Females can calculate their RMR with this equation: (9.99 x weight (kg)) + (6.25 x height (cm)) -- (4.92 x age) -161=RMR Be sure to get accurate measurements of both your height and weight. These two pieces of information, along with your sex and age, will determine your RMR. Most people are able to predict their RMR within 5% of the direct measurements done in a laboratory. Once you know RMR you can figure out how many calories you will need to burn during PAL in order to lose weight. Click Here: http://restingmetabolicratecalculator... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6P553...

Winters Formula For Metabolic Acidosis Compensation Calculator

Winters Formula for Metabolic Acidosis Compensation Calculator This Winters formula for metabolic acidosis compensation calculator checks metabolic and mixed acidosis cases and establishes the level of PCO2 compensation. Discover more about the formula used and the situations that require it below the form. How does this Winters formula for metabolic acidosis compensation calculator work? This is a tool designed to help clinicians and any medical personnel evaluate PCO2 compensation in connection with the level of bicarbonate [HCO3-]. The form is very simple to use and only requires inputting bicarbonate in mEq/L and press calculate. The result will be displayed as an interval with the lower and upper values of partial CO2 pressure in mmHg. The formula used by this metabolic acidosis compensation calculator is explained below: Which means the interval between: 1.5 x HCO3- + 6 and 1.5 x HCO3- + 10 As a rule of thumb, there is a 1.2 mmHg PCO2 reduction for every 1 mEq/L reduction of plasma bicarbonate but only to a minimum of 10 - 15 mmHg. Taking an example, it shows that in order to compensate for a plasma concentration of HCO3- of 9 mEq/L it would be required a partial pressure of Continue reading >>

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  1. purplegolfball

    Intermediate Fasting and Maintaining Ketosis

    I ran across an interesting post and response over on Peter Attia's blog:
    "lorraine July 22, 2012
    Doc, not sure where to ask this, but this seems as good a place as any. I read somewhere along the way that you’ve done some self-experimentation with IF. I’ve been doing the same, but limited to eating “within a window”. I usually wait 16-17 hours after last meal to start the new day’s eating. and eat two meals within that 7 or 8 hours. I really like eating this way, but I have found that it kicks me out of ketosis. Not so if I do fasted exercise. It seems to me, theoretically anyway, that if I’m running on ketones I shouldn’t have to turn on too much gluconeogenesis, but it doesn’t appear to be working out that way. I get kicked out of ketosis especially in the morning of the fast. Have you experienced anything like this? At least with me, it seems I need to pick one or the other. Thanks for any input.
    Peter Attia July 22, 2012
    You’re spot on. IF makes a steady-state of ketosis almost impossible, because of the bolus of protein in one meal. I’ll detail all of this when I get the post (or short series, more likely) on this topic."
    Lately, I've been eating one large meal with some snacking or a second light meal per day. I've found I like this. Keeping a ketonic ratio around two, it does result in an intake of protein for me up to around 60-70 grams at one time.
    I haven't noticed high post prandial readings or any significant increase in my morning fasting readings. This leads me to believe I'm maintaining ketosis, but I'm not sure. I guess it boils down to does it simply take maintaining a ketonic ratio to maintain a state of ketosis, or does it also require limiting a maximum protein intake at one time? What exactly, if anything, does our glucose readings say about maintaining ketosis?
    Curious as to what some of you longer term ketogenics have run across. I hate to break down and buy those expensive ketone meter strips, but maybe thats the only way to know for sure.

  2. jim55

    Today begins my third week of if. I haven't had any problem staying in keto when i break a fast. I've done two 41 hour fasts with the other 10 days being 20 hour fasts. I like the 20 hour fasts. It's just like normal eating without breakfast really. Very easy for me to create a caloric deficit without any feelings of depervation. My workouts have been fantastic, i have so much more energy it seems. I read somewhere that the gut has a hormone or something called gerlin (spelling) that causes hunger and fasting over time will silence this. I think it's true as i just don't have big hunger. I don't think it would be as easy if i were not keto addapted. My weight is down somewhere between four and six pounds. Hard to determine exactly as the fasting does cause rather large hydro swings.

  3. blaisjp

    Well this is all very interesting reading. Really. I mean it. I do 24 hour fasts a couple times a month. I find it is most effective combined with a high intensity workout of some kind. I don't really fall out of ketosis, at least not when I check, I just notice that my blood sugar goes up during the fast and exercise and then drops for the the next several days. I presume because glycogen is depleted and needs to rebuild. I know this goes goes against the idea that ketosis only happens when glycogen is depleted i just don't experience this.

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Understand medical acid base problems with this clear explanation from Dr. Seheult of http://www.medcram.com. Illustrations explain acidosis, acidemia, alkalosis, alkalemia, ABGs, pH, and more. This is video 1 of 8 on medical acid base. Other videos in the acid base series cover the key points of anion gap, metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, and include practice problems to test your understanding. Speaker: Roger Seheult, MD Clinical and Exam Preparation Instructor Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine. Co-founder of http://www.medcram.com. MedCram: Medical topics explained clearly including: Asthma, COPD, Acute Renal Failure, Mechanical Ventilation, Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve, Hypertension, Shock, Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Medical Acid Base, VQ Mismatch, Hyponatremia, Liver Function Tests, Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs), Adrenal Gland, Pneumonia Treatment, any many others. New topics are often added weekly- please subscribe to help support MedCram and become notified when new videos have been uploaded. Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_... Recommended Audience: Health care professionals and medical students: including physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, respiratory therapists, EMT and paramedics, and many others. Review for USMLE, MCAT, PANCE, NCLEX, NAPLEX, NDBE, RN, RT, MD, DO, PA, NP school and board examinations. More from MedCram: Complete Video library: https://www.youtube.com/c/medcram Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MedCram Google+: https://plus.google.com/u/1/+Medcram Twitter: https://twitter.com/MedCramVideos Produced by Kyle Allred PA-C Please note: MedCram medical videos, medical lectures, medical illustrations, and medical animations are for medical educational and exam preparation purposes, and not intended to replace recommendations by your health care provider.

Acid-base Disorders

Content currently under development Acid-base disorders are a group of conditions characterized by changes in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) or bicarbonate (HCO3-), which lead to changes in the arterial blood pH. These conditions can be categorized as acidoses or alkaloses and have a respiratory or metabolic origin, depending on the cause of the imbalance. Diagnosis is made by arterial blood gas (ABG) interpretation. In the setting of metabolic acidosis, calculation of the anion gap is an important resource to narrow down the possible causes and reach a precise diagnosis. Treatment is based on identifying the underlying cause. Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. wild_wild_wes

    Keto strip test results

    I started Keto on Monday. Today I bought the Keto test strip kit a WalMart and just tried one. The color result put me somewhere in the SMALL (15) to MODERATE (40) range, but much closer to MODERATE.
    Is that okay?

  2. lbendall

    throw them away

  3. PullAndBear

    Originally Posted by lbendall
    throw them away

    um..why?

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