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Prevention Of Ketosis In Cattle

Nadis - National Animal Disease Information Service

Nadis - National Animal Disease Information Service

Reviewed: Richard Laven PhD BVetMed MRCVS 2017 The NADIS data show that the number of cases of acetonaemia (or ketosis) increase significantly during the winter, and the number of cases continue to increase until turnout. So it is particularly important to look out for acetonaemia until at least a month after turn-out. Like most metabolic diseases it is important to remember that for every cow that shows clinical signs, there will be several more which are affected sub-clinically. Acetonaemia occurs when the cow's energy intake does not match its requirement and the cow is unable to compensate and mobilises its body reserves too quickly. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. 1) Reduced milk yield: Initially a moderate decline, eventually a sudden drop 3) Reduction in appetite (initially non-forage feeds) 6) Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath or milk - not always detectable 7) Temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate usually normal 8) A few develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, incoordination, aggression Acetonaemia is more common in the dairy cow, probably because the energy difference of the lactating cow is more difficult to overcome than that of the pregnant cow, which means that most dairy cows in the UK are in negative energy balance during the first few weeks of lactation. Acetonaemia occurs when the cow is not able to cope with this energy deficit, either because it is too great or if it continues for too long. If it occurs Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Idiots' Guide to The Biochemistry and Management of Ketosis Ketosis is a disease of dry cows that shows up in fresh cows. Fundamentally, we have a situation where the cow is mobilizing body fat (condition) faster than the liver is able to metabolize it. In order for the liver to normally metabolize that fat, glucose is required. If glucose availability is limited due to inadequate substrate (mostly propionate from the diet) or glucose production via gluconeogenesis is inadequate or impaired, then ketosis can result because of the inability to convert the fat to energy. Loss/mobilization of body fat is a normal part of the onset of lactation. As the rate of fat mobilization rises, circulating NEFA levels begin to rise. If these fatty acids reach the liver and begin to accumulate in significant amounts, the liver switches away from TCA towards ketogenesis in an attempt to provide more energy and eliminate the fat buildup. Ketogenesis produces the ketone bodies, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Some ketone production is normal in all periparturient cows, so diagnosis is made on clinical history, physical examination, and the presence of significant ketones in milk or urine. Presence of ketones in milk or urine is inadequate, in and or itself, to make the diagnosis of clinical ketosis. Feed intake, or lack thereof, is a critical component in the onset of ketosis. In all cows, dry matter intake begins to decline approximately one month prior to calving, although many people will not notice this decline until several days prior to calving. as feed intake declines and galactopoeisis begins, body fats are mobilized, resulting in an increase in circulationg NEFA levels. NEFAs themselves are mild appetite suppressants, so they continue to hamper feed intake. NEFAs are also Continue reading >>

Cattle Diseases

Cattle Diseases

Ketosis Also known as: Acetonemia, Fat Cow Syndrome, Hypoglycemia and Pregnancy Toxemia. Primary ketosis, or acetonemia, is a metabolic disorder and is largely a disease that is influenced by management of dairy cows in early lactation. Ketosis is an important clinical and subclinical disease, as there are several metabolic disorders and diseases that commonly occur in the calving and the early lactation period that are linked to ketosis (including milk fever, retained foetal membranes and displaced abomasum). Hypoglycemia is the major factor involved in the onset and development of clinical ketosis. There is a gradual loss of body condition over several days or even weeks. There is also a moderate to marked decline in milk yield (up to 5 liters per day) over five to six days before the onset of obvious clinical signs (Edwards and Tozer, 2004). This can persist for up to two weeks after diagnosis (Rajala-Schultz et al., 1999). The disease is most commonly seen in high-yielding dairy cows in early lactation. Secondary ketosis due to lack of appetite as a result of another disease can be seen at any stage of lactation. Beef cows may also suffer from ketosis during pregnancy, although this is less commonly recognized. Primary ketosis in dairy cows To satisfy the requirements of milk production, the cow can draw on two sources of nutrients – feed intake and body reserves. During early lactation, the energy intake is insufficient to meet the energy output in milk and the animal is in a negative energy balance. In conventional farming, this is considered to be a normal metabolic situation in high-yielding dairy cows. Cows in early lactation are, therefore, in a vulnerable situation, and any stress that causes a reduction in feed intake may lead to the onset of clinical keto Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

Ketotic Cows: Treatment And Prognosis (proceedings)

Ketotic Cows: Treatment And Prognosis (proceedings)

Ketotic cows: treatment and prognosis (Proceedings) Peter D. Constable, BVSc (Hon), MS, PhD, DACVIM, DACVN (Hon) An absolute requirement for treating ketosis in cattle is to identify and treat the primary cause for the negative energy balance. Symptomatic treatment for ketosis without attacking the primary cause is doomed to failure. An absolute requirement for treating ketosis in cattle is to identify and treat the primary cause for the negative energy balance. Symptomatic treatment for ketosis without attacking the primary cause is doomed to failure. Propylene glycol is a routine treatment for ketosis. Only 2 oral formulations are approved for use in cattle as a treatment and the dose rate is 8 oz, q 12 h, for up to 10 days (2 other formulations labeled for use as preventive treatment). Research suggests that 296 ml once/day as on oral drench is just as effective as 887 ml once/day. Propylene glycol is absorbed from the rumen as propylene glycol, some propylene glycol is metabolized to propionate in the rumen, but most is absorbed intact and metabolized to glucose in liver. Propylene glycol increases serum [glucose], decreases serum -OH butyrate & NEFA concentrations but only if a functional liver as propylene glycol must be metabolized. Propylene glycol is only beneficial if rumen motility to aid mixing and absorption. Glycerol (same dose rate as propylene glycol) and sodium propionate (uncertain dose rate) also reported to be of use but are both considered inferior to propylene glycol. Sodium propionate may have palatability problems. Calcium propionate has been examined, but the evidence is not convincing that it is superior to propylene glycol, even though it also has calcium. Not very soluble, and large volumes need to be administered. 500 ml of 50% Dextrose IV Continue reading >>

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

En Español: Minimizando el Riesgo de Cetosis en el Ganado Lechero This article is part of our series of original articles on emerging featured topics. Please check here to see other articles in this series. Introduction Although most cases of ketosis occur in fresh dairy cows, feeding practices and cow health prepartum can predispose cows to experiencing ketosis after calving. Most cases of primary ketosis occur within the first 2 weeks of calving, and even most secondary ketosis (occurring after the onset of another disease) occurs within the first 30 to 60 days in milk. In general, less than 5% of the cows in a herd should experience clinical ketosis. However, some reports have indicated that the incidence of subclinical ketosis may affect 40% of cows, with the incidence rate varying widely among farms, and may be as high as 80% on individual farms. The major focus prepartum to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving is maintaining feed intake in late gestation and avoiding overconditioning cows during late lactation and the dry period. Cows should dry off and freshen at a body condition score (BCS) of 3.5. Cows with a BCS equal to or greater than 4.0 will likely have lower intake prepartum and be at higher risk for fatty liver and ketosis at and after calving. Recent work at the University of Minnesota indicates that cows with a BCS greater than 3.5 and producing over 16 lb of colostrum are at a higher risk for ketosis. Feeding programs for far-off and close-up cows should be designed to maintain intake during late gestation, i.e., minimizing the drop in intake during the last week of gestation, to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving. These prepartum diets should contain high-fiber forages and provide adequate but not excessive amounts of energy. A 20% or gr Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic disease that occurs when the cow is in severe state of negative energy balance. In this state, the cow mobilises large quantities of body fat but cannot convert this to energy through the usual pathways. Instead, ketone bodies are produced which in small amounts can be used by the cow for energy. However, when ketone production is high, the cow cannot use all the ketone bodies for energy and ketone levels increase in the blood. When this occurs the cow may suffer from ketosis. Types of Ketosis Type 1 ketosis is a result of a sudden drop in energy intake. This can be due to underfeeding or adverse weather events (e.g. snow storms) that prevent the cows from eating sufficient amounts of dry matter. Type 2 ketosis generally occurs post-calving, when the cow is mobilising excess body fat to meet the demands of milk production. Cows that are too fat at calving (BCS > 5) or cows that have been overfed pre-calving are particularly at risk. Silage ketosis is due to cows ingesting poor quality silage. The silage undergoes a secondary fermentation and when ingested will increase the risk of ketosis. Symptoms Ketosis can be displayed in two ways: Wasting form Lethargy (head down, lack of energy) Decreased dry matter intake Decreased milk production Often a sweet smell on the breath (acetone) Nervous form Excitable, uncoordinated and can become aggressive Strange behaviour such as eating soil, licking fence posts and gates, walking in circles, or standing with heads raised up and pushed into a corner etc. If a cow shows signs of ketosis seek advice from your veterinarian Prevention It is important to prevent ketosis from occurring, rather than treating cases as they appear. Prevention depends on adequate feeding and management of body condition score (BCS). E Continue reading >>

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

Minimizing the Risk for Ketosis in Dairy Herds En Espaol: Minimizando el Riesgo de Cetosis en el Ganado Lechero This article is part of our series of original articles on emerging featured topics. Please check here to see other articles in this series. Although most cases of ketosis occur in fresh dairy cows, feeding practices and cow health prepartum can predispose cows to experiencing ketosis after calving. Most cases of primary ketosis occur within the first 2 weeks of calving, and even most secondary ketosis (occurring after the onset of another disease) occurs within the first 30 to 60 days in milk. In general, less than 5% of the cows in a herd should experience clinical ketosis. However, some reports have indicated that the incidence of subclinical ketosis may affect 40% of cows, with the incidence rate varying widely among farms, and may be as high as 80% on individual farms. The major focus prepartum to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving is maintaining feed intake in late gestation and avoiding overconditioning cows during late lactation and the dry period. Cows should dry off and freshen at a body condition score (BCS) of 3.5. Cows with a BCS equal to or greater than 4.0 will likely have lower intake prepartum and be at higher risk for fatty liver and ketosis at and after calving. Recent work at the University of Minnesota indicates that cows with a BCS greater than 3.5 and producing over 16 lb of colostrum are at a higher risk for ketosis. Feeding programs for far-off and close-up cows should be designed to maintain intake during late gestation, i.e., minimizing the drop in intake during the last week of gestation, to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving. These prepartum diets should contain high-fiber forages and provide adequate but not excessi Continue reading >>

Guide To Preventing Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows

Guide To Preventing Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows

Guide to preventing ketosis and fatty liver in dairy cows Fatty liver and ketosis are metabolic diseases that can affect dairy cows in late and early lactation. They can cause poor fertility and drops in milk yield. Good management of dry cows is key to prevent both diseases. John Fishwick, junior vice-president at the British veterinary Association (BVA), explains this should entail a good feeding during the transition phase as well as body condition scoring to ensure cows arent too fat at calving. Itis a metabolic disease that normally occurs in dairy cows in the days and weeks immediately aftercalving in early lactation. See also: Farms save twice ketosis cost when bolusing high-risk dry cows Ketones are chemicals that are produced when cows lose weight as a result of fat breakdown. Where there is excessive or rapid weight loss, ketone levels in the blood may reach a level where the cow feels unwell, there is a reduction of milk yield and feed intake. This is clinical ketosis. A high-yielding dairy cow is normally unable to eat enough food in the weeks after calving to make up for all the energy needs of her high milk yield. So some breakdown of fat and loss of body condition in early lactation is almost unavoidable and we often see a slight or moderate increase in blood ketone levels at the same time. This is referred to as subclinical ketosis. See also: Benefits of using an automatic body condition scoring camera However, in a well-managed herd, this weight loss and the resulting rise in blood ketone levels should be minimal. Mild increases in ketone levels, as seen in subclinical ketosis, may cause quite subtle problems, which can be quite significant reducing milk yield and lowering fertility, for example. Fatty liver disease occurs around late lactation, calvin Continue reading >>

Acetonaemia (ketosis) Of Dairy Cows

Acetonaemia (ketosis) Of Dairy Cows

Note Number: AG0210 A very distinct problem for dairy cows is the disease of ketosis (or acetonaemia). The occurrence of this disease in dairy cows is related to an increased demand for glucose by the animal. Ketosis also occurs in other animals and the problem is known by various names, eg, pregnancy toxaemia in ewes. Most commonly, ketosis is seen either in high producing cows or cows on a poor diet. Signs of the disease can be seen before calving, but they occur most commonly in the first month after calving and occasionally in the second month. In a herd, ketosis can either be sporadic with only individuals affected, or endemic with many cows affected over a period. Cause The disease is an extension of a normal metabolic process that occurs in most heavily producing dairy cows. The basic problem in ketosis is a deficiency of glucose (or sugar) in the blood and body tissues. Glucose is produced by the cow from carbohydrates which are a major constituent of pastures and other supplementary feeds in varying degrees. In late pregnancy, glucose is directed from normal bodily functions to the nutrition of the developing calf. As lactation starts, glucose is essential for the formation of lactose (milk sugar) and milk fat. The requirement for glucose is at such high levels that the blood becomes low in glucose (hypoglycaemia). Fifty grams of glucose is required for each litre of milk with a 4.8% lactose test and 30 grams for each litre of milk with a 4% fat test. Cows (and other ruminants) cannot be fed glucose in their diet; it has to be made in the rumen from suitable carbohydrates in the diet. If the amount of suitable carbohydrate in the diet is not enough to meet the glucose needs of the cow in full milk, the liver starts to manufacture glucose from other basic compou Continue reading >>

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Managing disease can be a frustrating proposition. This Guide can help you identify which disease is damaging your cattle. Cause Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that occurs in cattle when energy demands (e.g. high milk production) exceed energy intake and result in a negative energy balance. Ketotic cows often have low blood glucose (blood sugar) concentrations. When large amounts of body fat are utilised as an energy source to support production, fat is sometimes mobilised faster than the liver can properly metabolise it. If this situation occurs, ketone production exceeds ketone utilisation by the cow, and ketosis results. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Symptoms Reduced milk yield Weight loss Reduced appetite Dull coat Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath/ or milk Fever Some develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, agression etc. For every cow with clinical signs there are probably a number of others with sub-clinical signs. Treatment The initial aim of treatment is to restore the lack of glucose in the body. A quick-acting glucose supplement is required immediately. Follow-up treatment is aimed at providing a long term supply of glucose. Glucose replacement Intravenous administration of a dextrose solution by a veterinarian is effective in the short term, but follow-up treatment is essential if relapses are to be avoided. Drenching with propylene glycol or glycerine has longer term effects. It also has the benefit of ease of admini Continue reading >>

Bovine Ketosis: A Review. Ii. Biochemistry And Prevention

Bovine Ketosis: A Review. Ii. Biochemistry And Prevention

Discover the world's research 14+ million members 100+ million publications 700k+ research projects Join for free Bovine Ketosis: A. review. II. Biochemistry and metabolic implications of ketogenesis, including effects on milk production; detection and analysis of ketones; and prevention and treatment. It is concluded that preventive measures should be directed towards controlling body condition in intensive production systems, ensuring that dry matter intakes are sustained in the peri parturient period, balancing protein and energy inputs and avoiding poor quality silages. The use of ionophores to increase propionate supply, and somatotropin as a reparti- There are two different sources of ketones that are important in the pathogenesis of ketosis in cattle. fatty acids before acting as a precursor for ketone production, and which may arise from the feeding 1985) or possibly from the feeding of fats containing medium chain fatty acids (Kronfeld et al.. 1983). Recent experimental studies indicate that the feeding of medium chain fatty acids may not be in the liver. Approximately 50% or more of butyrate present in the rumen is taken up by the ruminal fermentation. This may be a key factor in the comparatively high circulating ketone levels of cattle. The second source of ketones is the production of ketones from endogenous precursors. The only sors, especially starch, used by monogastrics and the fermentation of dietary starch by rumen micro- important role in the control of ketogenesis (Brindle et al.. 1985; Jesse et al., 1986a, 1986b). The flux Ballard et al. (1968) did not find such a relationship. Neither of these studies assessed intramitochon- that acetone, although glucogenic in cows is unlikely to be an important precursor of glucose. &ViM Ketosis: A review. II. B Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Age - cows of any age may be affected but the disease appears more common in later lactations Continue reading >>

Dry Cow Management For The Prevention Of Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows

Dry Cow Management For The Prevention Of Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows

Dramatic increases in energy requirements during late gestation and early lactation, superimposed on an animal with a profound drop in dry matter intake just before calving, make the dairy cow highly susceptible to ketosis and hepatic lipidosis. During the last 3 to 4 weeks postpartum, a diet higher in energy and protein concentration than required by current National Research Council recommendations should be fed so that adequate nutrient intake occurs within the limits of the reduced dry matter intake. Attention should be given to the environment of the cow, especially during the last 3 weeks prepartum, to avoid environmental stressors as much as possible. Continue reading >>

Idiots' Guide To The Biochemistry And Management Of Ketosis

Idiots' Guide To The Biochemistry And Management Of Ketosis

Ketosis is a disease of dry cows that shows up in fresh cows. Fundamentally, we have a situation where the cow is mobilizing body fat (condition) faster than the liver is able to metabolize it. In order for the liver to normally metabolize that fat, glucose is required. If glucose availability is limited due to inadequate substrate (mostly propionate from the diet) or glucose production via gluconeogenesis is inadequate or impaired, then ketosis can result because of the inability to convert the fat to energy. Loss/mobilization of body fat is a normal part of the onset of lactation. As the rate of fat mobilization rises, circulating NEFA levels begin to rise. If these fatty acids reach the liver and begin to accumulate in significant amounts, the liver switches away from TCA towards ketogenesis in an attempt to provide more energy and eliminate the fat buildup. Ketogenesis produces the ketone bodies, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Some ketone production is normal in all periparturient cows, so diagnosis is made on clinical history, physical examination, and the presence of significant ketones in milk or urine. Presence of ketones in milk or urine is inadequate, in and or itself, to make the diagnosis of clinical ketosis. Feed intake, or lack thereof, is a critical component in the onset of ketosis. In all cows, dry matter intake begins to decline approximately one month prior to calving, although many people will not notice this decline until several days prior to calving. as feed intake declines and galactopoeisis begins, body fats are mobilized, resulting in an increase in circulationg NEFA levels. NEFAs themselves are mild appetite suppressants, so they continue to hamper feed intake. NEFAs are also the primary substrate for the production of ketone bodies vi Continue reading >>

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