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Renal Tubular Acidosis Uptodate

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What is HYPOKALEMIA? What does HYPOKALEMIA mean? HYPOKALEMIA meaning - HYPOKALEMIA pronunciation - HYPOKALEMIA definition - HYPOKALEMIA explanation - How to pronounce HYPOKALEMIA? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum. Normal potassium levels are between 3.5 and 5.0 mmol/L (3.5 and 5.0 mEq/L) with levels below 3.5 mmol/L defined as hypokalemia. Mildly low levels do not typically cause symptoms. Symptoms may include feeling tired, leg cramps, weakness, and constipation. It increases the risk of an abnormal heart rhythm such as bradycardia and cardiac arrest. Causes of hypokalemia include diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet. It is classified as severe when levels are less than 2.5 mmol/L. Low levels can also be detected on an electrocardiogram (ECG). Hyperkalemia refers to a high level of potassium in the blood serum. The speed at which potassium should be replaced depends on whether or not there are symptoms or ECG changes. Mildly low levels can be managed with changes in the diet. Potassium supplements can be either taken by mouth or intravenously. If given by intravenous, generally less than 20 mmol are given over an hour. High concentration solutions (40 and more mmol/L) should be given in a central line if possible. Magnesium replacement may also be required. Hypokalemia is one of the most common waterelectrolyte imbalances. It affects about 20% of people admitted to hospital. The word "hypokalemia" is from hypo- means "under"; kalium meaning potassium, and -emia means "condition of the blood".

Type 2 Tubular Acidosis And Hypokalemia

SDN members see fewer ads and full resolution images. Join our non-profit community! Why does Type 2 tubular acidosis (where bicarb is not absorbed from PCT) also cause hypokalemia? Thanks in advance. Why does Type 2 tubular acidosis (where bicarb is not absorbed from PCT) also cause hypokalemia? Thanks in advance. Type 1 RTA occurs because the alpha-intercalated cell has defunct H+/K+ exchange pumps- therefore, since you cannot pump H+ into the lumen, you become acidotic, and because you can't take K+ out in this region either, you become Hypokalemic. Type 2 RTA occurs because for a variety of reasons (defunct Na+/Bicarb cotransporter, Carbonic Anhydrase deficiency, etc.), you cannot reabsorb bicarbonate in the proximal tubule. This increases Na+ delivery to the collecting duct, where Na+ is reabsorbed at the expense of K+ excretion. This occurs to maintain charge neutrality. Uptodate has an excellent article on this: "Pathophysiology of renal tubular acidosis and the effect on potassium balance" Type 1 RTA occurs because the alpha-intercalated cell has defunct H+/K+ exchange pumps- therefore, since you cannot pump H+ into the lumen, you become acidotic, and because you can't tak Continue reading >>

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  1. Aaron1963

    Peter Attia on people who don't do well on a Ketogenic Diet

    I know there's a few people around here who don't do well on a ketogenic diet. I know for myself, who does extremely well with this way of eating, it's sometimes hard to understand why it doesn't work for everyone. And I think sometimes the people who it doesn't work well for get exasperated with all the talk of LCHF and ketogenic diets. Well, Peter Attia, who I have a lot of respect for, talks some in this podcast about how there are some people who just don't do well on a ketogenic diet. I don't know if it would be of any interest for those of you who have this problem or not:
    http://timferriss.libsyn.com/ep-65-s...dr-peter-attia
    He doesn't go into a lot of detail about it, but it's more that it's just interesting that there is a minority of people who do have this problem.

  2. furball64801

    Its amazing how all things do not work well for everyone. Ah the saying none of us is exactly alike. I did real well on a low carb diet when I was 25 only wanted to lose about 15 lbs then, was not diabetic had energy coming out my ears. Tried it 20 yrs later and did not change my numbers that much, yes better but not to normal. I hear from some weight falls right off them and numbers turn to normal, nice if you can get it maybe pancreas function should be measured who knows why or what causes this.

  3. Aaron1963

    Just to be clear, this wasn't in relation to diabetes, but people in general who want to go on a ketogenic diet but apparently have problems with eating all that fat.

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What is renal tubular acidosis (RTA)? RTA is a type of metabolic acidosis caused by the kidneys failure to properly acidify the urine. Find more videos at http://osms.it/more. Study better with Osmosis Prime. Retain more of what youre learning, gain a deeper understanding of key concepts, and feel more prepared for your courses and exams. Sign up for a free trial at http://osms.it/more. Subscribe to our Youtube channel at http://osms.it/subscribe. Get early access to our upcoming video releases, practice questions, giveaways and more when you follow us on social: Facebook: http://osms.it/facebook Twitter: http://osms.it/twitter Instagram: http://osms.it/instagram Thank you to our Patreon supporters: Sumant Nanduri Omar Berrios Alex Wright Sabrina Wong Suzanne Peek Arfan Azam Mingli Fng Osmosis's Vision: Empowering the worlds caregivers with the best learning experience possible.

Hypocalcemia & Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis: Causes & Diagnoses | Symptoma.com

"Proximal renal tubular acidosis. A defect in bicarbonate reabsorption with normal urinary acidification". Pediatr. [en.wikipedia.org] Type 4 RTA , or hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis , is caused by a transport disorder in the distal tubule. [kidshealth.org] TUBULAR ACIDOSIS (RTA) Type 1 distal Type 2 proximal Type 4 Defect reduced H excretion in distal tubule impaired HCO3 reabsorption in proximal tubule impaired cation exchange [lifeinthefastlane.com] As the disease progresses copper deposition leads to vacuolar degeneration in the proximal tubular cells of the kidneys which causes a renal Fanconi syndrome (substances that [themedicalbiochemistrypage.org] Kidneys: renal tubular acidosis (Type 2), a disorder of bicarbonate handling by the proximal tubules leads to nephrocalcinosis (calcium accumulation in the kidneys), a weakening [en.wikipedia.org] In rarer cases, WD may manifest with abnormalities of other organ systemsnamely, renal tubular abnormalities, arthropathy, and cardiomyopathy with dysrhythmias. [clevelandclinicmeded.com] Distal renal tubular acidosis ( dRTA ) or Type 1 renal tubular acidosis ( RTA ) is the classical form of RTA, being the first described. [en.wiki Continue reading >>

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  1. boobear

    Hi everyone, I've done keto/low carb on/off last few years. Got really keto serious three weeks ago. On the whole last week my husband pretty much wanted to puke every time I spoke near him as he said my breath was soooo bad. I drink tons of water, chew gum etc. It was making me so self conscious that I went off the next day. It's been two days off and Breath is better but I really hate the way I feel eating carbs. Is there any tips for the keto breath, will it pass, and if so after how long??? It is literally the only thing that stops me from going back! Thanks in advance!

  2. Jessica

    They say that burning fat can cause bad breath due to chemicals released in the process. It's metabolic and not hygiene related. It doesn't usually last forever! Don't let it discourage you! Keep drinking lots of water

  3. boobear

    I'm trying really hard not too! I'm going to get back on tomorrow and keep ketoing but I hate being paranoid about my breath :(.

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" - Basic concept of RTA - Detail description of the following: Type 1 RTA Type 2 RTA Type 4 RTA"

Biochemical Investigations In Laboratory Medicine > Renal & Electrolytes > Renal Tubular Acidosis

This is an indirect method for measuring urine [ammonia] and can be measured on a random urine sample. It is only valid when the urine pH < 6.5 as at greater pH, urine bicarbonate is a significant anion. UAG = [urine Na] + [urine K] - [urine Cl] The use of the UAG as an estimate of urine ammonium ion is disputed by some investigators (Kirschbaum et al) FE can be assessed on a random urine sample. Take care to ensure that the sample container is full and there is a minimum air space available for loss of bicarbonate by evaporation. FE (HCO3) = (plasma HCO3 * urine creatinine) / (plasma creatinine * urine HCO3) NB ensure that creatinine and bicarbonate are in the same units. Hypokalamia, or chronic acidosis may prevent normal urinary acidification and urine pH will be > 5.5, due to increased tubular ammoniagenesis. Hyponatraemia may also prevent acidification due to reduced cation available for exchange in the distal tubules. Urine citrate (adults) 1.6 - 4.5 mmol / 24 hours or > 100 mol / mmol creatinine on random urine. Urine citrate (children) > 75 (males) > 177 (females) mol / mmol creatinine on random urine. Urine ammonia (adults) 36 - 99 mol / min / 1.73 m2 Urine ammonia (child Continue reading >>

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  1. j

    Keto diet while nursing

    My SIL is doing the Ketogenic Diet (low carb/high fat) and is having great results. I was overweight before getting pregnant, and now have even more to lose. I'm thinking of trying the diet but am wondering how it will affect breastfeeding. I've heard it might not be good for baby if your body is in ketosis, but I'm having a hard time finding solid info either way. Anyone have any experience with this?

  2. Mareeena

    I'm doing something similar but a breastfeeding friendly variation... Basically Atkins 20 is not safe for breastfeeding but Atkins 40 is. I think it's important while nursing to eat balanced so I still eat the recommended servings of fruit a day and some whole grains. I try for lower sugar fruits like berries. For grains I do oats and then a small bowl of kashi go lean cereal (the cinnamon crunch kind is amazing)
    So basically I try and eat balanced for the sake of my milk and just reduce my net carbs while trying to eat as much protein and fiber as possible.
    As for your question is keto specifically safe? I don't personally think so.
    I'm not counting carbs and I'm eating a good amount of fat (meats, eggs, cheese)

    I've lost 7lbs the past 9 days and haven't exercised much during that time (baby is teething I'm tired)

  3. Mareeena

    Sorry when I said I'm not counting carbs I meant I'm not counting calories!!'

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