5-keto-d-gluconate Production Is Catalyzed By A Quinoprotein Glycerol Dehydrogenase, Major Polyol Dehydrogenase, In Gluconobacter Species
ABSTRACT Acetic acid bacteria, especially Gluconobacter species, have been known to catalyze the extensive oxidation of sugar alcohols (polyols) such as d-mannitol, glycerol, d-sorbitol, and so on. Gluconobacter species also oxidize sugars and sugar acids and uniquely accumulate two different keto-d-gluconates, 2-keto-d-gluconate and 5-keto-d-gluconate, in the culture medium by the oxidation of d-gluconate. However, there are still many controversies regarding their enzyme systems, especially on d-sorbitol and also d-gluconate oxidations. Recently, pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent quinoprotein d-arabitol dehydrogenase and d-sorbitol dehydrogenase have been purified from G. suboxydans, both of which have similar and broad substrate specificity towards several different polyols. In this study, both quinoproteins were shown to be identical based on their immuno-cross-reactivity and also on gene disruption and were suggested to be the same as the previously isolated glycerol dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124). Thus, glycerol dehydrogenase is the major polyol dehydrogenase involved in the oxidation of almost all sugar alcohols in Gluconobacter sp. In addition, the so-called quinoprotein glycerol dehydrogenase was also uniquely shown to oxidize d-gluconate, which was completely different from flavoprotein d-gluconate dehydrogenase (EC 126.96.36.199), which is involved in the production of 2-keto-d-gluconate. The gene disruption experiment and the reconstitution system of the purified enzyme in this study clearly showed that the production of 5-keto-d-gluconate in G. suboxydans is solely dependent on the quinoprotein glycerol dehydrogenase. Continue reading >>
Paleo Keto For Ibs
IBS and the average MD Are you are one of those many unfortunate people who has to live with the debilitating symptoms of IBS? I want to help you feel better! Because if you are solely relying on your Doc for help you might be in really bad shape. IBS is considered a functional disorder of the bowel, as it does not cause damage like a true IBD. (Inflammatory Bowel Disease) Medically there is no real treatment for it. “Doctors may prescribe antidepressants for the abdominal pain associated with IBS.” Says the Web MD website. Are you serious? Antidepressants for an intestinal allergy? This should give you a clue that MDs are pretty clueless about the real causes of this disease and of course have no idea about how to really treat it. If you are lucky enough to NOT to get an antidepressant for your diarrhea, you might instead get an antinflammatory drug, which works by inhibiting colonic secretions. What is the result? More GI symptoms and a fundamental inability to absorb food. Well, that really helped right? What are the real causes of IBS? Again MDs are not much help here. The Mayo clinic is not sure about the cause but blames it on the intestinal contractions, or an abnormal gastrointestinal nervous system….(1) Let’s dig a little deeper. I most cases of IBSs an unbalanced gut flora has been found. Pathogenic bacteria were much higher than normal while beneficial bacteria, especially bifidoacteria were greatly reduced. So let’s see what could be the causes of such an imbalanced flora? Use of antibiotics Overconsumption of sugars Overconsumption of processed foods Extensive use of antibacterial soaps and lotions Cesarian Birth Not having breast-fed Once our intestinal flora is imbalanced and our intestinal functionality impaired, it is very easy to start develo Continue reading >>
Is Xylitol A Friend Or Foe?
Our addiction to sweet tastes has opened a Pandora’s box of commercial sweeteners, with the food industry advertising many as “natural.” One category is sugar alcohols, including the increasingly common xylitol. But are these sweeteners really natural, and are they safe? Or are they just another of industry’s attempts to snooker us into buying the newest fake-food without any health benefits — and perhaps a boatload of potential risks? Being the new kids on the block, the data is just starting to come in on sugar alcohols. They owe their rising popularity to the public’s increased awareness about the risks of artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin and aspartame, which, as noted elsewhere, can cause the very health issues they claim to prevent. The Rising Popularity of Xylitol and Sugar Alcohols Sugar alcohols represent only about one percent of the total global sweetener market, but given current market trends, polyols are projected to be a $7.8 billion industry by 2022, thanks to the dental, pharmaceutical, personal care and food industries. Sorbitol leads the pack because so much is used in toothpaste and chewing gum. The next most common sugar alcohol is xylitol. (1) Sugar alcohols, also called polyols, are neither sugars nor alcohols but rather carbohydrates with characteristics of both sugar and alcohol. They don’t contain the ethanol of alcoholic beverages. One of the touted benefits of these sweeteners is their lower glycemic index. Your body’s digestion of polyols is incomplete, so they contribute fewer calories than most sugars and therefore have a softer metabolic hit. Many are less sweet than sucrose (table sugar), however xylitol is about equal in sweetness. The major polyols, along with several common sugars and sweeteners, are listed belo Continue reading >>
Alcohol On A Low Carb, Keto Diet!
For years, I’ve read countless dieting books that prohibited me from drinking alcohol. Actually, it’s probably the first thing that many “diet gurus” say to cut out of your diet and for (somewhat) good reason. Alcohol gets a bad reputation because it’s basically empty calories. In an ideal world, sure. I’ll give up alcohol to lose weight. But let’s get serious. I’m 23 years old and I very much enjoy a tasty alcoholic beverage (or 5) and a wild night out on the town with my friends. The beauty of a ketogenic, low carb diet is that you can still enjoy yourself from time-to-time with alcohol and still lose weight! However, there are some guidelines as to what alcohols you can enjoy and those you should avoid. Liquor On average, one shot is the equivalent to about 1.5oz and for these spirits have a nutritional value of 0 carbs and roughly 64 calories. Of course, this will vary depending on how much is actually in your beverage (order a double? Double the nutritional stats). Approved spirits on a keto, low carb diet include: Vodka (Three Olives, Absolut, Grey Goose, etc.) Rum (Captain Morgan, etc) Gin (Tanqueray, Beefeater, etc) Tequila Whiskey (Jack Daniel’s, etc.) Scotch Brandy Cognac (Hennessy, etc.) Please note that these are for the original, unflavored versions. For flavored spirits (including flavored vodkas and some dark/coconut rums), always check up on nutritional information before consuming as they often contain carbohydrates. My spirit of choice is generally a nice gin (with soda water& lime) or cognac (with diet cola). I’ve been known to drink a fair share of Hennessy. Chasers & Mixers For mixing or chasing, you have many no sugar, no calorie options Diet sodas (Coke Zero, Diet Coke, Diet Ginger Ale) Soda water Diet tonic water Seltzer water Continue reading >>
Net Carbs – Avoiding Common Mistakes
Are you diligent about counting your carbs? Every gram matters when you are aiming for a very low daily intake. You are probably already careful about checking food labels, weighing your food, and keeping a food diary. But even if you track all your food, your carb counting might be incorrect. Inaccurate calculations can push you well above your recommended daily limit. These common mistakes can distort your figures and derail your progress. But they are easy to avoid – as long as you are aware of them. Net carbs – quick recap Let’s start with a quick recap of the basics. Not all carbohydrates are created equal. Some of them – mostly fibre and sugar alcohols (polyols) – are not digestible. When you eat these foods, you are technically consuming carbs. But they don’t get absorbed by your body. There is no effect on your blood glucose or calorie intake. For low-carb diet purposes, we only count the carbs that are digestible. They are referred to as net carbs. Checking information about total carbs is easy. You can find it on food labels, diet tracking apps and online food databases. Problems usually arise when people start to calculate net carbs. Net carbs mistake 1 – Ignoring regional differences in food labels Different countries have different rules on food labelling – especially when it comes to carbohydrates and fibre. When we access recipes and food data online, we might be unaware of these differences. In USA, food packaging and food databases show the total count of carbohydrates for each food. Fibre count is included separately. So you can calculate the number of net carbs as follows: Total carbs – fibre = net carbs Most authors of low-carb diet books and blogs are American. So you have probably come across this formula, even if you are not Amer Continue reading >>
Site-selective Oxidation, Amination And Epimerization Reactions Of Complex Polyols Enabled By Transfer Hydrogenation
Polyoxygenated hydrocarbons that bear one or more hydroxyl groups comprise a large set of natural and synthetic compounds, often with potent biological activity. In synthetic chemistry, alcohols are important precursors to carbonyl groups, which then can be converted into a wide range of oxygen- or nitrogen-based functionality. Therefore, the selective conversion of a single hydroxyl group in natural products into a ketone would enable the selective introduction of unnatural functionality. However, the methods known to convert a simple alcohol, or even an alcohol in a molecule that contains multiple protected functional groups, are not suitable for selective reactions of complex polyol structures. We present a new ruthenium catalyst with a unique efficacy for the selective oxidation of a single hydroxyl group among many in unprotected polyol natural products. This oxidation enables the introduction of nitrogen-based functional groups into such structures that lack nitrogen atoms and enables a selective alcohol epimerization by stepwise or reversible oxidation and reduction. Peddibhotla, S., Dang, Y., Liu, J. O. & Romo, D. Simultaneous arming and structure/activity studies of natural products employing O–H insertions: an expedient and versatile strategy for natural products-based chemical genetics. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 12222–12231 (2007). Gavagnin, R., Cataldo, M., Pinna, F. & Strukul, G. Diphosphine−palladium and −platinum complexes as catalysts for the Baeyer−Villiger oxidation of ketones: effect of the diphosphine, oxidation of acyclic ketones, and mechanistic studies. Organometallics 17, 661–667 (1998). We thank the NIH (GM-55382) and the Berkeley Center for Green Chemistry Systems Approach to Green Energy Integrated Graduate Education and Research Trai Continue reading >>
Ibs And The Keto Diet
When Audra Atkins-Reeves started the low-carb keto diet in October 2016, her only aim was to lose weight — and happily she found within five months she had lost 40 lbs (18 kg). The 36-year old IT supervisor in California, however, discovered another welcome, unexpected benefit from her new way of eating: it almost completely eliminated her long-standing irritable bowel syndrome. Within a month of starting the keto diet her gut was remarkably calm, quiet, and cooperative for the first time in decades. “Honestly, I’d never had a normal bowel movement almost my whole life,” said Atkins-Reeves, who alternated between extreme constipation and diarrhea (called IBS-C and IBS-D). Her doctor’s solution was to give her drugs for both, which she switched between. Changing to a low-carb, high-fat diet completely resolved her constipation and reduced her formerly frequent attacks of diarrhea to less than once a month. “My ketogenic diet now completely controls my IBS symptoms,” she says, noting that it even seems to have healed her gut’s old problems. “If I do ever cheat and indulge in some of my old triggers like ice cream or fruit, it doesn’t seem to cause an attack any more. In the past I would have been in the bathroom within an hour.” Most of us are ecstatic to broadcast our success with weight loss or reversal of type 2 diabetes on the keto diet. We talk to friends and family enthusiastically about the pounds melting off, our blood sugar normalizing, our cravings gone and our minds becoming beautifully clear. We post our before-and-after pictures on Facebook and detail how now eating meat, cheese, eggs and butter is giving us a new lease on life. But go into rapturous details about keto’s impact on one’s bowels? Not so much! Talking frankly and honest Continue reading >>
What Is Keto?
Full Disclosure: This is copied directly from the Keto Subreddit. They did a lot of great work and it will be impossible to create anything more comprehensive as this. Please visit at: The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. It has a lot of health advantages compared to the standard western diet. Most people do keto because of the weight loss, but it also has other health advantages like lowering risk for heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, and much more. Just follow these simple rules: Low in Carbs Less than 50g/day for most people, better below 20g. Fiber isn't counted in your carbs. Vegetables are perfectly acceptable. Moderate Protein Enough Fat Majority of energy Variable depending on goals of weight loss or maintenance The Right Kinds of Fat Eat monos and saturates for fuel (butter, olive oil, coconut oil) Limit high polyunsaturated sources (soy, corn, cottonseed) Keto Flu Supplement sodium 2g/day (e.g. drink 1-2 cups of broth per day) Replace magnesium to stop muscle cramps Drink lots of water When in Doubt, Eat Less Carbs When in Doubt, Eat More Fat The Standard Approach What is the premise of a low carb, keto diet? Low-carb diets are essentially programs that lower carbohydrate intake below 100 grams; strict ketogenic diets are a subset of low carb diets that typically only allow < 50g of carbohydrates per day. The general recommendation of /r/keto is to start with 20g of net-carbs per day. This limit does a good job of eliminating junk foods, refined carbohydrates and any other “fattening” foods. The full premise of a keto diet is far more than just minimizing carbs, it is a lifestyle about overall health. The diet promotes long, intense bouts of energy, an increase in healthy, delicious food and an overall better ou Continue reading >>
Complete Guide To Sweeteners On A Low-carb Ketogenic Diet
Most people on low-carb find that once they get used to the diet, the cravings for sugar go away. Many even claim not to use any sweeteners at all. However, you may find it hard to give up sweets, especially at the beginning. I've been researching for natural low-carb sweeteners as well as other healthy alternatives to sugar. As always, there are many sweeteners you should avoid. I personally avoid using sweeteners regularly and only use them for occasional treats. In fact, most of my recipes in KetoDiet, KetoDiet Basic and my new cookbook don't include any sweeteners at all. If your target is weight loss, sweeteners may impair your progress, as even so-called "zero-carb" sweeteners may cause cravings. If your weight is stalling, avoiding sweeteners or joining my 30-Day Clean Eating Challenge is a good way to break the weight loss plateau. You can download a print-friendly version of this guide here! Best Natural Low-carb Sweeteners Following is an overview of healthy sweeteners you could use provided your net carbs limit allows for it. People with very low net carbs limit should avoid using anything other than "zero-carb" sweeteners, like Stevia, Monk fruit sweetener or Erythritol. 1. Stevia Stevia is an herb, which is commonly known as "sugar leaf". The extract from this herb is used as a sweetener and sugar substitute. Based on the USDA database, Stevia belongs to a group of non-nutritive sweeteners. This means there are no calories, vitamins or any other nutrients. The availability of Stevia can vary from country to country. Nowadays, it is commonly used in the US and was approved for use in the EU in 2011. The health effects of Stevia have been questioned for the past few decades. However, based on recent studies of the WHO (World Health Organization), Stevia extra Continue reading >>
Sugar Alcohol Facts
Sugar alcohol sweeteners (also known as polyols) usually contain less calories than regular sugar, and have virtually no impact on blood sugar and dental health. Sounds great, except for some disclaimers: since they can't be digested in the human digestive system, these sweeteners can cause gut issues such as flatulence, bloating and diarrhea. In addition, most of these sweeteners are excreted in the urine, which increases the amount and frequency of urination. This increased urination will result in a higher loss of body minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium and possibly cause muscle cramping. At higher intake amounts, this effect is more pronounced, and in rat studies, has resulted in changes in kidney function and structure. (See this reference: Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals,: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995, page 22). Some people with blood sugar issues may experience blood sugar spikes after eating these sweeteners, but this is an individual response. Since all of these types of sugar substitutes contain some calories and carbs, be sure to count them into your daily totals if you are on a low carb diet plan. Below is an overview of the most common sugar alcohol sweeteners: Erythritol Erythritol has about 3/4 the sweetening power as regular sugar, with only a tenth of the calories. One cup of erythritol contains about 10 grams of carbohydrate, and 40 calories. This sugar alcohol is best used in conjunction with other sugar substitutes such as stevia, sucralose and glycerin. Lauren over at the Healthy Indulgences Blog suggests using erythritol in desserts which are of a moist consistency for best results, since erythritol does not attract moisture as regular sugar and some other sweeteners do. Hence, it has a tendency to dry out the foods to wh Continue reading >>
Finding Hidden Carbs On A Ketogenic Diet
Hidden carbs on a ketogenic diet, especially when you’re starting out and trying to get into ketosis, are your “enemy number one.” Carbs aren’t necessarily bad. But they can keep you from achieving ketosis, or keep you in a weight plateau you can’t seem to get past no matter what you do. Every little bit of the hidden carbs can quickly add up and even take you out of ketosis. The Basics: Net Carbs and Total Carbs In the US, food labels have “total carbs” that include fiber content. In Europe, that’s not the case. Net carbs doesn’t count fiber. Why? Fiber is non-impact or low-impact carbs with low GI (glycemic index) that don’t affect your blood sugar levels. They’re slowly digested and released into your bloodstream in a sustained period, making them perfect for meeting your everyday energy needs for physical challenges and mental alertness. The tricky part is this: when beginners confuse low-carb as synonymous with ketogenic diet, and “net carbs”  end up NOT counting carbs from veggies, proteins, and the carbs and sugar alcohols often found in “carb-free,” “sugar-free” foods. Low-carb is not low enough. They all count if you want to get into ketosis. Remember: LC ≠ K (Low-carb does not equal ketosis). The Trickiest Hidden Carbs That Trip You Up Hidden carbs are everywhere, sometimes innocent, sometimes not. Many believe that as long as you cook your own meals and avoid processed food, you’ll avoid hidden carbs. Not really. For example, you could be making your own tacos, including the chips and sauce, and you could still be racking up the same amount of carbs as if they were all store-bought. Especially for beginners, hidden carbs lurk in “healthy” options, like sugar-free foods. Sugar Alcohols/Alternatives Sugar alcohols, a Continue reading >>