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Renal Tubular Acidosis Types

Renal Tubular Acidosis (rta): Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Renal Tubular Acidosis (rta): Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Renal Tubular Acidosis or RTA is a kidney disease in which the kidneys are unable to maintain the acid-base balance in the body. The condition causes increased acidic contents in the blood and decreases excretion of acid molecules in urine. In this article, we will read about the different causes, symptoms, and treatments for Renal Tubular Acidosis. Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA) causes accumulation of acidic content in the body Increased accumulation of acid in the blood is caused by kidney failure resulting in decreased excretion of acid in urine. Acid content in the blood increases because of following reason- Kidney is unable to retain alkaline molecules or bicarbonates. Kidney retains and is unable to discharge hydrogen molecules or acid content in the urine. Renal tubular acidosis causes metabolic acidosis. Renal tubular acidosis reduces blood pH resulting in academia. This condition is also called Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis. This is one of the most common forms of Renal Tubular Acidosis. The disease is caused by reduced hydrogen (acid) molecules excretion in distal tubule and increased excretion of HCO3 (alkaline) molecule. The H+ molecule is reabsorbed as acid molecule causing decreased blood pH or acidic pH resulting in metabolic acidosis. Type 1 Renal Tubular Acidosis is associated with renal stone.1 Plasma HCO3 level is less the 15 mEq/L (normal level over 23 mEq/L). Plasma K level is low resulting in hypokalemia.1 This condition is associated with high levels of calcium in the blood Renal tubular acidosis is often observed in patients suffering with sickle cell disease, lupus and Sjogren syndrome. This disease is also known as Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis. The defect is in close proximity to the origin of the tubule. Disease is caused by defects in proxi Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis | Definition Of Renal Tubular Acidosis By Medical Dictionary

Renal Tubular Acidosis | Definition Of Renal Tubular Acidosis By Medical Dictionary

Renal tubular acidosis | definition of renal tubular acidosis by Medical dictionary Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a condition characterized by too much acid in the body due to a defect in kidney function. Chemical balance is critical to the body's functioning. Therefore, the body controls its chemicals very strictly. The acid-base balance must be between a pH of 7.35 and 7.45 or trouble will start. Every other chemical in the body is affected by the acid-base balance. The most important chemicals in this system are sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, ammonium, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and phosphates. The lungs rapidly adjust acid-base balance by the speed of breathing, because carbon dioxide dissolved in water is an acidcarbonic acid. Faster breathing eliminates more carbon dioxide, decreases the carbonic acid in the blood and increases the pH. Holding your breath does the opposite. Blood acidity from carbon dioxide controls the rate of breathing, not oxygen. The kidneys also regulate acid-base balance somewhat more slowly than the lungs. They handle all the chemicals, often trading one for another that is more or less acidic. The trading takes place between the blood and the urine, so that extra chemicals end up passing out of the body. If the kidneys do not effectively eliminate acid, it builds up in the blood, leading to a condition called metabolic acidosis . These conditions are called renal tubular acidosis. There are three types of renal tubular acidosis. They include: Distal renal tubular acidosis (type 1) may be a hereditary condition or may be triggered by an autoimmune disease, lithium therapy, kidney transplantation , or chronic obstruction. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (type 2) is caused by hereditary diseases, such as Fanconi's syndrome, fructose in Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis - General Practice Notebook

Renal Tubular Acidosis - General Practice Notebook

The whole terminology of renal tubular acidosis can be confusing to the newcomer. Important features to grasp are: The acidosis refers to the plasma, not the contents of the renal tubules. Indeed, in classical (type I) renal tubular acidosis the urine is often alkaline. Thus renal tubular acidosis is a metabolic acidosis of renal tubular origin. There are three main types, named I, II and IV. Type III has become obsolete. The three types have different sites of localisation in the renal tubule. However, again the terminology is confusing in that type II is proximal, type I distal. Home| About us| Facebook| Contact us| Authors| Help| FAQ This site is intended for the use of healthcare professionals only. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence more... GPnotebook stores small data files on your computer called cookies so that we can recognise you and provide you with the best service. If you do not want to receive cookies please do not use GPnotebook. Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis (rta)

Renal Tubular Acidosis (rta)

By L. Aimee Hechanova, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Texas Tech University; Attending Nephrologist, University Medical Center (See also Introduction to Disorders of Kidney Tubules .) In renal tubular acidosis, the kidney tubules malfunction, resulting in excess levels of acid in the blood. The tubules of the kidneys that remove acid from the blood are damaged when a person takes certain drugs or has another disorder that affects the kidneys. Often muscle weakness and diminished reflexes occur when the disorder has been present for a long time. Blood tests show high acid levels and a disturbance of the body's acid-base balance. Some people drink a solution of baking soda every day to neutralize the acid. To function normally, body acids and alkali (such as bicarbonate) must be balanced. Normally, the breakdown of food produces acids that circulate in the blood. The kidneys remove acids from the blood and excrete them in the urine. This function is predominantly carried out by the kidney tubules . In renal tubular acidosis, the kidney tubules malfunction in one of two ways that tend to increase acids in the blood ( metabolic acidosis ): Too little of the acids the body produces are excreted, so acid levels in blood increase. Too little of the bicarbonate that filters through the kidney tubules is reabsorbed, so too much bicarbonate is lost in the urine. In renal tubular acidosis, the balance of electrolytes is also affected. Renal tubular acidosis may lead to the following problems: Low or high potassium levels in the blood Calcium deposits in the kidneys, which may lead to kidney stones Painful softening and bending of the bones (osteomalacia or rickets ) Renal tubular acidosis may be a permanent, inherited disorder in children. However, it may be an intermittent Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Significant bilateral nephrocalcinosis (calcification of the kidneys) on a frontal X-ray (radiopacities (white) in the right upper and left upper quadrant of the image), as seen in distal renal tubular acidosis. Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a medical condition that involves an accumulation of acid in the body due to a failure of the kidneys to appropriately acidify the urine . [1] In renal physiology , when blood is filtered by the kidney, the filtrate passes through the tubules of the nephron , allowing for exchange of salts , acid equivalents, and other solutes before it drains into the bladder as urine . The metabolic acidosis that results from RTA may be caused either by failure to reabsorb sufficient bicarbonate ions (which are alkaline ) from the filtrate in the early portion of the nephron (the proximal tubule ) or by insufficient secretion of hydrogen ions (which are acidic) into the latter portions of the nephron (the distal tubule ). Although a metabolic acidosis also occurs in those with renal insufficiency , the term RTA is reserved for individuals with poor urinary acidification in otherwise well-functioning kidneys. Several different types of RTA exist, which all have different syndromes and different causes. The word acidosis refers to the tendency for RTA to cause an excess of acid , which lowers the blood's pH . When the blood pH is below normal (7.35), this is called acidemia . The metabolic acidosis caused by RTA is a normal anion gap acidosis . Failure of proximal tubular cells to reabsorb H C O 3 Deficiency of aldosterone , or a resistance to its effects, ( hypoaldosteronism or pseudohypoaldosteronism ) Main article: Distal renal tubular acidosis Radiograph of a child with rickets , a complication of both distal and proximal RTA. Distal RTA (dRT Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis: Types & Acid-base Summary

Renal Tubular Acidosis: Types & Acid-base Summary

00:01 Of course, you can have a metabolic acidosiswithout an elevated plasma ion gap. 00:08 And some of the best examplesof those happen in the kidney. 00:11 These are Renal Tubular Acidosis of whichthere are three types that we need discuss. 00:16 Type 1, Type 2 and Type 4. 00:20 To compare this, the best thing to do isto think about where does the problem lie. 00:26 It just so happens that Type 1 Renal Tubular Acidosisis a problem with acid secretion. 00:32 While Type 2 Renal Tubular Acidosisis impaired by carbonate secretion. 00:37 And Type 4 is alsoimpaired acid secretion. 00:42 If you can keep this as straight as possible,youre hopefully be able to better diagnose what your Renal Tubular Acidosis might be. 00:51 So, 1 and 4 impaired acid secretion,type 2 bicarbonate secretion. 00:58 The disorders that are associatedwith these can be numerous. 01:02 Many of them involve some genetic disorder. 01:06 Rheumatoid arthritis is often times associatedwith Type 1 Renal Tubular Acidosis. 01:12 Some drugs such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are associated with Type 2 Renal Tubular Acidosis. 01:19 And for Type 3 Renal Tubular Acidosis,Addisons disease is a great example of trying to tie those together to a clinical condition. 01:29 All of them will respond with aRenal Tubular Acidosis, is metabolic acidosis. 01:38 You noticed we didnt mentioned Type 3, right? You wont see it. 01:44 To summarize, the acid base disturbanceswe can utilize this type of a chart. 01:52 A respiratory acidosis always involvesa decrease in pH, a small increase in bicarb and a large increase in carbon dioxide. 02:06 A respiratory alkalosis is an increase in pH,a small decrease in bicarb and a large decrease in C02. 02:19 Metabolic acidosis is a decrease in pH,a large change in bicarb with no change i Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a disorder in which a defect in secretion of protons by the proximal and/or distal nephron of the kidney results in bicarbonate wasting (proximal) or reduced acid secretion (distal). George J. Schwartz MD, in Pediatric Clinical Advisor (Second Edition) , 2007 Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a disorder in which a defect in secretion of protons by the proximal and/or distal nephron of the kidney results in bicarbonate wasting (proximal) or reduced acid secretion (distal). As a consequence, a persistent nonanion gap (hyperchloremic) metabolic acidosis develops. The serum anion gap, [Na] ([Cl] + [HCO3]), is normally 8 to 12mEq/L in adults and 20% to 30% higher in infants. Type 1 or classic RTA (i.e., distal renal tubular acidosis [DRTA]) Type 2 RTA (i.e., proximal renal tubular acidosis [PRTA]) Type 3 RTA (i.e., no longer considered a distinct entity) Type 4 RTA (i.e., hyperkalemic distal renal tubular acidosis) 588.89Acidosis, renal, tubular (distal or proximal) (Other specified disorders resulting from impaired renal function) Incidence of DRTA is 1 in 10,000 people; PRTA is less common. Although primary RTA is recognized to be a rare disease, referrals to exclude RTA are much more common than the incidence of the disease. As a referring diagnosis, primary RTA accounted for 6% of renal consultations in children of Venezuela. There is no sex predominance in DRTA or in Type 4 RTA. DRTA may be inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait. Autosomal recessive DRTA often presents in infancy, whereas autosomal dominant DRTA may not present until adolescence or young adulthood. Mutations in the genes encoding carbonic anhydrase II, kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1), and subunits of the renal proton pump (H+ATPase) have been identified in p Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is acidosis and electrolyte disturbances due to impaired renal hydrogen ion excretion (type 1), impaired bicarbonate resorption (type 2), or abnormal aldosterone production or response (type 4). (Type 3 is extremely rare and is not discussed.) Patients may be asymptomatic, display symptoms and signs of electrolyte derangements, or progress to chronic kidney disease. Diagnosis is based on characteristic changes in urine pH and electrolytes in response to provocative testing. Treatment corrects pH and electrolyte imbalances using alkaline agents, electrolytes, and, rarely, drugs. RTA defines a class of disorders in which excretion of hydrogen ions or reabsorption of filtered bicarbonate is impaired, leading to a chronic metabolic acidosis with a normal anion gap. Hyperchloremia is usually present, and secondary derangements may involve other electrolytes, such as potassium (frequently) and calcium (rarelysee Table: Some Features of Different Types of Renal Tubular Acidosis* ). Chronic RTA is often associated with structural damage to renal tubules and may progress to chronic kidney disease . Some Features of Different Types of Renal Tubular Acidosis* Treatment of concomitant abnormalities related to potassium, calcium, and phosphate metabolism Treatment consists of correction of pH and electrolyte balance with alkali therapy. Failure to treat RTA in children slows growth. Alkaline agents such as sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, or sodium citrate help achieve a relatively normal plasma bicarbonate concentration (22 to 24 mEq/L). Potassium citrate can be substituted when persistent hypokalemia is present or, because sodium increases calcium excretion, when calcium calculi are present. Vitamin D (eg, ergocalciferol 800 IU po once/day) Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis: The Clinical Entity

Renal Tubular Acidosis: The Clinical Entity

Renal Tubular Acidosis: The Clinical Entity Department of Pediatrics, Hospital de Cruces, Vizcaya, Spain. Correspondence to Professor J. Rodrguez-Soriano, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital de Cruces, Plaza de Cruces s/n, Baracaldo, 48903 Vizcaya, Spain. Phone: 34-94-6006357; Fax: 34-94-6006044; E-mail: jsoriano{at}hcru.osakidetza.net The term renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is applied to a group of transport defects in the reabsorption of bicarbonate (HCO3), the excretion of hydrogen ion (H+), or both. This condition was first described in 1935 ( 1 ), confirmed as a renal tubular disorder in 1946 ( 2 ), and designated renal tubular acidosis in 1951 ( 3 ). The RTA syndromes are characterized by a relatively normal GFR and a metabolic acidosis accompanied by hyperchloremia and a normal plasma anion gap. In contrast, the term uremic acidosis is applied to patients with low GFR in whom metabolic acidosis is accompanied by normo- or hypochloremia and an increased plasma anion gap. The renal acid-base homeostasis may be broadly divided into two processes: (1) reabsorption of filtered HCO3, which occurs fundamentally in the proximal convoluted tubule; and (2) excretion of fixed acids through the titration of urinary buffers and the excretion of ammonium, which takes place primarily in the distal nephron. The mechanisms for proximal reabsorption of approximately 80 to 90% of filtered HCO3 are displayed in Figure 1 . The foremost processes occurring in this segment are H+ secretion at the luminal membrane via a specific Na+- H+ exchanger (NHE-3) and HCO3 transport at the basolateral membrane via a Na+- HCO3 cotransporter (NBC-1). In the proximal tubules, carbonic acid (H2CO3) is formed within the cell by the hydration of CO2, a reaction catalyzed by a soluble cytoplasmic carbonic Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis And Uraemic Acidosis

Renal Tubular Acidosis And Uraemic Acidosis

Metabolic acidosis can occur in both acute and chronic renal disorders the anion gap may be elevated, due to uraemic acidosis the anion gap may be normal, due to renal tubular acidosis (RTA) Uraemic acidosis results from the loss of functional nephrons decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (e.g. <20 mL/min) accumulation of acidic anions such as phosphate and sulfate occurs causes high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) patients manifest as renal failure, often have prolonged survival and develop chronic complications such as bone demineralisation Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) involves defects isolated to the renal tubules only GFR may be normal or only minimally affected primary problem is defective renal acid-base regulation due to impaired ability to acidify the urine and excrete acid results in net acid retention and hyperchloremic normal anion gap metabolic acidosis (NAGMA) may be incomplete and only develop in the presence of an acid load occurs despite a normal or only mildly reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) RTA is often detected incidentally through an abnormal blood workup, but some patients present with clinical features such as poor growth, dehydration, or altered mental state COMPARISON OF TYPES OF RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS (RTA) urine pH remains >5.5 despite severe acidaemia (HCO3 < 15mmol/L) HCO3loading test leads to increased urinary HCO3 may require an acid load test to see whether urinary pH remains > 5.5 hyperchloraemic acidosis, alkaline urine, and renal stone formation secondary hyperaldosteronism results in increased K+ loss in urine NaHCO3 (corrects Na+ deficit, ECF volume and corrects hypokalaemia) sodium and potassium citrate solutions can be useful if hypokalaemia persistent citrate also binds Ca2+ in the urine and can help to prevent Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Each time our internal organs do something, such as digesting food or healing damaged tissue, chemical reactions take place in the body's cells. These reactions cause acid to go into the bloodstream. Normally, the kidneys remove excess acid from blood, but certain diseases, genetic defects, or drugs can damage a kidney's ability to do this important job. This can allow too much acid to build up in the blood and cause problems. When this happens, it's called renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Without treatment, RTA can affect a child's growth and cause kidney stones , fatigue, muscle weakness, and other symptoms. Over time, untreated acidosis can lead to long-term problems like bone disease, kidney disease , and kidney failure. Fortunately, such complications are rare, since most cases of RTA can be effectively treated with medicines or by treating the condition that's causing the acid to build up. The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located toward the back of the abdominal cavity, just above the waist. The kidneys remove waste products and extra water from the food a person eats, returning chemicals the body needs (such as sodium, phosphorus, and potassium) back into the bloodstream. The extra water combines with other waste to become urine (pee). The main functional units of the kidneys, where the blood filtering happens, are tiny structures called nephrons. Each kidney has about a million nephrons, and each nephron has a renal tubule, a tube where the acid and waste products filtered from the blood are secreted into urine. Having a disease or defect can interfere with how the renal tubules function, which can lead to RTA. There are a few different kinds of RTA. The first two types are named for the part of the renal tubule in which the damage or defect is found. Continue reading >>

Orphanet: Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis

Orphanet: Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis

Prevalence of dRTA is unknown but is often underreported. The hereditary forms of dRTA are more prevalent in areas of high consanguinity (Arabic peninsula and North Africa) whereas acquired dRTA has been reported more frequently in Western countries. Disease onset can occur at any age, depending on cause. Hereditary dRTA subtypes include autosomal dominant (AD) and autosomal recessive (AR) dRTA (see these terms). A recessive subtype of dRTA associated with anemia has also been described in Southeast Asia. AR forms are frequently diagnosed in infants and young children. AD dRTA is mostly diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. Patients with dRTA can be asymptomatic or can present with polyuria, polydipsia, weakness and fatigue (symptoms associated with hypokalemia). Failure to thrive, rickets, stunting of growth (seen in children) and osteomalacia or osteopenia (seen in adults) are a result of urinary calcium wastage and a loss of calcium salts from the bones. Hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis usually occur. Low plasma potassium levels in those with the classic form of dRTA can also cause cardiac arrhythmias, paralysis and even death. In the recessive forms of dRTA, progressive and irreversible deafness often occurs. dRTA can be acquired or inherited. AD dRTA is usually due to mutations in the SLC4A1 gene (17q21.31). Mutations in the ATP6V1B1 gene (2p13) or ATP6V0A4 gene (7q34) are responsible for AR dRTA with deafness. AR dRTA without deafness or late onset deafness has been mainly described in patients with mutations in the ATP6V0A4 gene but overlap does exist in that some patients with this mutation develop deafness and others do not. Acquired forms of dRTA are thought to be caused by autoimmune diseases such as Sjgren syndrome (see this term) o Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a disease that occurs when the kidneys fail to excrete acids into the urine, which causes a person's blood to remain too acidic. Without proper treatment, chronic acidity of the blood leads to growth retardation, kidney stones, bone disease, chronic kidney disease, and possibly total kidney failure. The body's cells use chemical reactions to carry out tasks such as turning food into energy and repairing tissue. These chemical reactions generate acids. Some acid in the blood is normal, but too much acidacidosiscan disturb many bodily functions. Healthy kidneys help maintain acid-base balance by excreting acids into the urine and returning bicarbonatean alkaline, or base, substanceto the blood. This "reclaimed" bicarbonate neutralizes much of the acid that is created when food is broken down in the body. The movement of substances like bicarbonate between the blood and structures in the kidneys is called transport. One researcher has theorized that Charles Dickens may have been describing a child with RTA in the character of Tiny Tim from A Christmas Carol. Tiny Tim's small stature, malformed limbs, and periods of weakness are all possible consequences of the chemical imbalance caused by RTA.1 In the story, Tiny Tim recovers when he receives medical treatment, which would likely have included sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate, alkaline agents to neutralize acidic blood. The good news is that medical treatment can indeed reverse the effects of RTA. To diagnose RTA, doctors check the acid-base balance in blood and urine samples. If the blood is more acidic than it should be and the urine less acidic than it should be, RTA may be the reason, but additional information is needed to rule out other causes. If RTA is the reason, additional in Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal Tubular Acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) refers to the non-anion gap metabolic acidosis which develops due to derangement of usual metabolic processes in the kidneys. The kidneys have a critical role in maintaining stable physiologic pH and they do so through several mechanisms throughout the nephron. Proximally, filtered bicarbonate is resorbed and distally acid is excreted then buffered in the urine. If the kidneys lose the ability to carry out these functions, renal tubular acidosis results. The three major forms of renal tubular acidosis are differentiated by the specific type and location of the mechanistic defect. An understanding of the basic physiology of the handling of acid by the kidney allows one to use clinical and laboratory clues to diagnose the type of RTA. The three key renal mechanisms to handle acid are listed below with the form of RTA associated with defects at that site. Reclaiming filtered bicarbonate in the proximal tubule - proximal (type 2) renal tubular acidosis The reclamation of bicarbonate is accompanied by excretion of a proton (H+) and occurs primarily in the proximal tubule (90% of filtered bicarbonate). A decrease in proximal tubular bicarbonate resorptive capacity results in proximal (type 2) RTA. During the development of proximal RTA, bicarbonate is excreted into the urine because the filtered concentration exceeds the resorptive threshold of the proximal tubule, raising the urine pH. However, due to urinary loss, the subsequent serum and filtered bicarbonate concentrations decrease below the resorptive threshold such that filtered bicarbonate is then resorbed normally. Therefore the bicarbonaturia is self-limited and the serum bicarbonate concentration usually stabilizes between 14 and 20 meq/L. The urine pH is only transiently elevated during Continue reading >>

Renal Tubular Acidosis (rta)

Renal Tubular Acidosis (rta)

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA)refers to anormal anion gap metabolic acidosis (also known as a hyperchloremic acidosis) caused by: decreased excretion of hydrogen ions and/or decreased reabsorption of sodium bicarbonate in the renal tubules The abnormal acid-base transport within the tubules cannot be solely explained by decreased a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) secondary to chronic kidney disease, obstructive uropathy, or some other non-specific nephropathic mechanism The precise pathophysiological mechanism underlying the disorder varies across RTA sub-types (I-IV), which are described in detail below. Normal Acid-Base Homeostasis within the Renal Tubules Acid-base handling in the renal tubule can be broken down into two stages: Proximal reabsorption of filtered bicarbonate Proximal Reabsorption of BicarbonateSoriano JR. Renal Tubular Acidosis: The Clinical Entity. JASN. 2002 The reabsorption of filtered bicarbonate in the proximal tubule depends on the activity of carbonic anhydrase and several transporters: Intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA-II) creates carbonic acid from water and carbon dioxide, which in turn ionizes to form a hydrogen ion plus bicarbonate The newly created bicarbonate is passively transported into the blood along with sodium by the co-transporter NBC-1 The newly created hydrogen ion is excreted into the tubule by NHE-3, which is driven by the anti-transport of sodium (down its concentration gradient) Intraluminal carbonic anhydrase (CA-IV) combines the intraluminal bicarbonate and hydrogen ion into water and CO2, the latter of which diffuses back into the cell (and is used as substrate for CA-II), thus driving a net absorption of bicarbonate Distal Acidification of UrineSoriano JR. Renal Tubular Acidosis: The Clinical Entity. JASN. 2002 The ac Continue reading >>

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